Straipsnyje apžvelgiama Dublino universiteto kolegijos Nacionalinio folkloro archyvo duomenų skaitmeninimo priešistorė, apibūdinama dabartinė padėtis ir brėžiamos būsimos šio proceso gairės (smulkesnę informaciją šiais klausimais galima rasti http://www.ucd.ie/ivrla/about.html). Be to, išsamiai aptariami kai kurie pastebėti šio darbo privalumai bei trūkumai, iškeliamos tam tikros etinės ir organizacinės problemos. Vis dėlto straipsnis baigiamas pozityvia gaida, pabrėžiant, kad kelias į ateitį veda skaitmeninio pasaulio link, nors juo žengti reikėtų labai atsargiai.
Problem-based learning (PBL) curricula utilise authentic problems that are based in the real-world of practice. This very characteristic enables students to develop an intimate knowledge about the intricacies of practice, metaphorically, seeing the details of the forest floor. However, it is equally important for students to develop an overall conceptual framework of the curriculum and understand how the different aspects of the subject domain relate to each other, i.e. seeing the landscape. This paper explores the extent to which these two aspects of curriculum design, in particular the landscape, were achieved in an 'Education Theories' module for lecturers in higher education. It utilises Hung's 3C3R problem-design model to help develop these connections. The findings alert curriculum designers to pay more focused attention to the holistic problem from Hung's model and the model's relationship with other learning resources (lectures, etc.) in supporting connectivity in PBL hybrid curricula.
This article theorises the state as central to the construction of racism in the Republic of Ireland, which, since the 1990s economic boom, has become an in-migration destination. State racism culminated in the 2004 Citizenship Referendum, in which, at a majority of four to one, the Irish electorate voted for the removal of birth right citizenship to children of migrants. Based on Goldberg?s theory of the racial state, which, in constructing homogeneity, obscures existing heterogeneities, and on Foucault?s theory of biopolitics, leading to the state supposedly caring for the population through a series of technologies aiming to regulate and manage racial diversities, the article examines recent developments in Ireland?s immigration and asylum policies. The debates around the Citizenship Referendum are theorized as constructing what Balibar terms `crisis racism?, blaming migrants for the problems of the system. PUBLISHED
This paper presents the work carried out to predict the behavior of a 0.6 m impulse turbine with fixed guide vanes with 0.6 hub to tip (H/T) ratio under real sea conditions.This enhances the earlier work done by authors on the subject by including the effects of damping applied by the turbine. Real wave data for different wave sites were used as the input data. A typical oscillating water column (OWC) geometry has been used for this simulation. Standard numerical techniques were employed to solve the non-linear behavior of the sea waves. Considering the quasi-steady assumption, uni-directional steady flow experimental data were used to simulate the turbine characteristics under irregular unsteady flow conditions. The test rotor used for this simulation consisted of 30 blades with elliptical profile with a set of symmetric, fixed guide vanes on both up-stream and down-stream sections of the rotor, with 26 vanes each. The results show that the performance of this type of turbine depends on the level of damping applied by the turbine and the prevailing wave site conditions. The objective of this paper is to predict the effects of applied damping on the behavior of impulse turbine under irregular, unsteady conditions for wave power conversion using numerical simulation.
The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol oxidation in vacuum packaged, cooked, refrigerated and frozen beef steaks, was investigated. Steers (Friesian×Charolais×Black Hereford) were fed diets providing 20 or 3000 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/head/day for 135 days prior to slaughter. α-Tocopherol concentrations in M. psoas major (PM) and M. longissimus dorsi (LD) were significantly (p<0.05) increased by supplementation and were significantly (p<0.05) higher in PM than LD. Cholesterol oxidation (monitored by measuring 7-ketocholesterol formation) increased during refrigerated and frozen storage in some, but not all, groups, and tended to be higher in PM than LD. Dietary vitamin E did not affect 7-ketocholesterol formation in LD, but significantly (p<0.05) reduced concentrations in PM during refrigerated and frozen storage. Supplementation significantly (p<0.05) reduced TBARS in PM and LD, indicating that vitamin E improved oxidative stability in both muscles. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation inhibits cholesterol oxidation in vacuum packaged, cooked beef during refrigerated and frozen storage, but may be influenced by muscle type.
