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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; Alberto Franceschini; S. Berta; Laia Barrufet; Mattia Vaccari; Matteo Bonato; Laure Ciesla; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy, United States
    Project: EC | HELP (607254)

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Igarashi, Ayumi; Izsak, Rani; Elkind, Edith;
    Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ACCORD (639945)

    Cooperative games provide a framework to study cooperation among self-interested agents. They offer a number of solution concepts describing how the outcome of the cooperation should be shared among the players. Unfortunately, computational problems associated with many of these solution concepts tend to be intractable---NP-hard or worse. In this paper, we incorporate complexity measures recently proposed by Feige and Izsak (2013), called dependency degree and supermodular degree, into the complexity analysis of cooperative games. We show that many computational problems for cooperative games become tractable for games whose dependency degree or supermodular degree are bounded. In particular, we prove that simple games admit efficient algorithms for various solution concepts when the supermodular degree is small; further, we show that computing the Shapley value is always in FPT with respect to the dependency degree. Finally, we note that, while determining the dependency among players is computationally hard, there are efficient algorithms for special classes of games. 10 pages, full version of accepted AAAI-18 paper

  • Publication . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yichao Yan; Qiang Zhang; Bingbing Ni; Wendong Zhang; Minghao Xu; Xiaokang Yang;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Person re-identification has achieved great progress with deep convolutional neural networks. However, most previous methods focus on learning individual appearance feature embedding, and it is hard for the models to handle difficult situations with different illumination, large pose variance and occlusion. In this work, we take a step further and consider employing context information for person search. For a probe-gallery pair, we first propose a contextual instance expansion module, which employs a relative attention module to search and filter useful context information in the scene. We also build a graph learning framework to effectively employ context pairs to update target similarity. These two modules are built on top of a joint detection and instance feature learning framework, which improves the discriminativeness of the learned features. The proposed framework achieves state-of-the-art performance on two widely used person search datasets. To appear in CVPR 2019

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Liam Connor; J. van Leeuwen; L. C. Oostrum; Emily Petroff; Yogesh Maan; Elizabeth A. K. Adams; Jisk Attema; J. E. Bast; Oliver M. Boersma; H. Dénes; +31 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | ARTS - the Apertif Radio ... (10066), EC | RadioNet (730562), EC | ALERT (617199), NWO | Microporous membranes fro... (5831), NWO | ARGOThe Apertif Radio – G... (31150)

    ABSTRACT We report the detection of a bright fast radio burst, FRB 191108, with Apertif on the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The interferometer allows us to localize the FRB to a narrow 5 arcsec × 7 arcmin ellipse by employing both multibeam information within the Apertif phased-array feed beam pattern, and across different tied-array beams. The resulting sightline passes close to Local Group galaxy M33, with an impact parameter of only 18 kpc with respect to the core. It also traverses the much larger circumgalactic medium (CGM) of M31, the Andromeda Galaxy. We find that the shared plasma of the Local Group galaxies could contribute ∼10 per cent of its dispersion measure of 588 pc cm−3. FRB 191108 has a Faraday rotation measure (RM) of +474 $\pm \, 3$ rad m−2, which is too large to be explained by either the Milky Way or the intergalactic medium. Based on the more moderate RMs of other extragalactic sources that traverse the halo of M33, we conclude that the dense magnetized plasma resides in the host galaxy. The FRB exhibits frequency structure on two scales, one that is consistent with quenched Galactic scintillation and broader spectral structure with Δν ≈ 40 MHz. If the latter is due to scattering in the shared M33/M31 CGM, our results constrain the Local Group plasma environment. We found no accompanying persistent radio sources in the Apertif imaging survey data.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dekel Tsur;

    Abstract In the Split to Block Vertex Deletion and Split to Threshold Vertex Deletion problems the input is a split graph G and an integer k, and the goal is to decide whether there is a set S of vertices of size at most k such that G − S is a block graph and G − S is a threshold graph, respectively. In this paper we give algorithms for these problems whose running times are O ⁎ ( 2.076 k ) and O ⁎ ( 1.619 k ) , respectively.

