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  • 2015-2024
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  • Frontiers in Neurology

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Deev, Roman V.; Bardakov, Sergei N.; Mavlikeev, Mikhail O.; Yakovlev, Ivan A.; +6 Authors

    Plectinopathies are orphan diseases caused by PLEC gene mutations. PLEC is encoding the protein plectin, playing a role in linking cytoskeleton components in various tissues. In this study, we describe the clinical case of a 26-year-old patient with an early onset plectinopathy variant “limb-girdle muscle dystrophy type 2Q,” report histopathological and ultrastructural findings in m. vastus lateralis biopsy and a novel homozygous likely pathogenic variant (NM_201378.3:c.58G>T, NP_958780.1:p.Glu20Ter) in isoform 1f of the gene PLEC. The patient had an early childhood onset with retarded physical development, moderate weakness in pelvic girdle muscles, progressive weakening of limb-girdle muscles after the age of 21, pronounced atrophy of axial muscles, and hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius, deltoid, and triceps muscles, intermittent dyspnea, and no skin involvement. Findings included: non-infectious bronchiolitis and atelectasis signs, biopsy revealed myodystrophal pattern without macrophage infiltration, muscle fiber cytoskeleton disorganization resulted from the plectin loss, incomplete reparative rhabdomyogenesis, and moderate endomysial fibrosis. We have determined a novel likely pathogenic variant in PLEC 1f isoform that causes limb-girdle muscle dystrophy type 2Q and described the third case concerning an isolated myodystrophic phenotype of LGMD2Q with the likely pathogenic variant in PLEC 1f isoform. In addition, we have demonstrated the presence of severe lung injury in a patient and his siblings with the same myodystrophic phenotype and discussed the possible role of plectin deficiency in its pathogenesis.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Background and Purpose: Hypertensive vasculopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are the two most common forms of cerebral small vessel disease. Both forms are associated with the development of primary intracerebral hemorrhage, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying spontaneous vessel rupture remain unknown. This work constitutes a systematic review on blood-brain barrier dysfunction in the etiology of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage due to cerebral small vessel disease.Methods: We searched Medline (1946-2018) and Embase (1974-2018) for animal and human studies reporting on blood-brain barrier dysfunction associated with intracerebral hemorrhage or cerebral microbleeds.Results: Of 26 eligible studies, 10 were animal studies and 16 were in humans. The authors found indications for blood-brain barrier dysfunction in all four animal studies addressing hypertensive vasculopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 32 hypertensive animals included in all four studies combined), and in four of six studies on cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 47). Of the studies in humans, five of six studies in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 117) and seven out of nine studies examining intracerebral hemorrhage with mixed or unspecified underlying etiology (n = 489) found indications for blood-brain barrier dysfunction. One post-mortem study in hypertensive vasculopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 82) found no evidence for blood-brain barrier abnormalities.Conclusions: Signs of blood-brain barrier dysfunction were found in 20 out of 26 studies. Blood-brain barrier integrity deserves further investigation with a view to identification of potential treatment targets for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Kiefer, Adam W.; Barber Foss, Kim; Reches, Amit; Gadd, Brooke; +5 Authors

    Children and adolescent athletes are at a higher risk for concussion than adults, and also experience longer recovery times and increased associated symptoms. It has also recently been demonstrated that multiple, seemingly mild concussions may result in exacerbated and prolonged neurological deficits. Objective assessments and return-to-play criteria are needed to reduce risk and morbidity associated with concussive events in these populations. Recent research has pushed to study the use of electroencephalography as an objective measure of brain injury. In the present case study, we present a novel approach that examines event-related potentials via a brain network activation (BNA) analysis as a biomarker of concussion and recovery. Specifically, changes in BNA scores, as indexed through this approach, offer a potential indicator of neurological health as the BNA assessment qualitatively and quantitatively indexes the network dynamics associated with brain injury. Objective tools, such as these support accurate and efficient assessment of brain injury and may offer a useful step in categorizing the temporal and spatial changes in brain activity following concussive blows, as well as the functional connectivity of brain networks, associated with concussion.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: van Stiphout, Lisa; Szmulewicz, David J.; Guinand, Nils; Fornos, Angelica Perez; +2 Authors

    Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) is characterized by its heterogeneous and chronic nature with various clinical presentations and multiple etiologies. This current narrative review reflects on the main insights and developments regarding clinical presentation. In addition, it proposes a new diagnostic algorithm, and describes available and potential future therapeutic modalities.

