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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tatjana Traub-Weidinger; Otto Muzik; Lalith Kumar Shiyam Sundar; Susanne Aull-Watschinger; +14 Authors

    The purpose of this study was to establish a non-invasive clinical PET/MR protocol using [18F]-labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) that provides physicians with regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlc) values and to clarify the contribution of absolute quantification to clinical management of patients with non-lesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). The study included a group of 15 patients with non-lesional ETLE who underwent a dynamic FDG PET study using a fully-integrated PET/MRI system (Siemens Biograph). FDG tracer uptake images were converted to MRGlc (μmol/100 g/min) maps using an image derived input function that was extracted based on the combined analysis of PET and MRI data. In addition, the same protocol was applied to a group of healthy controls, yielding a normative database. Abnormality maps for ETLE patients were created with respect to the normative database, defining significant hypo- or hyper-metabolic regions that exceeded ±2 SD of normal regional mean MRGlc values. Abnormality maps derived from MRGlc images of ETLE patients contributed to the localization of hypo-metabolic areas against visual readings in 53% and increased the confidence in the original clinical readings in 33% of all cases. Moreover, quantification allowed identification of hyper-metabolic areas that are associated with frequently spiking cortex, rarely acknowledged in clinical readings. Overall, besides providing some confirmatory information to visual readings, quantitative PET imaging demonstrated only a moderate impact on clinical management of patients with complex pathology that leads to epileptic seizures, failing to provide new decisive information that would have changed classification of patients from being rejected to being considered for surgical intervention.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tobias Balkenhol; Elisabeth Wallhäusser-Franke; Nicole Rotter; Jérôme J. Servais;

    Objectives: Hearing improves significantly with bimodal provision, i.e., a cochlear implant (CI) at one ear and a hearing aid (HA) at the other, but performance shows a high degree of variability resulting in substantial uncertainty about the performance that can be expected by the individual CI user. The objective of this study was to explore how auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) of bimodal listeners in response to spoken words approximate the electrophysiological response of normal hearing (NH) listeners. Study Design: Explorative prospective analysis during the first 6 months of bimodal listening using a within-subject repeated measures design. Setting: Academic tertiary care center. Participants: Twenty-seven adult participants with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who received a HiRes 90K CI and continued use of a HA at the non-implanted ear. Age-matched NH listeners served as controls. Intervention: Cochlear implantation. Main Outcome Measures: Obligatory auditory evoked potentials N1 and P2, and the event-related N2 potential in response to monosyllabic words and their reversed sound traces before, as well as 3 and 6 months post-implantation. The task required word/non-word classification. Stimuli were presented within speech-modulated noise. Loudness of word/non-word signals was adjusted individually to achieve the same intelligibility across groups and assessments. Results: Intelligibility improved significantly with bimodal hearing, and the N1–P2 response approximated the morphology seen in NH with enhanced and earlier responses to the words compared to their reversals. For bimodal listeners, a prominent negative deflection was present between 370 and 570 ms post stimulus onset (N2), irrespective of stimulus type. This was absent for NH controls; hence, this response did not approximate the NH response during the study interval. N2 source localization evidenced extended activation of general cognitive areas in frontal and prefrontal brain areas in the CI group. Conclusions: Prolonged and spatially extended processing in bimodal CI users suggests employment of additional auditory–cognitive mechanisms during speech processing. This does not reduce within 6 months of bimodal experience and may be a correlate of the enhanced listening effort described by CI listeners.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Claudio eLiguori; Mariangela ePierantozzi; Enrica eOlivola; Nicola B Mercuri; +1 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: DOAJ
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Garofalo, Sara; Justicia, Azucena; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Ermakova, Anna O.; +6 Authors

    Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD. We, therefore, investigated brain responses associated with reward expectation and prediction error signaling during reinforcement learning in PD-associated psychosis. An instrumental learning task with monetary gains and losses was conducted during an fMRI study in PD patients with (n = 12), or without (n = 17), a history of psychotic symptoms, along with a sample of healthy controls (n = 24). We conducted region of interest analyses in the ventral striatum (VS), ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, and whole-brain analyses. There was reduced activation in PD patients with a history of psychosis, compared to those without, in the posterior cingulate cortex and the VS during reward anticipation (p < 0.05 small volume corrected). The results suggest that cortical and striatal abnormalities in reward processing, a putative pathophysiological mechanism of psychosis in schizophrenia, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in PD. The finding of posterior cingulate dysfunction is in keeping with prior results highlighting cortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of PD psychosis.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Apollo
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Mortaheb, Sepehr; Filippini, Maria Maddalena; Kaux, Jean-François; Annen, Jitka; +5 Authors

