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  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Book . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nuno Freire; Pável Calado; Bruno Martins;
    Project: FCT | UID/CEC/50021/2013 (UID/CEC/50021/2013)

    International audience; In the World Wide Web, a very large number of resources is made available through digital libraries. The existence of many individual digital libraries, maintained by different organizations, brings challenges to the discoverability, sharing and reuse of the resources. A widely-used approach is metadata aggregation, where centralized efforts like Europeana facilitate the discoverability and use of the resources by collecting their associated metadata. The cultural heritage domain embraced the aggregation approach while, at the same time, the technological landscape kept evolving. Nowadays, cultural heritage institutions are increasingly applying technologies designed for the wider interoperability on the Web. This paper presents a study of the current application by cultural heritage data providers of technological solutions in use for making structured metadata available for re-use in the Internet. We investigated the use of both linked data and technologies related with indexing of resources by Internet search engines. We have conducted a harvesting experiment of the landing pages from websites of digital libraries that participate in Europeana, and collected statistics about the usage these particular technologies. These technologies allow for representing structured data within HTML, or for structured data to be referred to by links within HTML or through HTTP headers capabilities. We conclude with a discussion of future work for establishing a solution for cultural heritage aggregation based on the current situation and the available technologies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anna Rufà; Véronique Laroulandie;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, Portugal

    In recent years, several studies have significantly changed our knowledge concerning the use of birds by Neanderthals. However, what remains to be clarified is the geographical and chronological variability of this human behaviour. The present case study provides new information on this topic/debate. The Grotte Vaufrey was discovered during the 1930s and was excavated during different periods. Work carried out by J.-P. Rigaud during the 1980s motivated many multidisciplinary studies in the cave, but accurate studies were not focused on avian remains. In this work, we provide new data on the bird remains from layer VIII (MIS 7), which is the richest among all the sequences and which has an important Mousterian component. Corvids are predominant in the assemblage and are associated with medium-sized birds and small Passeriformes, among others. Most of the remains present modern fractures, which hinder taphonomic interpretation. However, some alterations associated with raptor or mammalian carnivore activities, together with the anatomical representation and age profile, suggest a non-human accumulation of the majority of the bird remains, especially in the case of corvids that naturally died in the cave. However, at least some bones show evidence of anthropic activity, suggesting the occasional use of large- and medium-sized birds by human populations. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Joaquina Soares; Niccolò Mazzucco; Ignacio Clemente-Conte;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Portugal, France, Spain, Portugal, Spain

    Vale Pincel I is one of the most relevant sites for the study of the Neolithic transition in the Southwest Portuguese Coast. Despite that, the acidity of sediments prevented the conservation of the botanical and faunal materials at the site, limiting its interpretation. In this work, we present the results of the traceological analysis of the Vale Pincel I flaked stone assemblage; our objective is to advance a first reconstruction of the site economy on the basis of the working process observed by the microscopic observation of a sample of lithic tools. The results indicate that at Vale Pincel I crop-harvesting activities covered a primary role, suggesting an early onset of agricultural practices in Southwestern Portugal. Moreover, a variety of different production tasks have been detected, pointing toward the existence of a mixed type of economy in which farming interplayed with foraging and crafting practices. Peer Reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marco de la Rasilla; Elsa Duarte; Alfred Sanchis; Yolanda Carrión; Juan Carlos Cañaveras; Ana B. Marín-Arroyo; Cristina Real; Carmen Núñez-Lahuerta; Sergio Sanchez-Moral; Igor Gutiérrez-Zugasti; +6 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Spain, France