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    Authors: Claudio eLiguori; Mariangela ePierantozzi; Enrica eOlivola; Nicola B Mercuri; +1 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: DOAJ
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    Authors: Fassett, Hunter J.; Turco, Claudia V.; El-Sayes, Jenin; Lulic, Tea; +3 Authors

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is intended primarily to alter corticospinal excitability, creating an attractive opportunity to alter neural output following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This study is the first to assess the effects of iTBS in SCI. Eight individuals with chronic incomplete SCI were studied. Sham or real iTBS was delivered (to each participant) over primary motor and somatosensory cortices in separate sessions. Motor-evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves were obtained from the flexor carpi radialis muscle before and after iTBS. Results indicate similar responses for iTBS to both motor and somatosensory cortex and reduced MEPs in 56.25% and increased MEPs in 25% of instances. Sham stimulation exceeded real iTBS effects in the remaining 18.25%. It is our opinion that observing short-term neuroplasticity in corticospinal output in chronic SCI is an important advance and should be tested in future studies as an opportunity to improve function in this population. We emphasize the need to re-consider the importance of the direction of MEP change following a single session of iTBS since the relationship between MEP direction and motor function is unknown and multiple sessions of iTBS may yield very different directional results. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of including sham control in the experimental design. The fundamental point from this pilot research is that a single session of iTBS is often capable of creating short-term change in SCI. Future sham-controlled randomized trials may consider repeat iTBS sessions to promote long-term changes in corticospinal excitability.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Francisco eTorres; Esteban eVillalón; Patricio ePoblete; Rodrigo eMoraga Amaro; +4 Authors

    Objective To evaluate the safety and assess the different symptom improvements found after a combined low frequency primary motor cortex and high frequency prefrontal cortex stimulation using the deep TMS (dTMS) H-coil, as an add-on treatment for Parkinson´s disease (PD). Methods: 45 PD patients underwent 14 dTMS sessions; each consisting of 1Hz stimulation of the primary motor cortex for 15 min, followed by 10Hz stimulation of the prefrontal cortex for 15 min. Clinical assessments were performed, at the START, MIDDLE, and END of therapy as well as at FOLLOW-UP after 30 days, using MDS-UPDRS, TINETTI, UP&GO, SCOPA, HDRS21, BDI and self-applied daily motor assessment scales. Results: Treatment was well tolerated, without serious adverse effects. Treatment induced significant PD symptom improvements at END and at FOLLOW-UP, in all subscales of the UPDRS, gait speed, depressive symptoms, balance, autonomic symptoms and a 73% increase in daily ON time. Conclusions: In the cohort of PD patients treated, dTMS was well tolerated with only minor adverse effects. The dTMS induced significant improvements in motor, postural, and motivational symptoms of PD patients and may potentiate concurrent levodopa treatment. Significance: The present study demonstrates that dTMS may have a much wider spectrum of beneficial effects than previously reported for TMS, including enhancement of levodopa effects, suggesting that future clinical trials with dTMS should include a broader range of symptom measurements.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Rolim, Luiz Clemente; Koga da Silva, Edina M.; De Sá, João Roberto; Dib, Sérgio Atala;

    Background Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a serious, polymorphic, and prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus. Most PDN treatment guidelines recommend a selection of drugs based on patient comorbidities. Despite the large numbers of medications available, most randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted so far have yielded unsatisfactory outcomes. Therefore, treatment may require a personalized approach based on pain phenotype or comorbidities. Methods To evaluate whether or not a patient’s pain phenotype or comorbidities can influence the response to a specific PDN treatment, we conducted a systematic review using two different approaches: pain phenotype and associated comorbidities-based treatment. Results Out of 45 identified papers, 7 were thoroughly reviewed. We found four RCTs stratified according to pain phenotype with three main results: (1) paroxysmal pain had a better response to pregabalin; (2) the preservation of thermal sensation or nociception anticipated a positive response to the topical treatment of pain; and, (3) after a failure to duloxetine (60 mg/day), the patients with evoked pain or severe deep pain had a better response to association of duloxetine/pregabalin while those with paresthesia/dysesthesia benefited from duloxetine monotherapy (120 mg/day). By contrast, the other three papers provided weak and even contradictory evidence about PDN treatment based on comorbidities. Conclusion Although more studies are needed to provide an adequate recommendation for clinical practice, our systematic review has provided some evidence that PDN phenotyping may optimize clinical outcomes and could, in the future, lead to both less empirical medicine and more personalized pain therapeutics.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Büntjen, Lars; Hopf, Jens-Max; Merkel, Christian; Voges, Jürgen; +3 Authors