Project: EC | HOTBRICKS (609758), NSF | Center for Nonlinear Anal... (0635983)
Explicit expressions for the minimum free energy of a linear viscoelastic material and Noll’s definition of state are used here to explore spatial energy decay estimates for viscoelastic bodies, in the full dynamical case and in the quasi-static approximation. In the inertial case, Chirita et al. obtained a certain spatial decay inequality for a space–time integral over a portion of the body and over a finite time interval of the total mechanical energy. This involves the work done on histories, which is not a function of state in general. Here it is shown that for free energies which are functions of state and obey a certain reasonable property, the spatial decay of the corresponding space–time integral is stronger than the one involving the work done on the past history. It turns out that the bound obtained is optimal for the minimal free energy. Two cases are discussed for the quasi-static approximation. The first case deals with general states, so that general histories belonging to the equivalence class of any given state can be considered. The continuity of the stress functional with respect to the norm based on the minimal free energy is proved, and the energy measure based on the minimal free energy turns out to obey the decay inequality derived Chirita et al. for the quasi-static case. The second case explores a crucial point for viscoelastic materials, namely that the response is influenced by the rate of application of loads. Quite surprisingly, the analysis of this phenomenon in the context of Saint-Venant principles has never been carried out explicitly before, even in the linear case. This effect is explored by considering states, the related histories of which are sinusoidal. The spatial decay parameter is shown to be frequency-dependent, i.e. it depends on the rate of load application, and it is proved that of those considered, the most conservative estimate of the frequency-dependent decay is associated with the minimal free energy. A comparison is made of the results for sinusoidal histories at low frequencies and general histories.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
PEGylated proteins are a mainstay of the biopharmaceutical industry. Although the use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to increase particle size, stability and solubility is well-established, questions remain as to the structure of PEG-protein conjugates. Here we report the structural characterization of a model β-sheet protein (plastocyanin, 11.5 kDa) modified with a single PEG 5,000. An NMR spectroscopy study of the PEGylated conjugate indicated that the protein and PEG behaved as independent domains. A crystal structure revealed an extraordinary double-helical assembly of the conjugate, with the helices arranged orthogonally to yield a highly porous architecture. Electron density was not observed for the PEG chain, which indicates that it was disordered. The volume available per PEG chain in the crystal was within 10% of the calculated random coil volume. Together, these data support a minimal interaction between the protein and the synthetic polymer. Our work provides new possibilities for understanding this important class of protein-polymer hybrids and suggests a novel approach to engineering protein assemblies.
During the last decade, public discourse on the “crisis of the health care system” in Quebec and Canada soared to the extent that the crisis has come to be seen by many Quebeckers and Canadians as an enduring feature of their health care sector. Based on analysis of articles from the Quebec written media, the article shows that the crisis discourse contributes to promote a market-like governance model of the health care sector and to foster the acceptance of market-oriented health care policies. Tijekom prošlog desetljeća, javni diskurs o „krizi zdravstvenog sustava” u Québecu i Kanadi narastao je do takvih razmjera da je u očima mnogih Kvebečana i Kanađana kriza postala trajna značajka sektora zdravstvene zaštite. Na temelju analize članaka iz kvebečkog tiska, članak pokazuje kako diskurs o krizi pridonosi promicanju tržišno orijentiranog modela upravljanja zdravstvenom zaštitom te potiče prihvaćanje tržišno orijentiranih politika u zdravstvu.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body temperature fluctuations, as measured by external auditory canal temperature, to the onset of estrus and ovulation. Beef heifers (n = 44, mean age 23.5 ± 0.4 months, mean weight 603.3 ± 5.7 kg) were fitted with a Boviminder® ear tag 2 weeks before the start of the estrous synchronization protocol to allow acclimatization. The device recorded the temperature, accurate to 0.01° Fahrenheit, every 10 min and transmitted the data via a base station over the internet where it could be accessed remotely. The estrous cycles of all heifers were synchronized using an 8-day progesterone-based synchronization program; on day 0 a PRID was inserted in conjunction with an injection of GnRH, and PGF2α was administered the day before PRID removal. Heifers were checked for signs of estrus at 4-h intervals (i.e., 6 times per day) commencing 24 h after PRID withdrawal. Beginning 12 h after the onset of estrus, the ovaries were ultrasound scanned at 4-h intervals to determine the time of ovulation. Body temperature was recorded every 10 min and averaged to hourly means for the following 4 periods relative to the detected oestrus onset (=Time 0): Period I: −48 h to −7 h, Period II: −6 h to +6 h, Period III +7 h to ovulation, and Period IV: ovulation to 48 h post ovulation. Data were analysed using a Mixed Model ANOVA in SAS in a completely randomized design to observe effects of induced estrus on external auditory canal temperature. The mean (±SD) interval from removal of the PRID to onset of estrus activity was 46.6 ± 14.7 h. The mean duration of estrus was 16.0 ± 5.67 h and the mean interval from estrus onset to ovulation was 27.9 ± 7.68 h. Highest temperatures (100.95 ± 0.03 °F) were observed in Period II around estrus onset, whereas lowest temperatures were observed in the 48 h preceding estrus onset (100.28 ± 0.03 °F; Period I) and around ovulation (100.30 ± 0.2 °F; Period III)(P .10) before (Period I) and after oestrus (Period III). In conclusion, a significant elevation in external auditory canal temperature was associated with estrus in beef heifers and was followed by a decline in temperature leading up to ovulation approximately 28 h later. Future studies are required to assess pregnancy rates following AI based on changes in external auditory canal temperature.
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Journals
ABSTRACT Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo . srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesized as cDNAs. Selective mutagenesis of the cDNA sequences and their putative targets suggests that the inhibition of BKV DNA replication is mediated by srRNAs binding to the viral NCCR, hindering early steps in the initiation of DNA replication. Ectopic expression of srRNAs in human cells inhibited BKV DNA replication in vivo . Additional srRNAs were designed and synthesized that specifically inhibit simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in vitro . These observations point to novel mechanisms for regulating DNA replication and suggest the design of synthetic agents for inhibiting replication of polyomaviruses and possibly other viruses.