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  • English
    Authors: 
    Asheim, Geir,; Kamaga, Kohei; Zuber, Stéphane;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | FAIR-CLIMPOP (ANR-16-CE03-0001)

    URL des Documents de travail : https://centredeconomiesorbonne.cnrs.fr; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2020.27 - ISSN : 1955-611X; It has been claimed that climate policies can be evaluated by the Pareto principle. However, climate policies lead to different identities and different numbers of future people. Even if one assumes that the number of future people is countably infinite independently of policy choice, the problem is that there exists no natural one-to-one correspondence between the components of the compared alternatives. This non-existence means that the components of streams are indexed by natural numbers that do not correspond to particular people, making a case for impartiakity in the sense of Strong anonymity. Strong anonymity is incompatible with Strong Pareto. The paper re-examines this incompatibility and investigates how far sensitivity for the well-being at any one component can be extended without contradicting Strong anonymity. We show that Strong anonymity combined with four rather innocent axioms has two consequences: (i) There can be sensitivity for the well-being at a particular component of the stream if and only if a finite set of people have higher well-beings, and (ii) adding people to the population cannot have positive social value.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kissel, Catherine;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: ANR | PICC (ANR-05-BLAN-0312), EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908)

    Magnetic properties coupled with sortable silt are investigated for Holocene marine sedimentary sequences located in the subpolar North Altantic, in the Charlie– Gibbs fracture zone (53°N) and in central (57°N) and southern Gardar drift (59°N). All the cores are located at water depths bathed by the Iceland–Scotland Overflow Water, mixed at the southernmost locality with southern sourced water masses. The goal of the multi-proxy study is the changes in the dynamics and the properties of bottom water mass during Holocene. After checking that the magnetic minerals is magnetite of uniform grain size, the low field magnetic susceptibility is used as a magnetic concentration parameter and as a tracer of the transport efficiency by the bottom current from the northern basaltic-derived source. The mean sortable silt size is used as a tracer of bottom current strength whatever the detrital source.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Waelbroeck, Claire; Pichat, Sylvain; Böhm, Evelyn; Lougheed, Bryan C.; Faranda, Davide; Vrac, Mathieu; Missiaen, Lise; Vazquez Riveiros, Natalia; Burckel, Pierre; Lippold, Jörg; +4 more
    Project: ANR | RETRO (ANR-09-BLAN-0347), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108)

    Thanks to its optimal location on the northern Brazilian margin, core MD09-3257 records both ocean circulation and atmospheric changes. The latter occur locally in the form of increased rainfall on the adjacent continent during the cold intervals recorded in Greenland ice and northern North Atlantic sediment cores (i.e., Greenland stadials). These rainfall events are recorded in MD09-3257 as peaks in ln(Ti ∕ Ca). New sedimentary Pa ∕ Th data indicate that mid-depth western equatorial water mass transport decreased during all of the Greenland stadials of the last 40 kyr. Using cross-wavelet transforms and spectrogram analysis, we assess the relative phase between the MD09-3257 sedimentary Pa ∕ Th and ln(Ti ∕ Ca) signals. We show that decreased water mass transport between a depth of ∼1300 and 2300 m in the western equatorial Atlantic preceded increased rainfall over the adjacent continent by 120 to 400 yr at Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) frequencies, and by 280 to 980 yr at Heinrich-like frequencies. We suggest that the large lead of ocean circulation changes with respect to changes in tropical South American precipitation at Heinrich-like frequencies is related to the effect of a positive feedback involving iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. In contrast, the absence of widespread ice rafted detrital layers in North Atlantic cores during D–O stadials supports the hypothesis that a feedback such as this was not triggered in the case of D–O stadials, with circulation slowdowns and subsequent changes remaining more limited during D–O stadials than Heinrich stadials.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2019
    English
    Authors: 
    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Ponchard, Clara; yu, shi; Trouville, Roland;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | EFL (ANR-10-LABX-0083)