    Chronic pain is suggested to be linked to reorganization processes in the sensorimotor cortex. In the current study, the somatosensory representation of the extremities was investigated in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that initially occurred in the right hand and arm and spread later into the left hand and right leg. After the spread, magnetoencephalographic recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation revealed that the clinical symptoms were associated with major changes in the primary somatosensory representation. Tactile stimulation of body parts triggering CRPS-related pain elicited activity located in the left primary somatosensory region corresponding to the right hand representation, where the CRPS initially appeared. Solely the unaffected left foot was observed to have a regular S1 representation. The pain distribution pattern was matching the cortical somatosensory misrepresentation suggesting that cortical reorganization processes might contribute and possibly underlie the development and spread of the CRPS.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kevin Pendo; Christopher Michael DeGiorgio, MD;

    There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D is actively under investigation as a potential intervention for epilepsy. Vitamin D is fat soluble steroid which shows promise in animal models of epilepsy. Basic research has shed light on the possible mechanisms by which Vitamin D may reduce seizures, and animal data support the efficacy of Vitamin D in rat and mouse models of epilepsy. Very little clinical data exists to support the treatment of human epilepsy with Vitamin D, but positive findings from preliminary clinical trials warrant larger Phase I and II clinical trials in order to more rigorously determine the potential therapeutic value of Vitamin D as a treatment for human epilepsy.

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    Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Deev, Roman V.; Bardakov, Sergei N.; Mavlikeev, Mikhail O.; Yakovlev, Ivan A.; +6 Authors

    Plectinopathies are orphan diseases caused by PLEC gene mutations. PLEC is encoding the protein plectin, playing a role in linking cytoskeleton components in various tissues. In this study, we describe the clinical case of a 26-year-old patient with an early onset plectinopathy variant “limb-girdle muscle dystrophy type 2Q,” report histopathological and ultrastructural findings in m. vastus lateralis biopsy and a novel homozygous likely pathogenic variant (NM_201378.3:c.58G>T, NP_958780.1:p.Glu20Ter) in isoform 1f of the gene PLEC. The patient had an early childhood onset with retarded physical development, moderate weakness in pelvic girdle muscles, progressive weakening of limb-girdle muscles after the age of 21, pronounced atrophy of axial muscles, and hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius, deltoid, and triceps muscles, intermittent dyspnea, and no skin involvement. Findings included: non-infectious bronchiolitis and atelectasis signs, biopsy revealed myodystrophal pattern without macrophage infiltration, muscle fiber cytoskeleton disorganization resulted from the plectin loss, incomplete reparative rhabdomyogenesis, and moderate endomysial fibrosis. We have determined a novel likely pathogenic variant in PLEC 1f isoform that causes limb-girdle muscle dystrophy type 2Q and described the third case concerning an isolated myodystrophic phenotype of LGMD2Q with the likely pathogenic variant in PLEC 1f isoform. In addition, we have demonstrated the presence of severe lung injury in a patient and his siblings with the same myodystrophic phenotype and discussed the possible role of plectin deficiency in its pathogenesis.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Background and Purpose: Hypertensive vasculopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are the two most common forms of cerebral small vessel disease. Both forms are associated with the development of primary intracerebral hemorrhage, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying spontaneous vessel rupture remain unknown. This work constitutes a systematic review on blood-brain barrier dysfunction in the etiology of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage due to cerebral small vessel disease.Methods: We searched Medline (1946-2018) and Embase (1974-2018) for animal and human studies reporting on blood-brain barrier dysfunction associated with intracerebral hemorrhage or cerebral microbleeds.Results: Of 26 eligible studies, 10 were animal studies and 16 were in humans. The authors found indications for blood-brain barrier dysfunction in all four animal studies addressing hypertensive vasculopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 32 hypertensive animals included in all four studies combined), and in four of six studies on cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 47). Of the studies in humans, five of six studies in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 117) and seven out of nine studies examining intracerebral hemorrhage with mixed or unspecified underlying etiology (n = 489) found indications for blood-brain barrier dysfunction. One post-mortem study in hypertensive vasculopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 82) found no evidence for blood-brain barrier abnormalities.Conclusions: Signs of blood-brain barrier dysfunction were found in 20 out of 26 studies. Blood-brain barrier integrity deserves further investigation with a view to identification of potential treatment targets for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

