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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marina Šekutor; Kata Mlinarić-Majerski;
    Country: Croatia

    Biološka aktivnost različitih adamantanskih derivata i njihova primjena opisane su u brojnim preglednim člancima. Isto tako, mnogi revijalni članci opisuju biološku aktivnost i primjenu gvanidinskih spojeva. Međutim, do sada nije načinjen pregled koji bi se bavio gvanidinskim derivatima adamantana i drugih policikla, tj. spojevima koji sadrže obje navedene podjedinice u istoj molekuli. U ovom radu bit će stoga dan pregled policikličkih derivata gvanidina, i to s naglaskom na njihovu primjenu kao potencijalnih farmakofora.

  • Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Vlado Merzel; Sanja Lučić Blagojević; Zrinka Buhin Šturlić; Mario Meheš; Mirela Leskovac;
    Country: Croatia

    In this paper, the influence of flame treatment on the surface properties of polypropylene (PP) and thermoplastic polyolefins with talc and carbon black filler (TPO), and adhesion of the applied coating in the conditions of industrial robotic dyeing process were investigated. The flame treatment was carried out at two distances from the flame (7.5 cm and 12.5 cm) at constant air and methane flows as well as speed of the burner. The thermal stability of untreated samples was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The change in thermal properties before and after flame treatment was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Changes of the samples’ surface energy were examined before flame treatment, 1 h and 24 h after flame treatment, by the contact angle method. Qualitative analysis of the surface chemical composition, before and after flame treatment, was performed by ATR – FTIR analysis, and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After applying the base layer, dye and topcoat on the surface of the treated samples, the adhesion was determined by standard methods ISO 2409 and ISO 16925/D25 2018-B. The results showed that TPO containing talc and carbon black filler have better thermal stability compared to PP. Flame treatment influenced the surface characteristics of the samples, namely the increase in surface free energy and the appearance/structure of the surface. With ATR – FTIR, the existence of polar groups on the surface after flame treatment were determined. According to the standards, all dyed samples met the requirements of excellent adhesion on the substrate/coating interface. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. U ovom radu istražen je utjecaj obrade plamenom polipropilena (PP) i termoplastičnih poliolefina s talkom i čađom (TPO) na površinska svojstva i adheziju nanesenog premaza u uvjetima industrijskog procesa robotskog bojenja. Obrada plamenom provedena je na dvije udaljenosti plamena od površine (7,5 cm i 12,5 cm) pri konstantnom protoku zraka i metana te brzini kretanja plamenika. Toplinska postojanost netretiranih uzoraka ispitana je primjenom termogravimetrijske analize (TGA). Promjena toplinskih svojstava prije i nakon obrade plamenom praćena je primjenom diferencijalne pretražne kalorimetrije (DSC). Metodom kontaktnog kuta određena je površinska energija uzoraka prije obrade plamenom te 1 h i 24 h nakon obrade plamenom. Promjene uzrokovane obradom plamenom istražene su ATR – FTIR analizom, a morfološke promjene pretražnim elektronskim mikroskopom (SEM). Nakon nanošenja temeljnog sloja, sloja boje i sloja laka na površinu obrađenih uzoraka određena je adhezija standardnim metodama ISO 2409 i ISO 16925/D25 2018-B. Rezultati su pokazali da TPO uzorci koji sadrže punilo talk i čađu imaju bolju toplinsku postojanost u odnosu na PP. Obrada plamenom utječe na promjenu površinskih karakteristika uzoraka, povećanje slobodne površinske energije i na izgled/strukturu površine. ATR – FTIR analizom utvrđeno je postojanje polarnih skupina na površini nakon obrade plamenom. Svi obojeni uzorci prema zahtjevima normi zadovoljavaju uvjete izvrsne adhezije na međupovršini supstrat/premaz. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2019
    Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Marica Ivanković; Leonard Bauer; Antonia Ressler; Anamarija Rogina; Maja Antunović; Hrvoje Ivanković;
    Country: Croatia

    Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is a fast growing field focused on the development of bioactive 3D porous scaffolds as temporary extracellular matrixes that support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and stimulate bone tissue formation in vivo. Over more than ten years, our group has been devoted to developing new biomaterials and methods to prepare 3D porous scaffolds for BTE applications. The potential of natural porous structures such as marine skeletons, composite materials, and hydrogels based on biodegradable polymers and bioresorbable hydroxyapatite ceramics have been studied. In this paper, an overview of our research and main achievements, published in international scientific publications, is provided. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Inženjerstvo koštanog tkiva brzorastuće je polje istraživanja usmjereno na razvoj bioaktivnih 3D poroznih nosača, kao privremenih izvanstaničnih matrica, koji podržavaju prianjanje, umnažanje i diferencijaciju stanica te potiču stvaranje koštanog tkiva in vivo. Više od deset godina istraživanja naše grupe posvećena su razvoju novih materijala i postupaka za pripravu 3D poroznih nosača za inženjerstvo koštanog tkiva. Kao mogući nosači istraživani su porozni skeleti morskih organizama te kompozitni materijali i hidrogelovi na temelju biorazgradljivih polimera i bioresorbirajuće hidroksiapatitne keramike. U ovom radu dan je prikaz naših istraživanja i glavnih postignuća, objavljenih u međunarodnim znanstvenim publikacijama. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nenad Raos;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers

    Rad se bavi razvojem pojma elementa od antičkih vremena (Empedoklo, Aristotel) preko razdoblja alkemije i rane kemije (Paracelsus, Petar Bono, Boyle) te početaka moderne kemije (Lavoisier, Mendeljejev) do suvremenih shvaćanja utemeljenih na atomskoj teoriji. Pokazuje se da pojam elementa ima dva značenja, elementarne (jednostavne) tvari i elementa u užem smislu; dok se prvi pojam razvijao prateći napredak metoda kemijske analize, za razumijevanje drugog pojma, pojma elementa, bilo je nužno steći dublji uvid u narav kemijskih promjena.

  • Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Nikolina Mrkonjić; Gordana Martinko; Emi Govorčin Bajsić; Igor Slivac; Vedrana Špada; Tamara Holjevac Grgurić;
    Country: Croatia

    Polilaktidna kiselina (PLA) i bakterijska nanoceluloza (BNC) zbog svoje biorazgradljivosti, biokompatibilnosti i netoksičnosti imaju velik potencijal za primjenu u biomedicini. Cilj ovog rada bio je pripraviti i ispitati biokompozit PLA/BNC. Istražen je utjecaj BNC-a na morfološku strukturu, kemijski sastav, toplinska svojstva, toplinsku postojanost i hidrofobnost PLA te zasijavanje i rast stanica biokompozita PLA/BNC primjenom pretražnog elektronskog mikroskopa (SEM), infracrvene spektroskopije (FTIR), diferencijalne pretražne kalorimetrije (DSC) i termogravimetrijske analize (TGA) te određivanjem kontaktnog kuta i metodom MTT. Dodatkom BNC-a u PLA dolazi do pomaka staklišta (Tg) prema nižim temperaturama, što ukazuje na veću pokretljivost amorfne faze PLA te porasta stupnja kristalnosti zbog nukleacijskog učinka celuloze. Početak toplinske razgradnje pomaknut je na niže temperature u odnosu na čisti PLA, što ukazuje na smanjenje toplinske postojanosti PLA dodatkom BNC-a. Biokompozit PLA/BNC pokazuje poroznu, vlaknastu strukturu. Test zasijavanja stanica pokazao je da je biokompozit PLA/BNC pogodan za prihvaćanje i rast humanih stanica, pa je prema tome potencijalno primjenjiv u regenerativnoj medicini i tkivnom inženjerstvu. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna. Polylactic acid (PLA) and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) are promising materials in medicine due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize the PLA/BNC biocomposite. Morphology, chemical composition, thermal properties, thermal stability, hydrophobicity and cell seeding, and growth of the PLA/BNC biocomposite were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle, and MTT method. DSC showed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA decreased with the addition of BNC due to higher mobility of amorphous PLA phase. The degree of crystallinity increased due to nucleation effect of cellulose. With the addition of BNC, the thermal stability of biocomposite decreased. The PLA/BNC biocomposite exhibited a porous, fibrous structure. The cell seeding test showed the PLA/BNC biocomposite to be suitable for growth of human cells, and therefore, potentially applicable in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Molčanov, Krešimir; Institut Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička 54, HR-10 000 Zagreb;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers
    Country: Croatia