  • Publication . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Susanna F. de Rezende; Or Meir; Jakob Nordström; Toniann Pitassi; Robert Robere; Marc Vinyals;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC , EC | UTHOTP (279611)

    We significantly strengthen and generalize the theorem lifting Nullstellensatz degree to monotone span program size by Pitassi and Robere (2018) so that it works for any gadget with high enough rank, in particular, for useful gadgets such as equality and greater-than. We apply our generalized theorem to solve three open problems: •We present the first result that demonstrates a separation in proof power for cutting planes with unbounded versus polynomially bounded coefficients. Specifically, we exhibit CNF formulas that can be refuted in quadratic length and constant line space in cutting planes with unbounded coefficients, but for which there are no refutations in subexponential length and subpolynomial line space if coefficients are restricted to be of polynomial magnitude. •We give the first explicit separation between monotone Boolean formulas and monotone real formulas. Specifically, we give an explicit family of functions that can be computed with monotone real formulas of nearly linear size but require monotone Boolean formulas of exponential size. Previously only a non-explicit separation was known. •We give the strongest separation to-date between monotone Boolean formulas and monotone Boolean circuits. Namely, we show that the classical GEN problem, which has polynomial-size monotone Boolean circuits, requires monotone Boolean formulas of size $2^{\Omega(n/\text{polylog}(n))}$ . An important technical ingredient, which may be of independent interest, is that we show that the Nullstellensatz degree of refuting the pebbling formula over a DAG $G$ over any field coincides exactly with the reversible pebbling price of $G$ . In particular, this implies that the standard decision tree complexity and the parity decision tree complexity of the corresponding falsified clause search problem are equal. This is an extended abstract. The full version of the paper is available at https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.02144.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tomer Berg; Ofer Shayevitz; Young-Han Kim; Lele Wang;
    Project: NSERC , EC | InfoInt (639573)

    We consider the problem of distributed source simulation with no communication, in which Alice and Bob observe sequences $U^{n}$ and $V^{n}$ respectively, drawn from a joint distribution $p_{UV}^ {\otimes n}$ , and wish to locally generate sequences $X^{n}$ and $Y^{n}$ respectively with a joint distribution that is close (in KL divergence) to $p_{XY}^ {\otimes n}$ . We provide a single-letter condition under which such a simulation is asymptotically possible with a vanishing KL divergence. Our condition is nontrivial only in the case where the Gacs-Korner (GK) common information between $U$ and $V$ is nonzero, and we conjecture that only scalar Markov chains $X-U-V-Y$ can be simulated otherwise. Motivated by this conjecture, we further examine the case where both $p_{UV}$ and $p_{XY}$ are doubly symmetric binary sources with parameters $p,q\leq 1/2$ respectively. While it is trivial that in this case $p\leq q$ is both necessary and sufficient, we use Fourier analytic tools to show that when $p$ is close to $q$ then any successful simulation is close to being scalar in the total variation sense.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Chudnovsky; Eran Nevo;
    Project: EC | PROGEOCOM (320924), NSF | Forbidding Induced Subgra... (1763817)

    We propose a combinatorial approach to the following strengthening of Gal's conjecture: $\gamma(\Delta)\ge \gamma(E)$ coefficientwise, where $\Delta$ is a flag homology sphere and $E\subseteq \Delta$ an induced homology sphere of codimension $1$. We provide partial evidence in favor of this approach, and prove a nontrivial nonlinear inequality that follows from the above conjecture, for boundary complexes of flag $d$-polytopes: $h_1(\Delta) h_i(\Delta) \ge (d-i+1)h_{i-1}(\Delta) + (i+1) h_{i+1}(\Delta)$ for all $0\le i\le d$. Comment: 12 pages

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Peizhuo Li; Kfir Aberman; Rana Hanocka; Libin Liu; Olga Sorkine-Hornung; Baoquan Chen;
    Publisher: arXiv