    Base de données aérodynamique; Acoustic signal of speech sounds is underlain by aerodynamic principles. The Aerodynamics of speech contributes to the mechanistic explanations of speech production. This database was designed during an ARC project ”Dynamique des syste`mes phonologiques” in which the study of aerodynamic constraints on speech was an important target. Data were recorded between 1996 and 1999 at the Erasmus Hospital (Hôpital Erasme) of Université Libre de Bruxelles. The goal was to obtain a substantial amount of data with simultaneous recording, in various context, of the speech acoustic signal, subglottal pressure (Ps), intraoral pressure (Po), oral airflow (Qo) and nasal airflow (Qn). This database contains recordings of 2 English, 1 Amharic, and 7 French speakers and is provided with data conversion and visualisation tools. Another aim of this project was to obtain some reference values of the aerodynamics of speech production for female and male speakers uttering different types of segments and sentences in French.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ye, Y.; Wagener, T.; Völker, C.; Guieu, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.;
    Project: EC | DAPOP (236694), ANR | DUNE (ANR-07-BLAN-0126)

    A significant decrease of dissolved iron (DFe) concentration has been observed after dust addition into mesocosms during the DUst experiment in a low Nutrient low chlorophyll Ecosystem (DUNE), carried out in the summer of 2008. Due to low biological productivity at the experiment site, biological consumption of iron can not explain the magnitude of DFe decrease. To understand processes regulating the observed DFe variation, we simulated the experiment using a one-dimensional model of the Fe biogeochemical cycle, coupled with a simple ecosystem model. Different size classes of particles and particle aggregation are taken into account to describe the particle dynamics. DFe concentration is regulated in the model by dissolution from dust particles and adsorption onto particle surfaces, biological uptake, and photochemical mobilisation of particulate iron. The model reproduces the observed DFe decrease after dust addition well. This is essentially explained by particle adsorption and particle aggregation that produces a high export within the first 24 h. The estimated particle adsorption rates range between the measured adsorption rates of soluble iron and those of colloidal iron, indicating both processes controlling the DFe removal during the experiment. A dissolution timescale of 3 days is used in the model, instead of an instantaneous dissolution, underlining the importance of dissolution kinetics on the short-term impact of dust deposition on seawater DFe. Sensitivity studies reveal that initial DFe concentration before dust addition was crucial for the net impact of dust addition on DFe during the DUNE experiment. Based on the balance between abiotic sinks and sources of DFe, a critical DFe concentration has been defined, above which dust deposition acts as a net sink of DFe, rather than a source. Taking into account the role of excess iron binding ligands and biotic processes, the critical DFe concentration might be applied to explain the short-term variability of DFe after natural dust deposition in various different ocean regions.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Friedt, Jean-Michel; Carry, Emile; Testault, O;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | EIPHI (ANR-17-EURE-0002), ANR | UNDERGROUND (ANR-17-CE24-0037)

    International audience; Les antennes de petites dimensions sont un sujet qui a toujours été à la mode auprès des ingénieurs désireux de faire rayonner un signal électromagnétique par un conducteur de dimensions aussi réduites que possible (penser “faire tenir une antenne dans un téléphone portable”). Le problème a été abordé très tôt, alors que les émissions sub-MHz donc avec des longueurs d’onde de plusieurs kilomètres étaient courantes [1]. Alors qu’il a été rapidement montré qu’il existe des limitations physiques aux performances de telles antennes qui ne sont déterminées que par le rayon de la sphère englobant l’antenne [2] – et en particulier sur le facteur de qualité de l’antenne qui est d’autant plus élevé que l’antenne est petite, réduisant ainsi sa bande passante – le sujet reste d’actualité dans un contexte de prolifération des objets communiquant par onde radiofréquence de plus en plus petits [3].

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    English
    Authors: 
    Dietrich, Franz; Jabarian, Brian;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ColAForm (ANR-16-FRAL-0010), ANR | CHOp (ANR-17-CE26-0003)

    URL des Documents de travail : https://centredeconomiesorbonne.cnrs.fr/publications/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2020.15R - ISSN : 1955-611XVersion originale Septembre 2019, révisée en Mars 2021; Maximising expected value is the classic doctrine in choice theory under empirical uncertainty, and a prominent proposal in the emerging philosophical literature on normative uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty about values. But how should Expectationalism be stated in general, when we can face both uncertainties simultaneously, as is common in life? Surprisingly, different possibilities arise, ranging from Ex-Ante to Ex-Post Expectationalism, with several hybrid versions. Expectationalism thus faces the classic dilemma between ex-ante and ex-post approaches. Different expectational theories reach diverging evaluations, use different modes of reasoning, and take different attitudes to risk; but they converge undre an interesting (necessary and sufficient) condition. We relate choice under normative uncertainty to choice by Harsany's impartial observer' and Rawls's person behind the 'veil of ignorance', who are uncertain about their own identity and values; and we relate Expectationalism under normative uncertainty to Harsanyi's linear approach to aggregating values of different individuals or identities.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Casati, Roberto; Ehess, D,;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | PSL (ANR-10-IDEX-0001), ANR | FrontCog (ANR-17-EURE-0017)

