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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Teresa Nolesini; William Frodella; Silvia Bianchini; Nicola Casagli;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Italy

    Volterra (Central Italy) is a town of great historical interest, due to its vast and well-preserved cultural heritage, including a 2.6 km long Etruscan-medieval wall enclosure representing one of the most important elements. Volterra is located on a clayey hilltop prone to landsliding, soil erosion, therefore the town is subject to structural deterioration. During 2014, two impressive collapses occurred on the wall enclosure in the southwestern urban sector. Following these events, a monitoring campaign was carried out by means of remote sensing techniques, such as space-borne (PS-InSAR) and ground-based (GB-InSAR) radar interferometry, in order to analyze the displacements occurring both in the urban area and the surrounding slopes, and therefore to detect possible critical sectors with respect to instability phenomena. Infrared thermography (IRT) was also applied with the aim of detecting possible criticalities on the wall-enclosure, with special regards to moisture and seepage areas. PS-InSAR data allowed a stability back-monitoring on the area, revealing 19 active clusters displaying ground velocity higher than 10 mm/year in the period 2011–2015. The GB-InSAR system detected an acceleration up to 1.7 mm/h in near-real time as the March 2014 failure precursor. The IRT technique, employed on a double survey campaign, in both dry and rainy conditions, permitted to acquire 65 thermograms covering 23 sectors of the town wall, highlighting four thermal anomalies. The outcomes of this work demonstrate the usefulness of different remote sensing technologies for deriving information in risk prevention and management, and the importance of choosing the appropriate technology depending on the target, time sampling and investigation scale. In this paper, the use of a multi-platform remote sensing system permitted technical support of the local authorities and conservators, providing a comprehensive overview of the Volterra site, its cultural heritage and landscape, both in near-real time and back-analysis and at different scales of investigation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jenny Roselli; Tommaso Innocenti; E.N. Lynch; L. Parisio; Giuseppe Macrì; Monica Milla; Tommaso Mello; Andrea Galli; Stefano Milani; Mirko Tarocchi;
    Country: Italy

    Azathioprine is a cornerstone of the therapy of Crohn’s disease. Unfortunately, infections and malignancies are relatively common adverse effects related to this drug; however, cirrhosis is exceptionally reported as a side effect. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient with ileocolonic steno-penetrating Crohn’s disease who developed hepatic cirrhosis while treated with azathioprine. After taking azathioprine for 3 years with regular follow-up, he developed pancytopenia, and liver cirrhosis was diagnosed with ultrasound, abdomen computed tomography scan, transient elastography, and liver biopsy. As all other causes of liver damage were excluded, azathioprine was believed to be the cause of liver injury and therefore was interrupted.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Bertocci; Monica Bercigli; Matteo Bigongiari; Vincenzo Moschetti;
    Publisher: Athens Institute for Education and Research
    Country: Italy

    The contribution concerns the possibilities of utilization of the digital technologies focused on the documentation of the historical centers. The aim of the project is to evaluate the conservation status of the Heritage and the possibilities and opportunities of valorization and requalification of the historical urban core through projects that show a high level of compatibility with the environment. In relation to these methodologies grows the need to take the inhabitants back to live again the historical center creating spots of complete requalification through the instruments of the architecture. The reading of the places in complete or partial decay and abandon status wants, hence, to get the basis for the preservation of them through precise interventions so that they can create significant synergies in which the inhabitants – through the architecture and their life – come back to inhabit that is to live again those places that, otherwise, time would take away letting forget and lose to the world extraordinary parties of landscape.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Manuela Bordiga; Jorijntje Henderiks; Flavia Tori; Simonetta Monechi; R. Fenero; A. Legarda-Lisarri; Ellen Thomas;
    Countries: Italy, Sweden, Spain

    The biotic response of calcareous nannoplankton to environmental and climatic changes during the Eocene–Oligocene transition was investigated at a high resolution at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, southeast Atlantic Ocean) and compared with a lower-resolution benthic foraminiferal record. During this time interval, global climate, which had been warm under high levels of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) during the Eocene, transitioned into the cooler climate of the Oligocene, at overall lower pCO2. At Site 1263, the absolute nannofossil abundance (coccoliths per gram of sediment; N g−1) and the mean coccolith size decreased distinctly after the E–O boundary (EOB; 33.89 Ma), mainly due to a sharp decline in abundance of large-sized Reticulofenestra and Dictyococcites, occurring within a time span of ~ 47 kyr. Carbonate dissolution did not vary much across the EOB; thus, the decrease in abundance and size of nannofossils may reflect an overall decrease in their export production, which could have led to variations in the food availability for benthic foraminifers. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage data are consistent with a global decline in abundance of rectilinear species with complex apertures in the latest Eocene (~ 34.5 Ma), potentially reflecting changes in the food source, i.e., phytoplankton. This was followed by a transient increased abundance of species indicative of seasonal delivery of food to the sea floor (Epistominella spp.; ~ 33.9–33.4 Ma), with a short peak in overall food delivery at the EOB (buliminid taxa; ~ 33.8 Ma). Increased abundance of Nuttallides umbonifera (at ~ 33.3 Ma) indicates the presence of more corrosive bottom waters and possibly the combined arrival of less food at the sea floor after the second step of cooling (Step 2). The most important changes in the calcareous nannofossil and benthic communities occurred ~ 120 kyr after the EOB. There was no major change in nannofossil abundance or assemblage composition at Site 1263 after Step 2 although benthic foraminifera indicate more corrosive bottom waters during this time. During the onset of latest-Eocene–earliest-Oligocene climate change, marine phytoplankton thus showed high sensitivity to fast-changing conditions as well as to a possibly enhanced, pulsed nutrient supply and to the crossing of a climatic threshold (e.g., pCO2 decline, high-latitude cooling and changes in ocean circulation).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Glenda Galeotti;
    Publisher: eum
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | IPODD (202020)