    Animating a newly designed character using motion capture (mocap) data is a long standing problem in computer animation. A key consideration is the skeletal structure that should correspond to the available mocap data, and the shape deformation in the joint regions, which often requires a tailored, pose-specific refinement. In this work, we develop a neural technique for articulating 3D characters using enveloping with a pre-defined skeletal structure which produces high quality pose dependent deformations. Our framework learns to rig and skin characters with the same articulation structure (e.g., bipeds or quadrupeds), and builds the desired skeleton hierarchy into the network architecture. Furthermore, we propose neural blend shapes--a set of corrective pose-dependent shapes which improve the deformation quality in the joint regions in order to address the notorious artifacts resulting from standard rigging and skinning. Our system estimates neural blend shapes for input meshes with arbitrary connectivity, as well as weighting coefficients which are conditioned on the input joint rotations. Unlike recent deep learning techniques which supervise the network with ground-truth rigging and skinning parameters, our approach does not assume that the training data has a specific underlying deformation model. Instead, during training, the network observes deformed shapes and learns to infer the corresponding rig, skin and blend shapes using indirect supervision. During inference, we demonstrate that our network generalizes to unseen characters with arbitrary mesh connectivity, including unrigged characters built by 3D artists. Conforming to standard skeletal animation models enables direct plug-and-play in standard animation software, as well as game engines. Comment: SIGGRAPH 2021. Project page: https://peizhuoli.github.io/neural-blend-shapes/ , Video: https://youtu.be/antc20EFh6k

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wheatcroft, Edward; Wynn, Henry; Dent, Chris J.; Smith, Jim Q.; Copeland, Claire L.; Ralph, Daniel; Zachary, Stan;

    Scenario Analysis is a risk assessment tool that aims to evaluate the impact of a small number of distinct plausible future scenarios. In this paper, we provide an overview of important aspects of Scenario Analysis including when it is appropriate, the design of scenarios, uncertainty and encouraging creativity. Each of these issues is discussed in the context of climate, energy and legal scenarios.

Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
11,748 Research products, page 1 of 1,175
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; Alberto Franceschini; S. Berta; Laia Barrufet; Mattia Vaccari; Matteo Bonato; Laure Ciesla; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy, United States
    Project: EC | HELP (607254)

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Igarashi, Ayumi; Izsak, Rani; Elkind, Edith;
    Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ACCORD (639945)

    Cooperative games provide a framework to study cooperation among self-interested agents. They offer a number of solution concepts describing how the outcome of the cooperation should be shared among the players. Unfortunately, computational problems associated with many of these solution concepts tend to be intractable---NP-hard or worse. In this paper, we incorporate complexity measures recently proposed by Feige and Izsak (2013), called dependency degree and supermodular degree, into the complexity analysis of cooperative games. We show that many computational problems for cooperative games become tractable for games whose dependency degree or supermodular degree are bounded. In particular, we prove that simple games admit efficient algorithms for various solution concepts when the supermodular degree is small; further, we show that computing the Shapley value is always in FPT with respect to the dependency degree. Finally, we note that, while determining the dependency among players is computationally hard, there are efficient algorithms for special classes of games. 10 pages, full version of accepted AAAI-18 paper

  • Publication . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yichao Yan; Qiang Zhang; Bingbing Ni; Wendong Zhang; Minghao Xu; Xiaokang Yang;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Person re-identification has achieved great progress with deep convolutional neural networks. However, most previous methods focus on learning individual appearance feature embedding, and it is hard for the models to handle difficult situations with different illumination, large pose variance and occlusion. In this work, we take a step further and consider employing context information for person search. For a probe-gallery pair, we first propose a contextual instance expansion module, which employs a relative attention module to search and filter useful context information in the scene. We also build a graph learning framework to effectively employ context pairs to update target similarity. These two modules are built on top of a joint detection and instance feature learning framework, which improves the discriminativeness of the learned features. The proposed framework achieves state-of-the-art performance on two widely used person search datasets. To appear in CVPR 2019