    Background and Objectives: Persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) consist of neurologic and psychological complaints persisting after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). It affects up to 50% of mTBI patients, may cause long-term disability, and reduce patients' quality of life. The aim of this review was to examine the possible use of different neuroimaging modalities in PCS. Methods: Articles from Pubmed database were screened to extract studies that investigated the relationship between any neuroimaging features and symptoms of PCS. Descriptive statistics were applied to report the results. Results: A total of 80 out of 939 papers were included in the final review. Ten examined conventional MRI (30% positive finding), 24 examined diffusion weighted imaging (54.17% positive finding), 23 examined functional MRI (82.61% positive finding), nine examined electro(magneto)encephalography (77.78% positive finding), and 14 examined other techniques (71% positive finding). Conclusion: MRI was the most widely used technique, while functional techniques seem to be the most sensitive tools to evaluate PCS. The common functional patterns associated with symptoms of PCS were a decreased anti-correlation between the default mode network and the task positive network and reduced brain activity in specific areas (most often in the prefrontal cortex). Significance: Our findings highlight the importance to use functional approaches which demonstrated a functional alteration in brain connectivity and activity in most studies assessing PCS.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Neurolo...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Laura Mirandola; Laura Mirandola; Daniela Ballotta; Francesca Talami; +8 Authors

    Objective: To evaluate local and distant blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal changes related to interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).Methods: Thirty-three TLE patients undergoing EEG–functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) as part of the presurgical workup were consecutively enrolled. First, a single-subject spike-related analysis was performed: (a) to verify the BOLD concordance with the presumed Epileptogenic Zone (EZ); and (b) to investigate the Intrinsic Connectivity Networks (ICN) involvement. Then, a group analysis was performed to search for common BOLD changes in TLE.Results: Interictal epileptiform discharges were recorded in 25 patients and in 19 (58%), a BOLD response was obtained at the single-subject level. In 42% of the cases, BOLD changes were observed in the temporal lobe, although only one patient had a pure concordant finding, with a single fMRI cluster overlapping (and limited to) the EZ identified by anatomo-electro-clinical correlations. In the remaining 58% of the cases, BOLD responses were localized outside the temporal lobe and the presumed EZ. In every patient, with a spike-related fMRI map, at least one ICN appeared to be involved. Four main ICNs were preferentially involved, namely, motor, visual, auditory/motor speech, and the default mode network. At the single-subject level, EEG–fMRI proved to have high specificity (above 65%) in detecting engagement of an ICN and the corresponding ictal/postictal symptom, and good positive predictive value (above 67%) in all networks except the visual one. Finally, in the group analysis of BOLD changes related to IED revealed common activations at the right precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, and middle cingulate gyrus.Significance: Interictal temporal spikes affect several distant extra-temporal areas, and specifically the motor/premotor cortex. EEG–fMRI in patients with TLE eligible for surgery is recommended not for strictly localizing purposes rather it might be useful to investigate ICNs alterations at the single-subject level.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2021
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Martina Minnerop; Martina Minnerop; Carla Gliem; Cornelia Kornblum; +1 Authors

    Neuroimaging in myotonic dystrophies provided a major contribution to the insight into brain involvement which is highly prevalent in these multisystemic disorders. Particular in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1, conventional MRI first revealed hyperintense white matter lesions, predominantly localized in the anterior temporal lobe. Brain atrophy and ventricle enlargement were additional early findings already described almost 30 years ago. Since then, more advanced and sophisticated imaging methods have been applied in Myotonic Dystrophy Types 1 and 2. Involvement of actually normal appearing white matter and widespread cortical affection in PET studies were key results toward the recognition of diffuse and not only focally localized brain pathology in vivo. Later, structural abnormalities of both, gray and white matter, have been found in both forms of the disorder, albeit more prominent in myotonic dystrophy type 1. In Type 1, a consistent widespread cortical and subcortical involvement of gray and white matter affecting all lobes, brainstem and cerebellum was observed. Spectroscopy studies gave additional evidence of neuronal and glial damage in both types. Central questions regarding the origin and spatiotemporal evolution of the CNS involvement and its relevance for clinical symptoms had already been raised 30 years ago, however are still not answered. Results of correlation analyses between neuroimaging and clinical parameters are diverse and with few exceptions not well reproducible across studies. It may be related to the fact that most of the reported studies included only small numbers of subjects, sometimes even not separating Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 from Type 2. But this heterogeneity may also support the current point of view that the clinical impairments are not simply linked to specific and regionally circumscribed structural or functional brain alterations. It seems more convincing that disturbed networks build the functional and structural substrate of clinical symptoms in these disorders as it is proposed in other neuropsychiatric diseases. Consecutively, structural and functional network analyses may provide additional information regarding the link between brain pathology and clinical symptoms. Up to now, only cross-sectional neuroimaging studies have been published. To analyze the temporal evolution of brain affection, longitudinal studies are urgently needed, and systematic natural history data would be useful to identify potential biomarkers for therapeutic studies.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2018
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Carsten M. Klingner; Carsten M. Klingner; Fabian Kattlun; Lena Krolopp; +7 Authors