    Radikale, kemijske vrste s nesparenim elektronima, obično se smatra vrlo nestablinima, tako da ih se može pri - praviti samo pod posebnim uvjetima i proučavati samo pomoću posebnih, vrlo skupih, instrumenata. Također ih se smatra štetnima te neprimjerenima za pokuse u školi. Ipak, radikali imaju ključnu ulogu u biološkim susta - vima. Zahvaljujući nesparenim elektronima, obično su živo obojani, tako da se njihovo nastajanje često može opaziti golim okom. Ovdje je opisano nekoliko jednostavnih reakcijâ s biološki najvažnijim radikalom, semikinonom. Lako ih je izvesti u školskom laboratoriju uporabom male količine jeftinih i bezopasnih tvari. Jednostavnim promatranjem tih reakcijâ dade se naučiti mnogo toga o kemiji (slob odnih) radikala

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2015
    Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    M. Šekutor; K. Mlinarić-Majerski;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers
    Country: Croatia

    Biological activity of different adamantane derivatives and their application has been described in various reviews. Similarly, many reviews deal with biological activity and application of guanidine compounds. However, up to now no review has been made concerning the guanidine derivatives of adamantane and other polycycles, compounds which incorporate both of these moieties in the same molecule. Therefore, a literature survey of polycyclic guanidine derivatives is here provided and their application as potential pharmacophores stressed. Biološka aktivnost različitih adamantanskih derivata i njihova primjena opisane su u brojnim preglednim člancima. Isto tako, mnogi revijalni članci opisuju biološku aktivnost i primjenu gvanidinskih spojeva. Međutim do sada nije načinjen pregled koji bi se bavio gvanidinskim derivatima adamantana i drugih policikla, tj. spojevima koji sadrže obje navedene podjedinice u istoj molekuli. U ovom radu bit će stoga dan pregled policikličkih derivata gvanidina, i to s naglaskom na njihovu primjenu kao potencijalnih farmakofora.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valdrin Beluli;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers
    Country: Croatia

    Gjilan (42˚28’08” V, 21˚27’48” L) is one of the seven largest cities in Kosovo. Throughout the city flow three rivers: Mirusha and Stanishor which mix and discharge into the largest river called Morava. The reason for the research of these rivers is the extreme pollution resulting from the discharge of industrial waters. Analysis of these rivers shows that they are extremely polluted and some physicochemical parameters are not in accordance with the regulations of the European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Parameters analysed are: pH, CW, NTU, DO, COD, BOD5, A-HCl, HCO3, GH, CS, Cl–, Cl2, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO2–, NO3–, PO43–, and NH3–. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Grad Gjilan (42˚28’08”, V 21˚27’48” L) jedan je od sedam najvećih gradova na Kosovu. Kroz njega prolaze tri rijeke: Mirusha i Stanishor koje se miješaju i ulijevaju u najveću rijeku Moravu. Razlog za istraživanje tih rijeka je njihovo onečišćenje nastalo ispuštanjem industrijskih voda. Analiza tih rijeka pokazuje izrazito onečišćenje te neusklađenost nekih fizikalno-kemijskih parametara s propisima Europske unije (EU) i Svjetske zdravstvene organizacije (SZO). Analizirani su sljedeći parametri: pH, CW, NTU, DO, COD, BOD5, A-HCl, HCO3, GH, CS, Cl–, Cl2, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO2–, NO3–, PO43– i NH3–. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yun-Fei Long; Xiao-Yan Lv; Yi-Ju Lv; Yogn-Ni Li; Jing Su; Yanxuan Wen;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers/HDKI