    The sites of La Viña and Llonin have an important archaeological sequence corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 3: Mousterian, Aurignacian and Gravettian periods. La Viña is a complex rock shelter with continuous occupations, being some (basically the Mousterian and the Aurignacian in contact levels) altered by post-depositional processes as a consequence of the irregular bedrock morphology and the type of processes involved. The cave of Llonin mainly consists of occasional human/carnivores occupations during the Mousterian and the Gravettian. The current multidisciplinary research has allowed us to obtain and match several preliminary data: site formation processes, fauna and stable isotopes, vegetation, radiocarbon dating, shell ornaments, lithic raw materials and technology, offering an interesting field of study of two relatively distant ecological niches: open river valley (La Viña) and mountainous (Llonin). During the Mousterian, the faunal composition of La Viña is scarce but dominated by red deer and followed by chamois, while large mammals are absent. At the Aurignacian, red deer and chamois are also represented within a larger assemblage, together with a low representation of other taxa such as horse, bovines, Spanish ibex and roe deer. Conversely, in Llonin chamois and Spanish ibex dominate during the Mousterian, followed by red deer. Carnivores are few in La Viña they are represented by bear, fox and wolf; while in Llonin they are larger and other species are included, mainly leopard and hyena with a main role in the formation of the faunal assemblages and alternating their occupation of the cave with the Neandertals. On the other hand, the ungulates from La Viña are anthropogenically modified not only during the Mousterian but also the Aurignacian and Gravettian in contrast to Llonin, were these modifications are lower than those generated by the carnivores. Firewood and micromammals analysis show an open landscape, dominated by heliophilous, pioneering species characteristic of the montane biogeographical belt. Sorbus, birch and Scots pine are especially important as well as a shurbland mainly dominated by leguminous. The environment seems to be more arid and open in Mousterian levels, more forested and humid during the Aurignacian and cold, namely climatic recrudescence, in the Gravettian. Shells are only present in the Aurignacian and the Gravettian of La Viña with other purposes than strictly bromatological. Local quartzite is the main raw material in both sites during MIS3. However, during the Aurignacian and the Gravettian, flint is broadly incorporated for blade and bladelet production. In this regard, local, semilocal and foreign flints are carried to the sites, mainly Piloña and Flysch flints. The preliminary assessment of inter-stratigraphical contamination between the Aurignacian and the Gravettian in the long sequence of La Viña shows no lithic refits, and therefore no interstratigraphic contamination, in agreement with the previous techno-typological studies. The radiocarbon dating fits into the current chronological framework of the Cantabrian region. This work has been funded under Project HAR2014-59183-P by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Etienne Patin; Marie Lopez; Rebecca Grollemund; Paul Verdu; Christine Harmant; Hélène Quach; Guillaume Laval; George H. Perry; Luis B. Barreiro; Alain Froment; +14 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Portugal
    Project: EC | EUROTAST (290344), ANR | AGRHUM (ANR-14-CE02-0003)

    Bantu languages are spoken by about 310 million Africans, yet the genetic history of Bantu-speaking populations remains largely unexplored. We generated genomic data for 1318 individuals from 35 populations in western central Africa, where Bantu languages originated. We found that early Bantu speakers first moved southward, through the equatorial rainforest, before spreading toward eastern and southern Africa. We also found that genetic adaptation of Bantu speakers was facilitated by admixture with local populations, particularly for the HLA and LCT loci. Finally, we identified a major contribution of western central African Bantu speakers to the ancestry of African Americans, whose genomes present no strong signals of natural selection. Together, these results highlight the contribution of Bantu-speaking peoples to the complex genetic history of Africans and African Americans. This work was funded by the Institut Pasteur, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) grant AGRHUM (ANR-14-CE02-0003-01), and the “Histoire du Génome des Populations Humaines Gabonaises” project (Institut Pasteur/Republic of Gabon).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabel Tissot; Matthias Tissot; Marta Manso; Luís Alves; Maria Alexandra Barreiros; Teresa Marcelo; Maria Luísa Carvalho; Victoria Corregidor; Maria Filomena Guerra;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Portugal, France

    Submitted by Paula Candeias (paula.candeias@lneg.pt) on 2013-03-06T16:20:32Z No. of bitstreams: 1 ABarreiros_NuclearInstrumentsMethods.pdf: 199882 bytes, checksum: 8fc037ae8bc2d1745459bbc56778280f (MD5) Approved for entry into archive by Paula Candeias (paula.candeias@lneg.pt) on 2013-03-06T16:21:16Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 ABarreiros_NuclearInstrumentsMethods.pdf: 199882 bytes, checksum: 8fc037ae8bc2d1745459bbc56778280f (MD5) Made available in DSpace on 2013-03-06T16:21:17Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 ABarreiros_NuclearInstrumentsMethods.pdf: 199882 bytes, checksum: 8fc037ae8bc2d1745459bbc56778280f (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michel Brenet; Jean Pierre Chadelle; Émilie Claud; David Colonge; Anne Delagnes; Marianne Deschamps; Mila Folgado; Brad Gravina; Ewen Ihuel;
    Countries: Portugal, Portugal, France