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Liam Connor; J. van Leeuwen; L. C. Oostrum; Emily Petroff; Yogesh Maan; Elizabeth A. K. Adams; Jisk Attema; J. E. Bast; Oliver M. Boersma; H. Dénes; +31 more
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | ARTS - the Apertif Radio ... (10066), EC | RadioNet (730562), EC | ALERT (617199), NWO | Microporous membranes fro... (5831), NWO | ARGOThe Apertif Radio – G... (31150)

    ABSTRACT We report the detection of a bright fast radio burst, FRB 191108, with Apertif on the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The interferometer allows us to localize the FRB to a narrow 5 arcsec × 7 arcmin ellipse by employing both multibeam information within the Apertif phased-array feed beam pattern, and across different tied-array beams. The resulting sightline passes close to Local Group galaxy M33, with an impact parameter of only 18 kpc with respect to the core. It also traverses the much larger circumgalactic medium (CGM) of M31, the Andromeda Galaxy. We find that the shared plasma of the Local Group galaxies could contribute ∼10 per cent of its dispersion measure of 588 pc cm−3. FRB 191108 has a Faraday rotation measure (RM) of +474 $\pm \, 3$ rad m−2, which is too large to be explained by either the Milky Way or the intergalactic medium. Based on the more moderate RMs of other extragalactic sources that traverse the halo of M33, we conclude that the dense magnetized plasma resides in the host galaxy. The FRB exhibits frequency structure on two scales, one that is consistent with quenched Galactic scintillation and broader spectral structure with Δν ≈ 40 MHz. If the latter is due to scattering in the shared M33/M31 CGM, our results constrain the Local Group plasma environment. We found no accompanying persistent radio sources in the Apertif imaging survey data.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dekel Tsur;

    Abstract In the Split to Block Vertex Deletion and Split to Threshold Vertex Deletion problems the input is a split graph G and an integer k, and the goal is to decide whether there is a set S of vertices of size at most k such that G − S is a block graph and G − S is a threshold graph, respectively. In this paper we give algorithms for these problems whose running times are O ⁎ ( 2.076 k ) and O ⁎ ( 1.619 k ) , respectively.

  • Publication . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Susanna F. de Rezende; Or Meir; Jakob Nordström; Toniann Pitassi; Robert Robere; Marc Vinyals;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSERC , EC | UTHOTP (279611)

    We significantly strengthen and generalize the theorem lifting Nullstellensatz degree to monotone span program size by Pitassi and Robere (2018) so that it works for any gadget with high enough rank, in particular, for useful gadgets such as equality and greater-than. We apply our generalized theorem to solve three open problems: •We present the first result that demonstrates a separation in proof power for cutting planes with unbounded versus polynomially bounded coefficients. Specifically, we exhibit CNF formulas that can be refuted in quadratic length and constant line space in cutting planes with unbounded coefficients, but for which there are no refutations in subexponential length and subpolynomial line space if coefficients are restricted to be of polynomial magnitude. •We give the first explicit separation between monotone Boolean formulas and monotone real formulas. Specifically, we give an explicit family of functions that can be computed with monotone real formulas of nearly linear size but require monotone Boolean formulas of exponential size. Previously only a non-explicit separation was known. •We give the strongest separation to-date between monotone Boolean formulas and monotone Boolean circuits. Namely, we show that the classical GEN problem, which has polynomial-size monotone Boolean circuits, requires monotone Boolean formulas of size $2^{\Omega(n/\text{polylog}(n))}$ . An important technical ingredient, which may be of independent interest, is that we show that the Nullstellensatz degree of refuting the pebbling formula over a DAG $G$ over any field coincides exactly with the reversible pebbling price of $G$ . In particular, this implies that the standard decision tree complexity and the parity decision tree complexity of the corresponding falsified clause search problem are equal. This is an extended abstract. The full version of the paper is available at https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.02144.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tomer Berg; Ofer Shayevitz; Young-Han Kim; Lele Wang;
    Project: NSERC , EC | InfoInt (639573)