    Manganese is widely used in many fields. Many efforts have been made to recover manganese from low-grade pyrolusite due to the depletion of high-grade manganese ore. Thus, it is of practical significance to develop a clean, energy-saving and environmentally friendly technical route to reduce the low-grade pyrolusite. The reported results show that biomass wastes from crops, crop waste, wood and wood waste are environmentally friendly, energy-saving, and low-cost reducing agents for roasting reduction of low-grade pyrolusite. Kinetics of the reduction reactions is necessary for an efficient design of biomass reduction of pyrolusite. Therefore, it is important to look for a general kinetics equation to describe the reduction of pyrolusite by different kinds of biomass, because there is a wide variety of biomass wastes, meaning that it is impossible to investigate the kinetics for each biomass waste. In this paper, thermal gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were applied to study the overall reduction kinetics of pyrolusite using a mixture of hemicellulose and lignin, two major components of biomass. Overall reduction process is the overlap of the respective reduction processes. A new empirical equation based on the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami equation can be used to describe the respective reduction kinetics using hemicellulose and lignin as reductants, and the corresponding apparent activation energy is 30.14 kJ mol−1 and 38.91 kJ mol−1, respectively. The overall kinetic model for the reduction of pyrolusite by the mixture of hemicellulose and lignin can be simulated by the summation of the respective kinetics by considering their mass-loss fractions, while a unit step function was used to avoid the invalid conversion data. The obtained results in this work are necessary to understand the biomass reduction of pyrolusite and provide valuable assistance in the development of a general kinetics equation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shulan Yu; Jialin Peng; Xinwen Zhang; Guoguang Wang;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers

    It is of great challenge and significance to recycle activated carbon (AC), yet still with various problems in operation. Here, we have performed a simulation on the regeneration of AC by using an indirect heating method with an unsteady cylindrical heat transfer model. The result has shown that the optimal parameters for a regeneration tube of outer diameter Φ = 108 with wall thickness 4 mm were: heating in the tube for 30 min at a surrounding temperature of 550 °C. In these conditions, a temperature of 417.5 °C could be obtained at the centre of the cylindrical tube, reaching the temperature required for AC regeneration. The experimental values obtained in our laboratory were consistent with the simulation, providing significant references for scaling up pilot plant of AC regeneration.

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marina Šekutor; Kata Mlinarić-Majerski;
    Country: Croatia

    Biološka aktivnost različitih adamantanskih derivata i njihova primjena opisane su u brojnim preglednim člancima. Isto tako, mnogi revijalni članci opisuju biološku aktivnost i primjenu gvanidinskih spojeva. Međutim, do sada nije načinjen pregled koji bi se bavio gvanidinskim derivatima adamantana i drugih policikla, tj. spojevima koji sadrže obje navedene podjedinice u istoj molekuli. U ovom radu bit će stoga dan pregled policikličkih derivata gvanidina, i to s naglaskom na njihovu primjenu kao potencijalnih farmakofora.

  • Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Vlado Merzel; Sanja Lučić Blagojević; Zrinka Buhin Šturlić; Mario Meheš; Mirela Leskovac;
    Country: Croatia