    Learning from errors as the main mechanism for motor adaptation has two fundamental prerequisites: a mismatch between the intended and performed movement and the ability to adapt motor actions. Many neurological patients are limited in their ability to transfer an altered motor representation into motor action due to a compromised motor pathway. Studies that have investigated the effects of a sustained and unresolvable mismatch over multiple days found changes in brain processing that seem to optimize the potential for motor learning (increased drive for motor adaptation and a weakening of the current implementation of motor programs). However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects can be induced experimentally and more important after shorter periods. Here, we used task-based and resting-state fMRI to investigate whether the known pattern of cortical adaptations due to a sustained mismatch can be induced experimentally by a short (20 min), but unresolvable, sensory–motor mismatch by impaired facial movements in healthy participants by transient facial tapping. Similar to long-term mismatch, we found plastic changes in a network that includes the striatal, cerebellar and somatosensory brain areas. However, in contrast to long-term mismatch, we did not find the involvement of the cerebral motor cortex. The lack of the involvement of the motor cortex can be interpreted both as an effect of time and also as an effect of the lack of a reduction in the motor error. The similar effects of long-term and short-term mismatch on other parts of the sensory–motor network suggest that the brain-state caused by long-term mismatch can be (at least partly) induced by short-term mismatch. Further studies should investigate whether short-term mismatch interventions can be used as therapeutic strategy to induce an altered brain-state that increase the potential for motor learning.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2022
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2022
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2022
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström;
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2015
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Ortner, Marion; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Barat, Martina; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; +9 Authors

    Very early Alzheimer's disease (AD) - i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia - is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes, such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex and also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of hippocampus and amygdala overlap in healthy persons. Thus, we hypothesized that increased alteration of iFC patterns along AD is not limited to the hippocampus but also concerns the amygdala, independent from atrophy. To address this hypothesis, we applied structural and functional resting-state MRI in healthy controls (CON, n = 33) and patients with AD in the stages of MCI (AD-MCI, n = 38) and mild dementia (AD-D, n = 36). Outcome measures were voxel-based morphometry (VBM) values and region-of-interest-based iFC maps of basolateral amygdala, which has extended cortical connectivity. Amygdala VBM values were progressively reduced in patients (CON > AD-MCI and AD-D). Amygdala iFC was progressively reduced along impairment severity (CON > AD-MCI > AD-D), particularly for hippocampus, temporal lobes, and fronto-parietal areas. Notably, decreased iFC was independent of amygdala atrophy. Results demonstrate progressively impaired amygdala intrinsic connectivity in temporal and fronto-parietal lobes independent from increasing amygdala atrophy in very early AD. Data suggest that early AD disrupts intrinsic connectivity of medial temporal lobe key regions, including that of amygdala.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tatjana Traub-Weidinger; Otto Muzik; Lalith Kumar Shiyam Sundar; Susanne Aull-Watschinger; +14 Authors

    The purpose of this study was to establish a non-invasive clinical PET/MR protocol using [18F]-labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) that provides physicians with regional metabolic rate of glucose (MRGlc) values and to clarify the contribution of absolute quantification to clinical management of patients with non-lesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). The study included a group of 15 patients with non-lesional ETLE who underwent a dynamic FDG PET study using a fully-integrated PET/MRI system (Siemens Biograph). FDG tracer uptake images were converted to MRGlc (μmol/100 g/min) maps using an image derived input function that was extracted based on the combined analysis of PET and MRI data. In addition, the same protocol was applied to a group of healthy controls, yielding a normative database. Abnormality maps for ETLE patients were created with respect to the normative database, defining significant hypo- or hyper-metabolic regions that exceeded ±2 SD of normal regional mean MRGlc values. Abnormality maps derived from MRGlc images of ETLE patients contributed to the localization of hypo-metabolic areas against visual readings in 53% and increased the confidence in the original clinical readings in 33% of all cases. Moreover, quantification allowed identification of hyper-metabolic areas that are associated with frequently spiking cortex, rarely acknowledged in clinical readings. Overall, besides providing some confirmatory information to visual readings, quantitative PET imaging demonstrated only a moderate impact on clinical management of patients with complex pathology that leads to epileptic seizures, failing to provide new decisive information that would have changed classification of patients from being rejected to being considered for surgical intervention.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Tobias Balkenhol; Elisabeth Wallhäusser-Franke; Nicole Rotter; Jérôme J. Servais;