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    Authors: Kiefer, Adam W.; Barber Foss, Kim; Reches, Amit; Gadd, Brooke; +5 Authors

    Children and adolescent athletes are at a higher risk for concussion than adults, and also experience longer recovery times and increased associated symptoms. It has also recently been demonstrated that multiple, seemingly mild concussions may result in exacerbated and prolonged neurological deficits. Objective assessments and return-to-play criteria are needed to reduce risk and morbidity associated with concussive events in these populations. Recent research has pushed to study the use of electroencephalography as an objective measure of brain injury. In the present case study, we present a novel approach that examines event-related potentials via a brain network activation (BNA) analysis as a biomarker of concussion and recovery. Specifically, changes in BNA scores, as indexed through this approach, offer a potential indicator of neurological health as the BNA assessment qualitatively and quantitatively indexes the network dynamics associated with brain injury. Objective tools, such as these support accurate and efficient assessment of brain injury and may offer a useful step in categorizing the temporal and spatial changes in brain activity following concussive blows, as well as the functional connectivity of brain networks, associated with concussion.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: van Stiphout, Lisa; Szmulewicz, David J.; Guinand, Nils; Fornos, Angelica Perez; +2 Authors

    Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) is characterized by its heterogeneous and chronic nature with various clinical presentations and multiple etiologies. This current narrative review reflects on the main insights and developments regarding clinical presentation. In addition, it proposes a new diagnostic algorithm, and describes available and potential future therapeutic modalities.

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    Authors: Claudio eLiguori; Mariangela ePierantozzi; Enrica eOlivola; Nicola B Mercuri; +1 Authors
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Fassett, Hunter J.; Turco, Claudia V.; El-Sayes, Jenin; Lulic, Tea; +3 Authors

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is intended primarily to alter corticospinal excitability, creating an attractive opportunity to alter neural output following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This study is the first to assess the effects of iTBS in SCI. Eight individuals with chronic incomplete SCI were studied. Sham or real iTBS was delivered (to each participant) over primary motor and somatosensory cortices in separate sessions. Motor-evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves were obtained from the flexor carpi radialis muscle before and after iTBS. Results indicate similar responses for iTBS to both motor and somatosensory cortex and reduced MEPs in 56.25% and increased MEPs in 25% of instances. Sham stimulation exceeded real iTBS effects in the remaining 18.25%. It is our opinion that observing short-term neuroplasticity in corticospinal output in chronic SCI is an important advance and should be tested in future studies as an opportunity to improve function in this population. We emphasize the need to re-consider the importance of the direction of MEP change following a single session of iTBS since the relationship between MEP direction and motor function is unknown and multiple sessions of iTBS may yield very different directional results. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of including sham control in the experimental design. The fundamental point from this pilot research is that a single session of iTBS is often capable of creating short-term change in SCI. Future sham-controlled randomized trials may consider repeat iTBS sessions to promote long-term changes in corticospinal excitability.

