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  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Bagger, Christoffer;
    Country: Denmark

    Denne ph.d.-afhandling består af en indledende rammetekst (”kappe”) og fem forskningsartikler. Emnet for denne afhandling er grænsen og skæringspunktet mellem arbejde og ikke-arbejde, det personlige og det professionelle. Fokus i denne afhandling er på sociale medier, og mere specifikt enterprise sociale medier (ESM). Det empiriske emne er det ESM’et Workplace fra Meta (førWorkplace fra Facebook). Det forskningsspørgsmål, der ligger til grund for denne afhandling, er, hvordan brugen og fortolkningen af virksomhedens sociale medier komplicerer grænsen mellem det personlige og det professionelle, eller arbejde og ikke-arbejde.”Kappen” består af en kort ouverture og fem kapitler. I ouverturen antyder jegafhandlingens temaer gennem analysen af en personlig anekdote. I det første egentlige kapitel introducerer jeg problemområdet (grænsen mellem arbejde og ikke-arbejde og den rolle medier har i at forme denne grænse), forskningscasen (Workplace from Meta) og forskningsspørgsmålene. I andet kapitel giver jeg et overblik over både arbejde og sociale medier som kontekster for sig selv. I samme kapitel skitserer jeg, hvordan den hidtil gensidige mangel på interesse mellem medievidenskab og studier af arbejdslivet efterlader virksomheders sociale medier i et mellemområde mellem discipliner. I det tredje kapitel skitserer jeg de forskningsmetoder, der ligger til grund for de empiriskeforskningsartikler i dette projekt. Denne metode er inspireret af mediereceptionsstudier og søger at forstå, hvordan et udvalg af empiriske brugere (n=28) fortolker og bruger Workplace from Meta gennem kvalitative interviews. I det fjerde kapitel af rammeteksten diskuterer jeg resultaterne af dette forskningsprojekt og fremhæver, hvordan Workplace from Meta indtager et mellemrum mellem arbejde og ikke-arbejde, idet det er et medie for den professionelle kontekst, som er stærkt afhængig af fortrolighed. med sociale medier fra det personlige liv. Jeg afslutter dette kapitel med at foreslå, hvordandette skal informere fremtidig forskning. I femte og sidste kapitel opsummerer jeg konklusionerne af det overordnede forskningsprojekt.I den første forskningsartikel, med titlen "Social Media and Work: A Framework of Eight Intersections" (udgivet i International Journal of Communication) præsenterer jeg en gennemgang af områder i den eksisterende forskning, hvor sociale medier og arbejde overlapper. Efter at have afgrænset de to begreber "sociale medier" og "arbejde", skitserer jeg 8 konceptualiseringer, derbeskriver forskellige typer af skæringspunkter mellem disse to domæner: (1) sociale medier før arbejde, (2) sociale medier i stedet for arbejde, (3) sociale medier til arbejdsformål, (4) sociale medier om arbejde, (5) sociale medier som arbejde, (6) sociale medier under arbejde, (7) arbejde for sociale medierog (8) sociale medier efter arbejde. Jeg fortsætter med at diskutere, hvordan disse forskellige konceptualiseringer kan give anledning til (empiriske) forskelle i, hvordan individer oplever sociale medier og arbejder, og hvordan de to temaer giver forskellige analytiske fokuspunkter. Jeg slutter af med en konklusion om, hvordan forskning bør sensibiliseres over for en verden af post-sociale medier.I den anden forskningsartikel, med titlen "Digital Disconnection Research in Review: What, How and Who?" (Sendt til fagfællebedømmelse), gennemgår jeg hvor modreaktionen mod digitale medier har manifesteret sig i hverdagens praksis med digital afkobling (”digital disconnection”) eller bevidst ikke-brug af medier. Denne artikel søger at skabe et overblik over det sidste årti afempirisk afbrydelsesforskning og spore både dens overordnede tendenser og dens grænser. Dette sker gennem en analyse af 346 empiriske undersøgelser om digital afkobling. I denne artikels formål er forskning om digital afkobling defineret af en forskningsetos, der ikke ser handlingen med ikke-brug afmedier eller begrænset mediebrug som noget, der skal afhjælpes. I gennemgangen har forskningens typiske interesse været at studere relativt unge og individualiserede