    In this paper, the influence of flame treatment on the surface properties of polypropylene (PP) and thermoplastic polyolefins with talc and carbon black filler (TPO), and adhesion of the applied coating in the conditions of industrial robotic dyeing process were investigated. The flame treatment was carried out at two distances from the flame (7.5 cm and 12.5 cm) at constant air and methane flows as well as speed of the burner. The thermal stability of untreated samples was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The change in thermal properties before and after flame treatment was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Changes of the samples’ surface energy were examined before flame treatment, 1 h and 24 h after flame treatment, by the contact angle method. Qualitative analysis of the surface chemical composition, before and after flame treatment, was performed by ATR – FTIR analysis, and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After applying the base layer, dye and topcoat on the surface of the treated samples, the adhesion was determined by standard methods ISO 2409 and ISO 16925/D25 2018-B. The results showed that TPO containing talc and carbon black filler have better thermal stability compared to PP. Flame treatment influenced the surface characteristics of the samples, namely the increase in surface free energy and the appearance/structure of the surface. With ATR – FTIR, the existence of polar groups on the surface after flame treatment were determined. According to the standards, all dyed samples met the requirements of excellent adhesion on the substrate/coating interface. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. U ovom radu istražen je utjecaj obrade plamenom polipropilena (PP) i termoplastičnih poliolefina s talkom i čađom (TPO) na površinska svojstva i adheziju nanesenog premaza u uvjetima industrijskog procesa robotskog bojenja. Obrada plamenom provedena je na dvije udaljenosti plamena od površine (7,5 cm i 12,5 cm) pri konstantnom protoku zraka i metana te brzini kretanja plamenika. Toplinska postojanost netretiranih uzoraka ispitana je primjenom termogravimetrijske analize (TGA). Promjena toplinskih svojstava prije i nakon obrade plamenom praćena je primjenom diferencijalne pretražne kalorimetrije (DSC). Metodom kontaktnog kuta određena je površinska energija uzoraka prije obrade plamenom te 1 h i 24 h nakon obrade plamenom. Promjene uzrokovane obradom plamenom istražene su ATR – FTIR analizom, a morfološke promjene pretražnim elektronskim mikroskopom (SEM). Nakon nanošenja temeljnog sloja, sloja boje i sloja laka na površinu obrađenih uzoraka određena je adhezija standardnim metodama ISO 2409 i ISO 16925/D25 2018-B. Rezultati su pokazali da TPO uzorci koji sadrže punilo talk i čađu imaju bolju toplinsku postojanost u odnosu na PP. Obrada plamenom utječe na promjenu površinskih karakteristika uzoraka, povećanje slobodne površinske energije i na izgled/strukturu površine. ATR – FTIR analizom utvrđeno je postojanje polarnih skupina na površini nakon obrade plamenom. Svi obojeni uzorci prema zahtjevima normi zadovoljavaju uvjete izvrsne adhezije na međupovršini supstrat/premaz. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2019
    Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Marica Ivanković; Leonard Bauer; Antonia Ressler; Anamarija Rogina; Maja Antunović; Hrvoje Ivanković;
    Country: Croatia

    Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is a fast growing field focused on the development of bioactive 3D porous scaffolds as temporary extracellular matrixes that support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and stimulate bone tissue formation in vivo. Over more than ten years, our group has been devoted to developing new biomaterials and methods to prepare 3D porous scaffolds for BTE applications. The potential of natural porous structures such as marine skeletons, composite materials, and hydrogels based on biodegradable polymers and bioresorbable hydroxyapatite ceramics have been studied. In this paper, an overview of our research and main achievements, published in international scientific publications, is provided. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Inženjerstvo koštanog tkiva brzorastuće je polje istraživanja usmjereno na razvoj bioaktivnih 3D poroznih nosača, kao privremenih izvanstaničnih matrica, koji podržavaju prianjanje, umnažanje i diferencijaciju stanica te potiču stvaranje koštanog tkiva in vivo. Više od deset godina istraživanja naše grupe posvećena su razvoju novih materijala i postupaka za pripravu 3D poroznih nosača za inženjerstvo koštanog tkiva. Kao mogući nosači istraživani su porozni skeleti morskih organizama te kompozitni materijali i hidrogelovi na temelju biorazgradljivih polimera i bioresorbirajuće hidroksiapatitne keramike. U ovom radu dan je prikaz naših istraživanja i glavnih postignuća, objavljenih u međunarodnim znanstvenim publikacijama. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nenad Raos;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers

    Rad se bavi razvojem pojma elementa od antičkih vremena (Empedoklo, Aristotel) preko razdoblja alkemije i rane kemije (Paracelsus, Petar Bono, Boyle) te početaka moderne kemije (Lavoisier, Mendeljejev) do suvremenih shvaćanja utemeljenih na atomskoj teoriji. Pokazuje se da pojam elementa ima dva značenja, elementarne (jednostavne) tvari i elementa u užem smislu; dok se prvi pojam razvijao prateći napredak metoda kemijske analize, za razumijevanje drugog pojma, pojma elementa, bilo je nužno steći dublji uvid u narav kemijskih promjena.

  • Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    Nikolina Mrkonjić; Gordana Martinko; Emi Govorčin Bajsić; Igor Slivac; Vedrana Špada; Tamara Holjevac Grgurić;
    Country: Croatia

    Polilaktidna kiselina (PLA) i bakterijska nanoceluloza (BNC) zbog svoje biorazgradljivosti, biokompatibilnosti i netoksičnosti imaju velik potencijal za primjenu u biomedicini. Cilj ovog rada bio je pripraviti i ispitati biokompozit PLA/BNC. Istražen je utjecaj BNC-a na morfološku strukturu, kemijski sastav, toplinska svojstva, toplinsku postojanost i hidrofobnost PLA te zasijavanje i rast stanica biokompozita PLA/BNC primjenom pretražnog elektronskog mikroskopa (SEM), infracrvene spektroskopije (FTIR), diferencijalne pretražne kalorimetrije (DSC) i termogravimetrijske analize (TGA) te određivanjem kontaktnog kuta i metodom MTT. Dodatkom BNC-a u PLA dolazi do pomaka staklišta (Tg) prema nižim temperaturama, što ukazuje na veću pokretljivost amorfne faze PLA te porasta stupnja kristalnosti zbog nukleacijskog učinka celuloze. Početak toplinske razgradnje pomaknut je na niže temperature u odnosu na čisti PLA, što ukazuje na smanjenje toplinske postojanosti PLA dodatkom BNC-a. Biokompozit PLA/BNC pokazuje poroznu, vlaknastu strukturu. Test zasijavanja stanica pokazao je da je biokompozit PLA/BNC pogodan za prihvaćanje i rast humanih stanica, pa je prema tome potencijalno primjenjiv u regenerativnoj medicini i tkivnom inženjerstvu. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna. Polylactic acid (PLA) and bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) are promising materials in medicine due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize the PLA/BNC biocomposite. Morphology, chemical composition, thermal properties, thermal stability, hydrophobicity and cell seeding, and growth of the PLA/BNC biocomposite were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle, and MTT method. DSC showed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA decreased with the addition of BNC due to higher mobility of amorphous PLA phase. The degree of crystallinity increased due to nucleation effect of cellulose. With the addition of BNC, the thermal stability of biocomposite decreased. The PLA/BNC biocomposite exhibited a porous, fibrous structure. The cell seeding test showed the PLA/BNC biocomposite to be suitable for growth of human cells, and therefore, potentially applicable in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Molčanov, Krešimir; Institut Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička 54, HR-10 000 Zagreb;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers
    Country: Croatia

    Radikale, kemijske vrste s nesparenim elektronima, obično se smatra vrlo nestablinima, tako da ih se može pri - praviti samo pod posebnim uvjetima i proučavati samo pomoću posebnih, vrlo skupih, instrumenata. Također ih se smatra štetnima te neprimjerenima za pokuse u školi. Ipak, radikali imaju ključnu ulogu u biološkim susta - vima. Zahvaljujući nesparenim elektronima, obično su živo obojani, tako da se njihovo nastajanje često može opaziti golim okom. Ovdje je opisano nekoliko jednostavnih reakcijâ s biološki najvažnijim radikalom, semikinonom. Lako ih je izvesti u školskom laboratoriju uporabom male količine jeftinih i bezopasnih tvari. Jednostavnim promatranjem tih reakcijâ dade se naučiti mnogo toga o kemiji (slob odnih) radikala

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2015
    Open Access Croatian
    Authors: 
    M. Šekutor; K. Mlinarić-Majerski;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers
    Country: Croatia

    Biological activity of different adamantane derivatives and their application has been described in various reviews. Similarly, many reviews deal with biological activity and application of guanidine compounds. However, up to now no review has been made concerning the guanidine derivatives of adamantane and other polycycles, compounds which incorporate both of these moieties in the same molecule. Therefore, a literature survey of polycyclic guanidine derivatives is here provided and their application as potential pharmacophores stressed. Biološka aktivnost različitih adamantanskih derivata i njihova primjena opisane su u brojnim preglednim člancima. Isto tako, mnogi revijalni članci opisuju biološku aktivnost i primjenu gvanidinskih spojeva. Međutim do sada nije načinjen pregled koji bi se bavio gvanidinskim derivatima adamantana i drugih policikla, tj. spojevima koji sadrže obje navedene podjedinice u istoj molekuli. U ovom radu bit će stoga dan pregled policikličkih derivata gvanidina, i to s naglaskom na njihovu primjenu kao potencijalnih farmakofora.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valdrin Beluli;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers
    Country: Croatia