    We describe some instrument-based practices of navigation on the high seas, and we introducethe notion of instrumental negotiation and navigational shortcut. We assess the role of astronomicnavigation in second-to-second steering and in wayfinding. We detail a number of observations concerningtime, space representation, redundancy as a facilitator, and the modulation of social interactions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Metcalfe, Brett; Lougheed, Bryan C.; Waelbroeck, Claire; Roche, Didier M.;
    Project: ANR | L-IPSL (ANR-10-LABX-0018), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108)

    A complete understanding of past El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) fluctuations is important for the future predictions of regional climate using climate models. One approach to reconstructing past ENSO dynamics uses planktonic foraminifera as recorders of past climate to assess past spatio-temporal changes in upper ocean conditions. In this paper, we utilise a model of planktonic foraminifera populations, Foraminifera as Modelled Entities (FAME), to forward model the potential monthly average δ18Oc and temperature signal proxy values for Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei from input variables covering the period of the instrumental record. We test whether the modelled foraminifera population δ18Oc and Tc associated with El Niño events statistically differ from the values associated with other climate states. Provided the assumptions of the model are correct, our results indicate that the values of El Niño events can be differentiated from other climate states using these species. Our model computes the proxy values of foraminifera in the water, suggesting that, in theory, water locations for a large portion of the tropical Pacific should be suitable for differentiating El Niño events from other climate states. However, in practice it may not be possible to differentiate climate states in the sediment record. Specifically, comparison of our model results with the sedimentological features of the Pacific Ocean shows that a large portion of the hydrographically/ecologically suitable water regions coincide with low sediment accumulation rate at the sea floor and/or of sea floor that lie below threshold water depths for calcite preservation.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Boyer, Pierre,; Gerschel, Elie; Raj, Anasuya;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | IPS (ANR-11-IDEX-0003)