    Abstract While Late Middle Palaeolithic industries are characterized by a well-documented diversity of stone tool types and blank production methods, the latter of which can at times be exclusively represented in certain assemblages, the bifacial tool component sometimes portrays clear similarities in use and manufacture method. Beyond sharing both comparable volumetric structures and arrangement of active and or prehensile areas, the recurrence in several assemblages of specific groups of bifacial tools used mostly for butchery is particularly striking. Here, we address several techno-economic and cognitive aspects of biface production and use combined with a consideration of their context. Is the same degree of variability in function and manufacture method equally visible in the retouched tool component? What scales of mobility or technical use-lives do these different bifacial tools portray? Do certain highly elaborate flake tools also reflect equally complex behaviors? How to interpret the presence of carefully manufactured pieces in non-local raw materials alongside others made in local varieties that are hardly reduced but nevertheless equally functional? Finally, which components may have carried a symbolic value or shed light on technical abilities or functional objectives evident in the conception, elaboration, use, and ultimate fate of these bifacial pieces. Several recently analyzed assemblages with a relatively significant bifacial component from the Charente, Dordogne and the Pyrenees-Atlantiques departements show certain similarities or important differences. In characterizing the coexistence of flake production and bifacial-shaping, we attempt to reveal to what extent and in which ways certain bifacial tools stand out. When combined with technological and cognitive considerations, this approach provides new insights on an important behavioral facet of Neanderthal groups who occupied the Aquitaine Basin after the Last Interglacial.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laurent A. F. Frantz; James Haile; Audrey T. Lin; Amelie Scheu; Christina Geörg; Norbert Benecke; Michelle Alexander; Anna Linderholm; Victoria E. Mullin; Kevin G. Daly; +90 more
    Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
    Countries: Lithuania, Italy, Italy, Serbia, Germany, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Portugal ...
    Project: NSF | RAPID Gardar Collaborativ... (1119354), NSF | Doctoral Dissertation Imp... (0530699), WT | Domestic animals as a mod... (210119), EC | Extinction Genomics (681396), NSF | Doctoral Dissertation Res... (1203268), NSF | RCN - SEES Global Long-te... (1140106), NSF | Tephra layers and early w... (1249313), NSF | The Origins of Equid Dome... (1311551), MESTD | Bioarchaeology of Ancient... (47001), EC | PATHPHYLODYN (614725),...

    Archaeological evidence indicates that pig domestication had begun by ∼10,500 y before the present (BP) in the Near East, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that pigs arrived in Europe alongside farmers ∼8,500 y BP. A few thousand years after the introduction of Near Eastern pigs into Europe, however, their characteristic mtDNA signature disappeared and was replaced by haplotypes associated with European wild boars. This turnover could be accounted for by substantial gene flow from local European wild boars, although it is also possible that European wild boars were domesticated independently without any genetic contribution from the Near East. To test these hypotheses, we obtained mtDNA sequences from 2,099 modern and ancient pig samples and 63 nuclear ancient genomes from Near Eastern and European pigs. Our analyses revealed that European domestic pigs dating from 7,100 to 6,000 y BP possessed both Near Eastern and European nuclear ancestry, while later pigs possessed no more than 4% Near Eastern ancestry, indicating that gene flow from European wild boars resulted in a near-complete disappearance of Near East ancestry. In addition, we demonstrate that a variant at a locus encoding black coat color likely originated in the Near East and persisted in European pigs. Altogether, our results indicate that while pigs were not independently domesticated in Europe, the vast majority of human-mediated selection over the past 5,000 y focused on the genomic fraction derived from the European wild boars, and not on the fraction that was selected by early Neolithic farmers over the first 2,500 y of the domestication process. Significance Archaeological evidence indicates that domestic pigs arrived in Europe, alongside farmers from the Near East ∼8,500 y ago, yet mitochondrial genomes of modern European pigs are derived from European wild boars. To address this conundrum, we obtained mitochondrial and nuclear data from modern and ancient Near Eastern and European pigs. Our analyses indicate that, aside from a coat color gene, most Near Eastern ancestry in the genomes of European domestic pigs disappeared over 3,000 y as a result of interbreeding with local wild boars. This implies that pigs were not domesticated independently in Europe, yet the first 2,500 y of human-mediated selection applied by Near Eastern Neolithic farmers played little role in the development of modern European pigs.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    F. Beauchesne; J. N. Barrandon; Luís Alves; F. B. Gil; M. F. Guerra;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In recent years ion beam techniques have become more and more important since in most cases the analysis of copper and copper alloy coins has to be non-destructive. It is therefore of interest to study the relative advantages of several nuclear methods for a certain type of metal. The results are presented here of a comparison between three non-destructive ion beam techniques: particle induced X-ray emission, proton activation analysis and fast neutron activation analysis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Francesco d'Errico; Laure Dayet Bouillot; Marcos García-Diez; Africa Pitarch Martí; Daniel Garrido Pimentel; João Zilhão;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Portugal, France, France

    Abstract The red disks from El Castillo Cave are among the earliest known cave paintings. Here, we combine the morphometric and technological study of red disks from two areas located at the end of the cave with the microscopic, elemental, and mineralogical analysis of the pigment and compare the results obtained with observations derived from experimental replication. Ergonomic constraints imply that a number of disks were made by adults, and the differences in pigment texture and composition suggest that they correspond to an accumulation through time of panels made by different persons who shared neither the same technical know-how nor, very possibly, the same symbolic system.

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