    Gjilan (42˚28’08” V, 21˚27’48” L) is one of the seven largest cities in Kosovo. Throughout the city flow three rivers: Mirusha and Stanishor which mix and discharge into the largest river called Morava. The reason for the research of these rivers is the extreme pollution resulting from the discharge of industrial waters. Analysis of these rivers shows that they are extremely polluted and some physicochemical parameters are not in accordance with the regulations of the European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Parameters analysed are: pH, CW, NTU, DO, COD, BOD5, A-HCl, HCO3, GH, CS, Cl–, Cl2, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO2–, NO3–, PO43–, and NH3–. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Grad Gjilan (42˚28’08”, V 21˚27’48” L) jedan je od sedam najvećih gradova na Kosovu. Kroz njega prolaze tri rijeke: Mirusha i Stanishor koje se miješaju i ulijevaju u najveću rijeku Moravu. Razlog za istraživanje tih rijeka je njihovo onečišćenje nastalo ispuštanjem industrijskih voda. Analiza tih rijeka pokazuje izrazito onečišćenje te neusklađenost nekih fizikalno-kemijskih parametara s propisima Europske unije (EU) i Svjetske zdravstvene organizacije (SZO). Analizirani su sljedeći parametri: pH, CW, NTU, DO, COD, BOD5, A-HCl, HCO3, GH, CS, Cl–, Cl2, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO2–, NO3–, PO43– i NH3–. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yun-Fei Long; Xiao-Yan Lv; Yi-Ju Lv; Yogn-Ni Li; Jing Su; Yanxuan Wen;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers/HDKI

    Manganese is widely used in many fields. Many efforts have been made to recover manganese from low-grade pyrolusite due to the depletion of high-grade manganese ore. Thus, it is of practical significance to develop a clean, energy-saving and environmentally friendly technical route to reduce the low-grade pyrolusite. The reported results show that biomass wastes from crops, crop waste, wood and wood waste are environmentally friendly, energy-saving, and low-cost reducing agents for roasting reduction of low-grade pyrolusite. Kinetics of the reduction reactions is necessary for an efficient design of biomass reduction of pyrolusite. Therefore, it is important to look for a general kinetics equation to describe the reduction of pyrolusite by different kinds of biomass, because there is a wide variety of biomass wastes, meaning that it is impossible to investigate the kinetics for each biomass waste. In this paper, thermal gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were applied to study the overall reduction kinetics of pyrolusite using a mixture of hemicellulose and lignin, two major components of biomass. Overall reduction process is the overlap of the respective reduction processes. A new empirical equation based on the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami equation can be used to describe the respective reduction kinetics using hemicellulose and lignin as reductants, and the corresponding apparent activation energy is 30.14 kJ mol−1 and 38.91 kJ mol−1, respectively. The overall kinetic model for the reduction of pyrolusite by the mixture of hemicellulose and lignin can be simulated by the summation of the respective kinetics by considering their mass-loss fractions, while a unit step function was used to avoid the invalid conversion data. The obtained results in this work are necessary to understand the biomass reduction of pyrolusite and provide valuable assistance in the development of a general kinetics equation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shulan Yu; Jialin Peng; Xinwen Zhang; Guoguang Wang;
    Publisher: Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers

    It is of great challenge and significance to recycle activated carbon (AC), yet still with various problems in operation. Here, we have performed a simulation on the regeneration of AC by using an indirect heating method with an unsteady cylindrical heat transfer model. The result has shown that the optimal parameters for a regeneration tube of outer diameter Φ = 108 with wall thickness 4 mm were: heating in the tube for 30 min at a surrounding temperature of 550 °C. In these conditions, a temperature of 417.5 °C could be obtained at the centre of the cylindrical tube, reaching the temperature required for AC regeneration. The experimental values obtained in our laboratory were consistent with the simulation, providing significant references for scaling up pilot plant of AC regeneration.

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