    Summary:The European economic union is incomplete, which makes it vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks. The opportunity to move forward in the integration process was highly debated even before the Covid-19 crisis.Yet the diverging views among countries and political groups are often considered as an obstacle on the path to required agreements for completing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). We present the results of a survey conducted in 2018 among members of national parliaments (MPs) in France, Germany and Italy on European integration in policy fields related to risk-sharing and budgetary institutions, asking for their opinion on proposals such as the creation of a European Unemployment Insurance (EUI), Eurobonds, or an EU tax. We find that nationality and political groups are key determinants of support for such proposals, the latter being the strongest. We describe how opinions are divided and try to identify policy proposals which could gather enough political support. The agreement reached on July 21st, 2020 at the last European summit includes financial transfers between States and the creation of Eurobonds, thus representing an important institutional move and an application of some of the reforms suggested by our survey. Yet what has been decided upon is only temporary and leaves open the question of the future of European integration.Key points: At first glance, the answers show diverging opinions on most questions between countries with Italy supporting more integration, and Germany opposing it for most proposals. France has an intermediate position, leaning towards Italy. A breakdown of the results by party affiliation shows a more nuanced picture. For cross-country comparisons, we build a party indicator using the affiliation of national parties to European political groups. National MPs associated with the group of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) at the European level show strong support for the creation of new fiscal institutions and a new EU tax, and for risk sharing institutions (European Unemployment Insurance, Eurobonds). On the contrary, MPs associated with the European People’s Party (EPP) are mildly positive or against risk-sharing and fiscal institutions. National MPs affiliated to Renew Europe hold similar views to S&D MPs, but are less supportive of risk-sharing mechanisms. There is a substantial diversity of positions between the German AfD, the Italian Lega and the 5-star movement: the three parties have diverging views on the future of integration. Our econometric analysis shows that party affiliations have more explanatory power than nationality for all questions. This clearly shows that outcomes of national parliamentary elections could change the overall support for any issue.; Summary:The European economic union is incomplete, which makes it vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks. The opportunity to move forward in the integration process was highly debated even before the Covid-19 crisis.Yet the diverging views among countries and political groups are often considered as an obstacle on the path to required agreements for completing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). We present the results of a survey conducted in 2018 among members of national parliaments (MPs) in France, Germany and Italy on European integration in policy fields related to risk-sharing and budgetary institutions, asking for their opinion on proposals such as the creation of a European Unemployment Insurance (EUI), Eurobonds, or an EU tax. We find that nationality and political groups are key determinants of support for such proposals, the latter being the strongest. We describe how opinions are divided and try to identify policy proposals which could gather enough political support. The agreement reached on July 21st, 2020 at the last European summit includes financial transfers between States and the creation of Eurobonds, thus representing an important institutional move and an application of some of the reforms suggested by our survey. Yet what has been decided upon is only temporary and leaves open the question of the future of European integration.Key points: At first glance, the answers show diverging opinions on most questions between countries with Italy supporting more integration, and Germany opposing it for most proposals. France has an intermediate position, leaning towards Italy. A breakdown of the results by party affiliation shows a more nuanced picture. For cross-country comparisons, we build a party indicator using the affiliation of national parties to European political groups. National MPs associated with the group of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) at the European level show strong support for the creation of new fiscal institutions and a new EU tax, and for risk sharing institutions (European Unemployment Insurance, Eurobonds). On the contrary, MPs associated with the European People’s Party (EPP) are mildly positive or against risk-sharing and fiscal institutions. National MPs affiliated to Renew Europe hold similar views to S&D MPs, but are less supportive of risk-sharing mechanisms. There is a substantial diversity of positions between the German AfD, the Italian Lega and the 5-star movement: the three parties have diverging views on the future of integration. Our econometric analysis shows that party affiliations have more explanatory power than nationality for all questions. This clearly shows that outcomes of national parliamentary elections could change the overall support for any issue.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
67 Research products, page 1 of 7
  • English
    Authors: 
    Asheim, Geir,; Kamaga, Kohei; Zuber, Stéphane;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | FAIR-CLIMPOP (ANR-16-CE03-0001)

    URL des Documents de travail : https://centredeconomiesorbonne.cnrs.fr; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2020.27 - ISSN : 1955-611X; It has been claimed that climate policies can be evaluated by the Pareto principle. However, climate policies lead to different identities and different numbers of future people. Even if one assumes that the number of future people is countably infinite independently of policy choice, the problem is that there exists no natural one-to-one correspondence between the components of the compared alternatives. This non-existence means that the components of streams are indexed by natural numbers that do not correspond to particular people, making a case for impartiakity in the sense of Strong anonymity. Strong anonymity is incompatible with Strong Pareto. The paper re-examines this incompatibility and investigates how far sensitivity for the well-being at any one component can be extended without contradicting Strong anonymity. We show that Strong anonymity combined with four rather innocent axioms has two consequences: (i) There can be sensitivity for the well-being at a particular component of the stream if and only if a finite set of people have higher well-beings, and (ii) adding people to the population cannot have positive social value.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kissel, Catherine;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: ANR | PICC (ANR-05-BLAN-0312), EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908)

    Magnetic properties coupled with sortable silt are investigated for Holocene marine sedimentary sequences located in the subpolar North Altantic, in the Charlie– Gibbs fracture zone (53°N) and in central (57°N) and southern Gardar drift (59°N). All the cores are located at water depths bathed by the Iceland–Scotland Overflow Water, mixed at the southernmost locality with southern sourced water masses. The goal of the multi-proxy study is the changes in the dynamics and the properties of bottom water mass during Holocene. After checking that the magnetic minerals is magnetite of uniform grain size, the low field magnetic susceptibility is used as a magnetic concentration parameter and as a tracer of the transport efficiency by the bottom current from the northern basaltic-derived source. The mean sortable silt size is used as a tracer of bottom current strength whatever the detrital source.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Waelbroeck, Claire; Pichat, Sylvain; Böhm, Evelyn; Lougheed, Bryan C.; Faranda, Davide; Vrac, Mathieu; Missiaen, Lise; Vazquez Riveiros, Natalia; Burckel, Pierre; Lippold, Jörg; +4 more
    Project: ANR | RETRO (ANR-09-BLAN-0347), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108)