    Objectives: Hearing improves significantly with bimodal provision, i.e., a cochlear implant (CI) at one ear and a hearing aid (HA) at the other, but performance shows a high degree of variability resulting in substantial uncertainty about the performance that can be expected by the individual CI user. The objective of this study was to explore how auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) of bimodal listeners in response to spoken words approximate the electrophysiological response of normal hearing (NH) listeners. Study Design: Explorative prospective analysis during the first 6 months of bimodal listening using a within-subject repeated measures design. Setting: Academic tertiary care center. Participants: Twenty-seven adult participants with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who received a HiRes 90K CI and continued use of a HA at the non-implanted ear. Age-matched NH listeners served as controls. Intervention: Cochlear implantation. Main Outcome Measures: Obligatory auditory evoked potentials N1 and P2, and the event-related N2 potential in response to monosyllabic words and their reversed sound traces before, as well as 3 and 6 months post-implantation. The task required word/non-word classification. Stimuli were presented within speech-modulated noise. Loudness of word/non-word signals was adjusted individually to achieve the same intelligibility across groups and assessments. Results: Intelligibility improved significantly with bimodal hearing, and the N1–P2 response approximated the morphology seen in NH with enhanced and earlier responses to the words compared to their reversals. For bimodal listeners, a prominent negative deflection was present between 370 and 570 ms post stimulus onset (N2), irrespective of stimulus type. This was absent for NH controls; hence, this response did not approximate the NH response during the study interval. N2 source localization evidenced extended activation of general cognitive areas in frontal and prefrontal brain areas in the CI group. Conclusions: Prolonged and spatially extended processing in bimodal CI users suggests employment of additional auditory–cognitive mechanisms during speech processing. This does not reduce within 6 months of bimodal experience and may be a correlate of the enhanced listening effort described by CI listeners.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Claudio eLiguori; Mariangela ePierantozzi; Enrica eOlivola; Nicola B Mercuri; +1 Authors
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
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    Article . 2015
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Garofalo, Sara; Justicia, Azucena; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Ermakova, Anna O.; +6 Authors

    Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD. We, therefore, investigated brain responses associated with reward expectation and prediction error signaling during reinforcement learning in PD-associated psychosis. An instrumental learning task with monetary gains and losses was conducted during an fMRI study in PD patients with (n = 12), or without (n = 17), a history of psychotic symptoms, along with a sample of healthy controls (n = 24). We conducted region of interest analyses in the ventral striatum (VS), ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, and whole-brain analyses. There was reduced activation in PD patients with a history of psychosis, compared to those without, in the posterior cingulate cortex and the VS during reward anticipation (p < 0.05 small volume corrected). The results suggest that cortical and striatal abnormalities in reward processing, a putative pathophysiological mechanism of psychosis in schizophrenia, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in PD. The finding of posterior cingulate dysfunction is in keeping with prior results highlighting cortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of PD psychosis.

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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
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      Apollo
      Article . 2017
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Apollo
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Mortaheb, Sepehr; Filippini, Maria Maddalena; Kaux, Jean-François; Annen, Jitka; +5 Authors

    Background and Objectives: Persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) consist of neurologic and psychological complaints persisting after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). It affects up to 50% of mTBI patients, may cause long-term disability, and reduce patients' quality of life. The aim of this review was to examine the possible use of different neuroimaging modalities in PCS. Methods: Articles from Pubmed database were screened to extract studies that investigated the relationship between any neuroimaging features and symptoms of PCS. Descriptive statistics were applied to report the results. Results: A total of 80 out of 939 papers were included in the final review. Ten examined conventional MRI (30% positive finding), 24 examined diffusion weighted imaging (54.17% positive finding), 23 examined functional MRI (82.61% positive finding), nine examined electro(magneto)encephalography (77.78% positive finding), and 14 examined other techniques (71% positive finding). Conclusion: MRI was the most widely used technique, while functional techniques seem to be the most sensitive tools to evaluate PCS. The common functional patterns associated with symptoms of PCS were a decreased anti-correlation between the default mode network and the task positive network and reduced brain activity in specific areas (most often in the prefrontal cortex). Significance: Our findings highlight the importance to use functional approaches which demonstrated a functional alteration in brain connectivity and activity in most studies assessing PCS.

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