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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Francisco eTorres; Esteban eVillalón; Patricio ePoblete; Rodrigo eMoraga Amaro; +4 Authors

    Objective To evaluate the safety and assess the different symptom improvements found after a combined low frequency primary motor cortex and high frequency prefrontal cortex stimulation using the deep TMS (dTMS) H-coil, as an add-on treatment for Parkinson´s disease (PD). Methods: 45 PD patients underwent 14 dTMS sessions; each consisting of 1Hz stimulation of the primary motor cortex for 15 min, followed by 10Hz stimulation of the prefrontal cortex for 15 min. Clinical assessments were performed, at the START, MIDDLE, and END of therapy as well as at FOLLOW-UP after 30 days, using MDS-UPDRS, TINETTI, UP&GO, SCOPA, HDRS21, BDI and self-applied daily motor assessment scales. Results: Treatment was well tolerated, without serious adverse effects. Treatment induced significant PD symptom improvements at END and at FOLLOW-UP, in all subscales of the UPDRS, gait speed, depressive symptoms, balance, autonomic symptoms and a 73% increase in daily ON time. Conclusions: In the cohort of PD patients treated, dTMS was well tolerated with only minor adverse effects. The dTMS induced significant improvements in motor, postural, and motivational symptoms of PD patients and may potentiate concurrent levodopa treatment. Significance: The present study demonstrates that dTMS may have a much wider spectrum of beneficial effects than previously reported for TMS, including enhancement of levodopa effects, suggesting that future clinical trials with dTMS should include a broader range of symptom measurements.

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      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Rolim, Luiz Clemente; Koga da Silva, Edina M.; De Sá, João Roberto; Dib, Sérgio Atala;

    Background Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a serious, polymorphic, and prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus. Most PDN treatment guidelines recommend a selection of drugs based on patient comorbidities. Despite the large numbers of medications available, most randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted so far have yielded unsatisfactory outcomes. Therefore, treatment may require a personalized approach based on pain phenotype or comorbidities. Methods To evaluate whether or not a patient’s pain phenotype or comorbidities can influence the response to a specific PDN treatment, we conducted a systematic review using two different approaches: pain phenotype and associated comorbidities-based treatment. Results Out of 45 identified papers, 7 were thoroughly reviewed. We found four RCTs stratified according to pain phenotype with three main results: (1) paroxysmal pain had a better response to pregabalin; (2) the preservation of thermal sensation or nociception anticipated a positive response to the topical treatment of pain; and, (3) after a failure to duloxetine (60 mg/day), the patients with evoked pain or severe deep pain had a better response to association of duloxetine/pregabalin while those with paresthesia/dysesthesia benefited from duloxetine monotherapy (120 mg/day). By contrast, the other three papers provided weak and even contradictory evidence about PDN treatment based on comorbidities. Conclusion Although more studies are needed to provide an adequate recommendation for clinical practice, our systematic review has provided some evidence that PDN phenotyping may optimize clinical outcomes and could, in the future, lead to both less empirical medicine and more personalized pain therapeutics.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Büntjen, Lars; Hopf, Jens-Max; Merkel, Christian; Voges, Jürgen; +3 Authors

    Chronic pain is suggested to be linked to reorganization processes in the sensorimotor cortex. In the current study, the somatosensory representation of the extremities was investigated in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that initially occurred in the right hand and arm and spread later into the left hand and right leg. After the spread, magnetoencephalographic recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation revealed that the clinical symptoms were associated with major changes in the primary somatosensory representation. Tactile stimulation of body parts triggering CRPS-related pain elicited activity located in the left primary somatosensory region corresponding to the right hand representation, where the CRPS initially appeared. Solely the unaffected left foot was observed to have a regular S1 representation. The pain distribution pattern was matching the cortical somatosensory misrepresentation suggesting that cortical reorganization processes might contribute and possibly underlie the development and spread of the CRPS.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Report . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Kevin Pendo; Christopher Michael DeGiorgio, MD;

    There is increasing evidence supporting dietary and alternative therapies for epilepsy, including the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D is actively under investigation as a potential intervention for epilepsy. Vitamin D is fat soluble steroid which shows promise in animal models of epilepsy. Basic research has shed light on the possible mechanisms by which Vitamin D may reduce seizures, and animal data support the efficacy of Vitamin D in rat and mouse models of epilepsy. Very little clinical data exists to support the treatment of human epilepsy with Vitamin D, but positive findings from preliminary clinical trials warrant larger Phase I and II clinical trials in order to more rigorously determine the potential therapeutic value of Vitamin D as a treatment for human epilepsy.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2016
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2016
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