    Thanks to its optimal location on the northern Brazilian margin, core MD09-3257 records both ocean circulation and atmospheric changes. The latter occur locally in the form of increased rainfall on the adjacent continent during the cold intervals recorded in Greenland ice and northern North Atlantic sediment cores (i.e., Greenland stadials). These rainfall events are recorded in MD09-3257 as peaks in ln(Ti ∕ Ca). New sedimentary Pa ∕ Th data indicate that mid-depth western equatorial water mass transport decreased during all of the Greenland stadials of the last 40 kyr. Using cross-wavelet transforms and spectrogram analysis, we assess the relative phase between the MD09-3257 sedimentary Pa ∕ Th and ln(Ti ∕ Ca) signals. We show that decreased water mass transport between a depth of ∼1300 and 2300 m in the western equatorial Atlantic preceded increased rainfall over the adjacent continent by 120 to 400 yr at Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) frequencies, and by 280 to 980 yr at Heinrich-like frequencies. We suggest that the large lead of ocean circulation changes with respect to changes in tropical South American precipitation at Heinrich-like frequencies is related to the effect of a positive feedback involving iceberg discharges in the North Atlantic. In contrast, the absence of widespread ice rafted detrital layers in North Atlantic cores during D–O stadials supports the hypothesis that a feedback such as this was not triggered in the case of D–O stadials, with circulation slowdowns and subsequent changes remaining more limited during D–O stadials than Heinrich stadials.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2019
    English
    Authors: 
    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Ponchard, Clara; yu, shi; Trouville, Roland;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | EFL (ANR-10-LABX-0083)

    Base de données aérodynamique; Acoustic signal of speech sounds is underlain by aerodynamic principles. The Aerodynamics of speech contributes to the mechanistic explanations of speech production. This database was designed during an ARC project ”Dynamique des syste`mes phonologiques” in which the study of aerodynamic constraints on speech was an important target. Data were recorded between 1996 and 1999 at the Erasmus Hospital (Hôpital Erasme) of Université Libre de Bruxelles. The goal was to obtain a substantial amount of data with simultaneous recording, in various context, of the speech acoustic signal, subglottal pressure (Ps), intraoral pressure (Po), oral airflow (Qo) and nasal airflow (Qn). This database contains recordings of 2 English, 1 Amharic, and 7 French speakers and is provided with data conversion and visualisation tools. Another aim of this project was to obtain some reference values of the aerodynamics of speech production for female and male speakers uttering different types of segments and sentences in French.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ye, Y.; Wagener, T.; Völker, C.; Guieu, C.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.;
    Project: EC | DAPOP (236694), ANR | DUNE (ANR-07-BLAN-0126)

    A significant decrease of dissolved iron (DFe) concentration has been observed after dust addition into mesocosms during the DUst experiment in a low Nutrient low chlorophyll Ecosystem (DUNE), carried out in the summer of 2008. Due to low biological productivity at the experiment site, biological consumption of iron can not explain the magnitude of DFe decrease. To understand processes regulating the observed DFe variation, we simulated the experiment using a one-dimensional model of the Fe biogeochemical cycle, coupled with a simple ecosystem model. Different size classes of particles and particle aggregation are taken into account to describe the particle dynamics. DFe concentration is regulated in the model by dissolution from dust particles and adsorption onto particle surfaces, biological uptake, and photochemical mobilisation of particulate iron. The model reproduces the observed DFe decrease after dust addition well. This is essentially explained by particle adsorption and particle aggregation that produces a high export within the first 24 h. The estimated particle adsorption rates range between the measured adsorption rates of soluble iron and those of colloidal iron, indicating both processes controlling the DFe removal during the experiment. A dissolution timescale of 3 days is used in the model, instead of an instantaneous dissolution, underlining the importance of dissolution kinetics on the short-term impact of dust deposition on seawater DFe. Sensitivity studies reveal that initial DFe concentration before dust addition was crucial for the net impact of dust addition on DFe during the DUNE experiment. Based on the balance between abiotic sinks and sources of DFe, a critical DFe concentration has been defined, above which dust deposition acts as a net sink of DFe, rather than a source. Taking into account the role of excess iron binding ligands and biotic processes, the critical DFe concentration might be applied to explain the short-term variability of DFe after natural dust deposition in various different ocean regions.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Friedt, Jean-Michel; Carry, Emile; Testault, O;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | EIPHI (ANR-17-EURE-0002), ANR | UNDERGROUND (ANR-17-CE24-0037)