agenters afbrydelse af sociale medier, en afkobling som ofte er midlertidig eller delvis. Derfor overvejer artiklens diskussionsdel muligheden for, at åbenheden i digitale afkoblingsstudier kan strække sig yderligere, med særlig vægt på strukturer og sammenhænge, hvor afbrydelse ikke kun kan problematiseres af imperativerne om "altid på" kommunikation, specifikt i arbejdslivet.I den tredje forskningsartikel, med titlen "Professional, Transmedia Selves: Finding a Place for Enterprise Social Media" (indsendt til fagfællebedømmelse), antager jeg et udvidet syn på transmedieteori for at argumentere for, hvordan enterprise sociale medier (ESM), og især Workplace from Meta, faciliterer en mulighed for digital selvpræsentation. Argumentet er, at almindelige brugerenu er castet i rollen som transmedieproducenter, som skal finde ud af, hvilket unikt bidrag ESM kan give. Kapitlet fortsætter derefter med at skitsere tre individuelle casestudier af, hvordan integrationen af ESM’et Workplace fra Facebook kan udvikle sig. De forskellige cases illustrerer, hvordan overvejelserom både selvpromovering, medborgerskab på arbejdspladsen eller brug af ESM's legende funktioner både kan tilskynde til brug og i sidste ende marginalisere mediet i arbejderens personlige transmedieøkologi.I den fjerde forskningsartikel, med titlen "Overcoming Forced Disconnection:Disentangling the Professional and the Personal in Pandemic Times" (udgivet i antologien Reckoning with Social Media, red. Aleena Chia, Ana Jorge og Tero Karppi), medforfattet med Stine Lomborg , vender jeg mig imod spørgsmålet om, hvilken rolle Workplace spiller, når arbejdspladsen forsvinder. Ved at analysere de interviews, der blev gennemført under det første højdepunkt af COVID-19 pandemien, undersøger vi, hvilken rolle Workplace menes at spille under de på det tidspunkt ekstraordinære omstændigheder, som nedlukningen medførte. Her tyder beviserne på, at Workplaces fatiske kommunikative muligheder var sekundære i forhold til mere "levende" kommunikationsformer.Derudover repræsenterede COVID-19-lockdowns et tydeligt eksempel på arbejde, der migrerede ind i domænet af de personlige, potentielt eroderende tidsmæssige, rumlige og sociale grænser undervejs. Under disse mstændigheder var Workplace ikke blot et medie, der var "vandret" fra det personlige tildet professionelle liv. Det professionelle liv var nu uundgåeligt kastet sig ind i det personlige. Ud over at give flere eksempler på forhandlingerne om, hvilken form for kommunikation Workplace skal fremme, illustrerer denne artikel også vanskeligheden ved at stole på dette medie for fællesskab på arbejdspladsen, især under omstændigheder, hvor arbejdslivet blev særligt afhængig af digitale medier. I den femte og sidste forskningsartikel med titlen " An organisational cultivation of digital resignation? Enterprise social media, privacy, and autonomy” (udgivet i Nordicom Review 42(s4)), diskuterer jeg, hvordan enterprise sociale medier (ESM) stort set er blevet ignoreret i diskussioner om dataficeringspraksisser på sociale medieplatforme. Jeg præsenterer et første skridt i retning af at udfyldedette forskningshul. Mit forskningsspørgsmål i denne artikel vedrører, hvordan medarbejdere i virksomheder, der bruger ESM’et Workplace fra Facebook, føler, at implementeringen af denne særlige platform relaterer sig til deres potentielle kampe for digitalt privatliv og segmentering af arbejdsliv. Metodisk udforsker jeg dette gennem en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af 21 danske vidensarbejdere i forskellige organisationer, der anvender Workplace from Meta. Artiklens centrale analytiske forslag er, at interviewpersonerne udtrykker en "digital resignation" over for implementeringen af ESM. I modsætning til tidligere diskussioner kan denne fratræden ikke kun opfattes som "virksomhedsdyrket"af tredjeparter, men skal også betragtes som "organisatorisk dyrket" af de organisationer, folk arbejder for. Undersøgelsen foreslår, at dataficerings-orienterede mediestudier bør overveje organisatoriske sammenhænge.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Bennedsen, Morten; Larsen, Birthe; Schmutte, Ian; Scur, Daniela;
    Country: Denmark