    We consider the problem of distributed source simulation with no communication, in which Alice and Bob observe sequences $U^{n}$ and $V^{n}$ respectively, drawn from a joint distribution $p_{UV}^ {\otimes n}$ , and wish to locally generate sequences $X^{n}$ and $Y^{n}$ respectively with a joint distribution that is close (in KL divergence) to $p_{XY}^ {\otimes n}$ . We provide a single-letter condition under which such a simulation is asymptotically possible with a vanishing KL divergence. Our condition is nontrivial only in the case where the Gacs-Korner (GK) common information between $U$ and $V$ is nonzero, and we conjecture that only scalar Markov chains $X-U-V-Y$ can be simulated otherwise. Motivated by this conjecture, we further examine the case where both $p_{UV}$ and $p_{XY}$ are doubly symmetric binary sources with parameters $p,q\leq 1/2$ respectively. While it is trivial that in this case $p\leq q$ is both necessary and sufficient, we use Fourier analytic tools to show that when $p$ is close to $q$ then any successful simulation is close to being scalar in the total variation sense.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Chudnovsky; Eran Nevo;
    Project: EC | PROGEOCOM (320924), NSF | Forbidding Induced Subgra... (1763817)

    We propose a combinatorial approach to the following strengthening of Gal's conjecture: $\gamma(\Delta)\ge \gamma(E)$ coefficientwise, where $\Delta$ is a flag homology sphere and $E\subseteq \Delta$ an induced homology sphere of codimension $1$. We provide partial evidence in favor of this approach, and prove a nontrivial nonlinear inequality that follows from the above conjecture, for boundary complexes of flag $d$-polytopes: $h_1(\Delta) h_i(\Delta) \ge (d-i+1)h_{i-1}(\Delta) + (i+1) h_{i+1}(\Delta)$ for all $0\le i\le d$. Comment: 12 pages

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Peizhuo Li; Kfir Aberman; Rana Hanocka; Libin Liu; Olga Sorkine-Hornung; Baoquan Chen;
    Publisher: arXiv

    Animating a newly designed character using motion capture (mocap) data is a long standing problem in computer animation. A key consideration is the skeletal structure that should correspond to the available mocap data, and the shape deformation in the joint regions, which often requires a tailored, pose-specific refinement. In this work, we develop a neural technique for articulating 3D characters using enveloping with a pre-defined skeletal structure which produces high quality pose dependent deformations. Our framework learns to rig and skin characters with the same articulation structure (e.g., bipeds or quadrupeds), and builds the desired skeleton hierarchy into the network architecture. Furthermore, we propose neural blend shapes--a set of corrective pose-dependent shapes which improve the deformation quality in the joint regions in order to address the notorious artifacts resulting from standard rigging and skinning. Our system estimates neural blend shapes for input meshes with arbitrary connectivity, as well as weighting coefficients which are conditioned on the input joint rotations. Unlike recent deep learning techniques which supervise the network with ground-truth rigging and skinning parameters, our approach does not assume that the training data has a specific underlying deformation model. Instead, during training, the network observes deformed shapes and learns to infer the corresponding rig, skin and blend shapes using indirect supervision. During inference, we demonstrate that our network generalizes to unseen characters with arbitrary mesh connectivity, including unrigged characters built by 3D artists. Conforming to standard skeletal animation models enables direct plug-and-play in standard animation software, as well as game engines. Comment: SIGGRAPH 2021. Project page: https://peizhuoli.github.io/neural-blend-shapes/ , Video: https://youtu.be/antc20EFh6k

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wheatcroft, Edward; Wynn, Henry; Dent, Chris J.; Smith, Jim Q.; Copeland, Claire L.; Ralph, Daniel; Zachary, Stan;

    Scenario Analysis is a risk assessment tool that aims to evaluate the impact of a small number of distinct plausible future scenarios. In this paper, we provide an overview of important aspects of Scenario Analysis including when it is appropriate, the design of scenarios, uncertainty and encouraging creativity. Each of these issues is discussed in the context of climate, energy and legal scenarios.

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