    International audience; Les antennes de petites dimensions sont un sujet qui a toujours été à la mode auprès des ingénieurs désireux de faire rayonner un signal électromagnétique par un conducteur de dimensions aussi réduites que possible (penser “faire tenir une antenne dans un téléphone portable”). Le problème a été abordé très tôt, alors que les émissions sub-MHz donc avec des longueurs d’onde de plusieurs kilomètres étaient courantes [1]. Alors qu’il a été rapidement montré qu’il existe des limitations physiques aux performances de telles antennes qui ne sont déterminées que par le rayon de la sphère englobant l’antenne [2] – et en particulier sur le facteur de qualité de l’antenne qui est d’autant plus élevé que l’antenne est petite, réduisant ainsi sa bande passante – le sujet reste d’actualité dans un contexte de prolifération des objets communiquant par onde radiofréquence de plus en plus petits [3].

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    English
    Authors: 
    Dietrich, Franz; Jabarian, Brian;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ColAForm (ANR-16-FRAL-0010), ANR | CHOp (ANR-17-CE26-0003)

    URL des Documents de travail : https://centredeconomiesorbonne.cnrs.fr/publications/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2020.15R - ISSN : 1955-611XVersion originale Septembre 2019, révisée en Mars 2021; Maximising expected value is the classic doctrine in choice theory under empirical uncertainty, and a prominent proposal in the emerging philosophical literature on normative uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty about values. But how should Expectationalism be stated in general, when we can face both uncertainties simultaneously, as is common in life? Surprisingly, different possibilities arise, ranging from Ex-Ante to Ex-Post Expectationalism, with several hybrid versions. Expectationalism thus faces the classic dilemma between ex-ante and ex-post approaches. Different expectational theories reach diverging evaluations, use different modes of reasoning, and take different attitudes to risk; but they converge undre an interesting (necessary and sufficient) condition. We relate choice under normative uncertainty to choice by Harsany's impartial observer' and Rawls's person behind the 'veil of ignorance', who are uncertain about their own identity and values; and we relate Expectationalism under normative uncertainty to Harsanyi's linear approach to aggregating values of different individuals or identities.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Casati, Roberto; Ehess, D,;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | PSL (ANR-10-IDEX-0001), ANR | FrontCog (ANR-17-EURE-0017)

    We describe some instrument-based practices of navigation on the high seas, and we introducethe notion of instrumental negotiation and navigational shortcut. We assess the role of astronomicnavigation in second-to-second steering and in wayfinding. We detail a number of observations concerningtime, space representation, redundancy as a facilitator, and the modulation of social interactions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Metcalfe, Brett; Lougheed, Bryan C.; Waelbroeck, Claire; Roche, Didier M.;
    Project: ANR | L-IPSL (ANR-10-LABX-0018), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108)

    A complete understanding of past El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) fluctuations is important for the future predictions of regional climate using climate models. One approach to reconstructing past ENSO dynamics uses planktonic foraminifera as recorders of past climate to assess past spatio-temporal changes in upper ocean conditions. In this paper, we utilise a model of planktonic foraminifera populations, Foraminifera as Modelled Entities (FAME), to forward model the potential monthly average δ18Oc and temperature signal proxy values for Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei from input variables covering the period of the instrumental record. We test whether the modelled foraminifera population δ18Oc and Tc associated with El Niño events statistically differ from the values associated with other climate states. Provided the assumptions of the model are correct, our results indicate that the values of El Niño events can be differentiated from other climate states using these species. Our model computes the proxy values of foraminifera in the water, suggesting that, in theory, water locations for a large portion of the tropical Pacific should be suitable for differentiating El Niño events from other climate states. However, in practice it may not be possible to differentiate climate states in the sediment record. Specifically, comparison of our model results with the sedimentological features of the Pacific Ocean shows that a large portion of the hydrographically/ecologically suitable water regions coincide with low sediment accumulation rate at the sea floor and/or of sea floor that lie below threshold water depths for calcite preservation.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Boyer, Pierre,; Gerschel, Elie; Raj, Anasuya;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | IPS (ANR-11-IDEX-0003)