    The growing interest in the impact assessment of cultural heritage has generated a diversity of approaches often focusing mainly on the economic dimension. However, if we consider the cultural heritage as a common and relational good, any activity aimed at promoting its educational, social and economic values needs to produce benefi ts for the community in which the good is located. Therefore, we must necessarily resort to other concepts and tools for measuring the impact of valorisation activities of cultural heritage on community well-being. We must also consider the value for community members. This article illustrates a qualitative research carried out through a case study with the direct involvement of local stakeholders (multi-stakeholder approach). This introductory study is part of a wider research program that the author is currently developing. In accordance with the Quality of Life studies, the main result of the research is the defi nition of elements useful to the impact assessment produced by the valorisation of cultural heritage, in terms of well-being of local communities. Il crescente interesse nella valutazione di impatto del patrimonio culturale ha generato una diversità di approcci, spesso incentrati sulla dimensione economica. Se però si considera il patrimonio culturale come bene comune e relazionale, qualsiasi attività volta a promuovere il suo valore educativo, sociale ed economico deve essere in grado di produrre benefi ci per la comunità in cui il bene si trova. È necessario, dunque, ricorrere a concetti e strumenti in grado di misurare l’impatto delle attività di valorizzazione del patrimonio sul benessere della comunità locale, considerando anche il valore attribuitogli dalla stessa. Questo articolo illustra una ricerca qualitativa realizzata attraverso un caso di studio con il coinvolgimento diretto degli attori locali (approccio multi-stakeholder). Si tratta di uno studio introduttivo ad un percorso di ricerca più ampio e articolato che l’autrice sta sviluppando. In accordo con gli studi sulla Qualità della Vita, il principale risultato della ricerca è la defi nizione di elementi utili alla valutazione dell’impatto prodotto dalla valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale in termini di benessere della comunità locale. Il Capitale culturale. Studies on the value of cultural heritage, No 14 (2016): Musei e mostre tra le due Guerre

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Irene Calloud; Paola Zamperlin;
    Country: Italy

    ArcCEs is a study for developing a digital archive on Italian scientific expeditions in Northern and Eastern Africa and the former Italian colonies (19th–20th centuries). The aim of the project is to assess, protect and enhance an important corpus of documents (historical cartographies, photographs, scientific papers and archive documents) distributed among public archives and private collections. The database structure is based on the Dublin Core metadata standard. The information system is designed to integrate and make interoperable digital resources, to ensure standardized and complex indexing, and to support advanced retrieval, according to the standards in use. The geolocation of the resources in a GIS environment can display query results in the Google Earth environment.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Conference object . Preprint . 2012
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mirko Severi; Roberto Udisti; Silvia Becagli; Barbara Stenni; Rita Traversi;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Country: Italy

    Abstract. The age scale synchronisation between the Talos Dome and the EPICA Dome C ice cores was carried on through the identification of several common volcanic signatures. This paper describes the rigorous method, using the signature of volcanic sulphate, which was employed for the last 42 kyr of the record. Using this tight stratigraphic link, we transferred the EDC age scale to the Talos Dome ice core, producing a new age scale for the last 12 kyr. We estimated the discrepancies between the modelled TALDICE-1 age scale and the new scale during the studied period, by evaluating the ratio R of the apparent duration of temporal intervals between pairs of isochrones. Except for a very few cases, R ranges between 0.8 and 1.2, corresponding to an uncertainty of up to 20% in the estimate of the time duration in at least one of the two ice cores. At this stage our approach does not allow us to unequivocally identify which of the models is affected by errors, but, taking into account only the historically known volcanic events, we found that discrepancies up to 200 yr appear in the last two millennia in the TALDICE-1 model, while our new age scale shows a much better agreement with the volcanic absolute horizons. Thus, we propose for the Talos Dome ice core a new age scale (covering the whole Holocene) obtained by a direct transfer, via our stratigraphic link, from the EDC modelled age scale by Lemieux-Dudon et al. (2010).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Benedetta Pioppi; Ilaria Pigliautile; Cristina Piselli; Anna Laura Pisello;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | HERACLES (700395)