    We analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and government policies on firms' aid take-up, layoff and furlough decisions. We collect new survey data for 10,642 small, medium and large Danish firms, and match to government records of all aid-supported furloughed workers during the pandemic as well as administrative accounting data. This is the first representative sample of firms reporting the pandemic's impact on their revenue and labor choices, showing a steep decline in revenue and a strong reported effect of labor aid take-up on lower job separations. Relative to a normal year, 30 percent more firms have experienced revenue declines. Comparing firms' actual layoff and furlough decisions to their reported counterfactual decisions in the absence of aid, we estimate 81,000 fewer workers were laid off and 285,000 workers were furloughed. Our results suggest the aid policy was effective in preserving job matches at the start of the pandemic.

  • Restricted
    Authors: 
    Katharina Ó Cathaoir; Henriette Sinding Aasen; Hrefna D. Gunnarsdottir; Kaisa-Maria Kimmel; Mirva Lohiniva-Kerkelä; Ida Gundersby Rognlien; Lotta Vahlne Westerhäll;
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract We reflect on the extent to which Nordic countries have safeguarded the right to health of older persons during the pandemic in 2020. All Nordic states have ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and thereby committed to recognising the right to health. We use the AAAQ framework developed by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to draw attention to aspects of the respective states’ responses. The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impacts on the health of older persons, from the direct effects of the virus, such as illness and death, to indirect impacts, like isolation and loneliness. We find that Nordic states have at times failed to prioritise the full realisation of the core obligations of the right to health for older persons, namely, non-discrimination and provision of essential healthcare. Resource constraints cannot justify discrimination or failure to respect autonomy, integrity and human dignity.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Hedley, Paula L.; Hoffmann, Steen; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Bjerre, Karsten Dalsgaard; Hviid, Anders; Krebs, Lone; Jensen, Jørgen S.; Christiansen, Michael;
    Publisher: medRxiv
    Country: Denmark

    Objectives COVID-19 policies have been employed in Denmark since March 2020. We examined whether COVID-19 restrictions had an impact on Chlamydia trachomatis infections compared with 2018 and 2019.Methods This retrospective nation-wide Danish observational study was performed using monthly incidences of laboratory confirmed chlamydia cases and number of tests, obtained from nation-wide surveillance data. Additionally, Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker data, and Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports were used to contextualise the behavioural adaptions seen as a result of COVID-19 policies. Testing rates were compared using Poisson regression and test positivity rates were compared using logistic regression.Results The crude incidence rate (IR) of laboratory confirmed chlamydia infections was reduced to 66.5 per 105 during the first (March-April 2020) lockdown period as compared to 88.3 per 105 in March-April 2018-2019, but the testing rate was also reduced (Rate ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.71 – 0.73), whereas the odds ratio for a positive test between the two periods was 0.98 (95% CI 0.96 – 1.00). The period of eased COVID 19 restrictions (May – December 2020) and the second lockdown period (December 2020 – March 2021) were characterised by marginally increased crude IRs, while the number of tests performed, and test positivity rates returned very close to the levels seen in 2018-2019. These results were independent of sex, age group, and geographical location.Conclusion The first Danish COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a reduction in the number of chlamydia tests performed and a consequent reduction in the number of laboratory-identified cases. This period was followed by a return of testing and test positivity close to the level seen in 2018 – 2019. Altogether the Danish COVID-19 restrictions have had negligible effects on laboratory confirmed C. trachomatis transmission.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Junk, Wiebke Marie; Crepaz, Michele; Hanegraaff, Marcel; Berkhout, Joost; Aizenberg, Ellis;
    Country: Denmark

    The Interest Representation during the Coronavirus Crisis (InterCov) Project set out to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on interest representation and political advocacy.In this report, we summarise important descriptive patters in the data collected through a cross-country online survey, which we conducted in June and July 2020 in nine European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy, France) and at the EU level.In the report, we discuss initial findings on six questions that we expect to be of interest to both interest organisations and scholars alike:- Did Covid-19 change the involvement of interest organisations in decision-making and public debates?- For whom did access to policy discussions change under the spread of Covid-19?- Who faced mobilisation problems during the Covid-19 crisis?- How did lobbying intensity on different Coronavirus-related policy vary?- How do organisations perceive their impact on crisis management policies in Covid-19 times?- What potential insights we can use to develop sustainable advocacy and public affairs strategies in the near future?These findings were also communicated in a series of Zoom Events for survey respondents and other interested parties in October 2020.For more information, see: https://www.wiebkejunk.com/intercov-project

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Bluhm, Andreas; Christandl, Matthias; Gesmundo, Fulvio; Klausen, Frederik Ravn; Mancinska, Laura; Steffan, Vincent; Stilck França, Daniel; Werner, Albert H.;
    Country: Denmark

    Background: The Covid-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus started in China in December and has since spread globally. Many countries have instated measures to slow the spread of the virus. Information about the introduction of the virus to a country and its further spread can inform the gradual opening of a country and the avoidance of a second wave of infections. Denmark has seen first cases in late February and is currently opening up. Methods: Sequenced virus genome can be used to reconstruct transmission events. We perform a phylogenetic analysis of 742 publicly available Danish SARS-CoV-2 sequences and put them into context using sequences from other countries. Results:Our findings are consistent with several introductions of the virus to Denmark from independent sources, the majority from a ski area in Austria. We identify several chains of mutations that occurred in Denmark and in at least one case find evidence that it spread from Denmark to other countries. There is a number of the Danish mutations that are non-synonymous, and in general there is a considerable variety of strains circulating in Denmark.Conclusion:The introduction of the virus from the Austrian ski area happened after Iceland had declared this area high-risk, thereby giving an independent assessment of the effectiveness of the early identification of high-risk areas.The likely further spread of the virus from Denmark challenges the common narrative that Denmark only got infected from abroad, highlighting that Denmark was part of a network of countries among which the virus was being transmitted. Furthermore, our broad analysis of the mutations does not indicate that the virus underwent a systematic change in virulence in Denmark. We believe that the methods used can be a valuable tool to identifying and validating transmission chains during the reopening

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