    Summary:The European economic union is incomplete, which makes it vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks. The opportunity to move forward in the integration process was highly debated even before the Covid-19 crisis.Yet the diverging views among countries and political groups are often considered as an obstacle on the path to required agreements for completing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). We present the results of a survey conducted in 2018 among members of national parliaments (MPs) in France, Germany and Italy on European integration in policy fields related to risk-sharing and budgetary institutions, asking for their opinion on proposals such as the creation of a European Unemployment Insurance (EUI), Eurobonds, or an EU tax. We find that nationality and political groups are key determinants of support for such proposals, the latter being the strongest. We describe how opinions are divided and try to identify policy proposals which could gather enough political support. The agreement reached on July 21st, 2020 at the last European summit includes financial transfers between States and the creation of Eurobonds, thus representing an important institutional move and an application of some of the reforms suggested by our survey. Yet what has been decided upon is only temporary and leaves open the question of the future of European integration.Key points: At first glance, the answers show diverging opinions on most questions between countries with Italy supporting more integration, and Germany opposing it for most proposals. France has an intermediate position, leaning towards Italy. A breakdown of the results by party affiliation shows a more nuanced picture. For cross-country comparisons, we build a party indicator using the affiliation of national parties to European political groups. National MPs associated with the group of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) at the European level show strong support for the creation of new fiscal institutions and a new EU tax, and for risk sharing institutions (European Unemployment Insurance, Eurobonds). On the contrary, MPs associated with the European People’s Party (EPP) are mildly positive or against risk-sharing and fiscal institutions. National MPs affiliated to Renew Europe hold similar views to S&D MPs, but are less supportive of risk-sharing mechanisms. There is a substantial diversity of positions between the German AfD, the Italian Lega and the 5-star movement: the three parties have diverging views on the future of integration. Our econometric analysis shows that party affiliations have more explanatory power than nationality for all questions. This clearly shows that outcomes of national parliamentary elections could change the overall support for any issue.; Summary:The European economic union is incomplete, which makes it vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks. The opportunity to move forward in the integration process was highly debated even before the Covid-19 crisis.Yet the diverging views among countries and political groups are often considered as an obstacle on the path to required agreements for completing the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). We present the results of a survey conducted in 2018 among members of national parliaments (MPs) in France, Germany and Italy on European integration in policy fields related to risk-sharing and budgetary institutions, asking for their opinion on proposals such as the creation of a European Unemployment Insurance (EUI), Eurobonds, or an EU tax. We find that nationality and political groups are key determinants of support for such proposals, the latter being the strongest. We describe how opinions are divided and try to identify policy proposals which could gather enough political support. The agreement reached on July 21st, 2020 at the last European summit includes financial transfers between States and the creation of Eurobonds, thus representing an important institutional move and an application of some of the reforms suggested by our survey. Yet what has been decided upon is only temporary and leaves open the question of the future of European integration.Key points: At first glance, the answers show diverging opinions on most questions between countries with Italy supporting more integration, and Germany opposing it for most proposals. France has an intermediate position, leaning towards Italy. A breakdown of the results by party affiliation shows a more nuanced picture. For cross-country comparisons, we build a party indicator using the affiliation of national parties to European political groups. National MPs associated with the group of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) at the European level show strong support for the creation of new fiscal institutions and a new EU tax, and for risk sharing institutions (European Unemployment Insurance, Eurobonds). On the contrary, MPs associated with the European People’s Party (EPP) are mildly positive or against risk-sharing and fiscal institutions. National MPs affiliated to Renew Europe hold similar views to S&D MPs, but are less supportive of risk-sharing mechanisms. There is a substantial diversity of positions between the German AfD, the Italian Lega and the 5-star movement: the three parties have diverging views on the future of integration. Our econometric analysis shows that party affiliations have more explanatory power than nationality for all questions. This clearly shows that outcomes of national parliamentary elections could change the overall support for any issue.

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