    Abstract Microclimate change related events affect cities total environment and therefore citizens’ wellbeing. In a framework of urban resilience challenge, it is important to guarantee thermally comfortable conditions to dwellers in outdoors but also to preserve cultural heritage masterpieces for tourism and local socio-cultural identity. This work couples an innovative field monitoring at multiple scales and a validated numerical modelling effort to identify indoor and outdoor critical conditions at the present time and in the future, according to IPCC climate change forecast scenarios. The authors focused the attention on the overheating risk of Gubbio historical city center, in central Italy. Experimental data analysis highlights the microclimate granularity of the case study with detected temperature discrepancies up to 2.5 °C observed at pedestrian height during the hottest hour, i.e. 2p.m. Collected data are then used to validate the numerical models of (i) the most significant building of the city and (ii) its surroundings to investigate indoor/outdoor thermal comfort stress due to climate change and local overheating. The combined analysis shows that indoor operative temperature reaches 32 °C on average in 80 years, compared to the current 29 °C value. In the outdoors, apparent temperature increases by about 10 °C on 2100, being responsible for a serious threat compromising socio-cultural life, human health and outdoor and recreational activities.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Manuela Incerti; Gaia Lavoratti; Sara D'Amico; Stefano Giannetti;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Italy

    The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia is one of Ravenna’s UNESCO protected monuments, globally renowned for the extraordinary mosaic decorations that cover the internal surfaces. The famous starry vault profoundly engages and inspires the observer. It has been studied for its accuracy in the representation of the real sky, but also because of its mystical and symbolic meaning in relation to the iconographic tradition of the time. The building has also been subject of archeoastronomical research (Romano in Orientamenti ad sidera. Astronomia, riti e calendari per la fondazione di templi e citta. Un esempio a Ravenna. Edizioni Essegi, Ravenna, 1995), which is here presented in depth. The present contribution also examines other architectural elements beyond orientation: particular attention is payed to the small slit windows of the building to investigate their possible archaeoastronomical significance. In the study of these elements, particular attention should be payed to the elaboration of architectural survey data, which has to be produced following established procedures and techniques. A functional 3D model will be developed from the data of the archaeoastronomical analysis to display the original morphology of the building (the floor was about 1.4 m lower because of subsidence movements), astronomical phenomena, and allow for multimedia communication of the scientific content produced. Finally, the related issues will be investigated: the geometric and projective transformations of the starry dome, the geometric shape of space also in relation to the unit of measurement used.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniel Veres; Lucie Bazin; Amaelle Landais; H Toyé Mahamadou Kele; Bénédicte Lemieux-Dudon; Frédéric Parrenin; Patricia Martinerie; Eric Blayo; Thomas Blunier; Emilie Capron; +6 more
    Countries: Italy, France, Italy, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908), EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908)

    The deep polar ice cores provide reference records commonly employed in global correlation of past climate events. However, temporal divergences reaching up to several thousand years (ka) exist between ice cores over the last climatic cycle. In this context, we are hereby introducing the Antarctic Ice Core Chronology 2012 (AICC2012), a new and coherent timescale developed for four Antarctic ice cores, namely Vostok, EPICA Dome C (EDC), EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) and Talos Dome (TALDICE), alongside the Greenlandic NGRIP record. The AICC2012 timescale has been constructed using the Bayesian tool Datice (Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010) that combines glaciological inputs and data constraints, including a wide range of relative and absolute gas and ice stratigraphic markers. We focus here on the last 120 ka, whereas the companion paper by Bazin et al. (2013) focuses on the interval 120–800 ka. Compared to previous timescales, AICC2012 presents an improved timing for the last glacial inception, respecting the glaciological constraints of all analyzed records. Moreover, with the addition of numerous new stratigraphic markers and improved calculation of the lock-in depth (LID) based on δ15N data employed as the Datice background scenario, the AICC2012 presents a slightly improved timing for the bipolar sequence of events over Marine Isotope Stage 3 associated with the seesaw mechanism, with maximum differences of about 600 yr with respect to the previous Datice-derived chronology of Lemieux-Dudon et al. (2010), hereafter denoted LD2010. Our improved scenario confirms the regional differences for the millennial scale variability over the last glacial period: while the EDC isotopic record (events of triangular shape) displays peaks roughly at the same time as the NGRIP abrupt isotopic increases, the EDML isotopic record (events characterized by broader peaks or even extended periods of high isotope values) reached the isotopic maximum several centuries before. It is expected that the future contribution of both other long ice core records and other types of chronological constraints to the Datice tool will lead to further refinements in the ice core chronologies beyond the AICC2012 chronology. For the time being however, we recommend that AICC2012 be used as the preferred chronology for the Vostok, EDC, EDML and TALDICE ice core records, both over the last glacial cycle (this study), and beyond (following Bazin et al., 2013). The ages for NGRIP in AICC2012 are virtually identical to those of GICC05 for the last 60.2 ka, whereas the ages beyond are independent of those in GICC05modelext (as in the construction of AICC2012, the GICC05modelext was included only via the background scenarios and not as age markers). As such, where issues of phasing between Antarctic records included in AICC2012 and NGRIP are involved, the NGRIP ages in AICC2012 should therefore be taken to avoid introducing false offsets. However for issues involving only Greenland ice cores, there is not yet a strong basis to recommend superseding GICC05modelext as the recommended age scale for Greenland ice cores.

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