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  • Corona Virus Disease

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Müller, Henrik; Hornig, Nico;

    News-based indicators are in vogue in economics. But they tend to be applied with little consideration for the properties of news itself. In this paper, we try to shed light on the nature of this type of data. Drawing from established findings in communication science and journalism studies we argue that news-based indicators should be taken with a pinch of salt, since news is a somewhat biased representation of political and social reality. Contrary to economics and other social sciences, journalism tends to be driven by outliers, the outrageous, and the outraged. This structural dissonance between journalism and other disciplines needs to be born in mind when dealing with news content as data, and it is of particular concern in the context of economic developments. While economics and statistics are inherently backward looking, trying to make sense of the (immediate) past using models and probability distributions derived from bygone observations, journalism is about the present, and sometimes about the future. What’s going on right now? And where does it lead us? Seeking answers to these questions makes news a valuable data input, as a measure of what drives society at a given point in time. We show how taking the properties of news into consideration influences the entire process of large-scale news analysis. As an example, we update our Uncertainty Perception Indicator (Müller and Hornig 2020), setting it on a firmer footing by enlarging the newspaper corpus considerably. The new version of the UPI for Germany yields some remarkable results. At the trough of the Covid-19-induced economic crisis in Q2 of 2020, the overall indicator already decreased considerably, although it stayed at elevated levels. Deconstructing the UPI by applying the topic modelling approach Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), shows that the coverage of the pandemic has merged with the issue of climate change and its mitigation. In the past decade or so incalculable politics was the main driver of economic uncertainty perception. Now truly exogenous developments, neither elicited by the economy nor by politics, come to the fore, adding to the sense of an inherently unstable world. DoCMA Working Paper;2-2020

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Eldorado - Ressource...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Henrik Heitmann; Philipp Wagner; Elisabeth Fischer; Martin Gartmeier; +1 Authors

    Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic poses a huge challenge for clinical teaching due to contact restrictions and social distancing. Medical teachers have to balance potential risks and benefits of bedside teaching, especially in course formats intended to foster practical clinical skills. In this context, we aimed to address the question, whether presence-based teaching formats without patient involvement are suitable to teach practical skills. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, presence-based teaching formats with and without patient contact were retrospectively compared regarding their effects on medical students’ theoretical knowledge and practical skills, i.e. the performance and clinical interpretation of the neurological exam. To this end, evaluations from 102 students and their lecturers participating in a neurological bedside teaching course at a German university hospital between October 2020 and April 2021 were obtained. Students were initially randomly assigned to course dates. However, 53 students assigned to courses in November and December 2020, were not able to go bedside due to contact restrictions. These students formed the interventional group and the remaining 49 students the control group. The primary outcome measures were students’ overall grading of the course (school grades, 1–6) as well as ratings of knowledge and skills provided by the students themselves and their lecturers on a numerical rating scale (0–10). Comparison between groups was performed using frequentist and Bayesian t-statistics. Results The teaching format without patient contact received a significantly poorer overall grade by the students (p = 0.018). However, improvements in the students’ self-ratings of knowledge and skills did not differ between the two formats (all p > 0.05, BF10max = 0.42). Moreover, especially practical skills were even rated significantly better in the group without patient contact by the lecturers (p < 0.001). Conclusions Teaching formats without patient contact are less well-received by the students. However, they are able to teach practical skills regarding the performance and clinical interpretation of examination techniques. Still, the evaluations obtained might not adequately capture the importance of bedside teaching in preparing future physicians for their practice. Perspectively, hybrid teaching approaches including flipped-classroom concepts hold considerable potential to enhance effectiveness of bedside teaching in the present pandemic situation and in the future.

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    Authors: Chen, Peijie; Mao, Lijuan; Nassis, George P.; Harmer, Peter; +2 Authors
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Marionneau, Virve; Järvinen-Tassopoulos, Johanna;

    Electronic gambling machines (EGMs) are among the most harmful forms of gambling. The structural characteristics of EGMs prolong and reinforce gambling similarly to other habit-forming technologies. In Finland, the wide availability of EGMs in non-casino locations is likely to further reinforce the habit-creating nature of gambling offer by incorporating EGMs into everyday practices. The COVID-19 pandemic changed the landscape of gambling in Finland. The most visible change was the closure of land-based EGMs in non-casino environments, arcades, and the casino in March 2020. Since then, the status of EGMs has varied depending on the pandemic situation. The current qualitative study focuses on how Finnish past-year gamblers experience prolonged EGM closures and occasional re-openings 1 year into the pandemic. The data consist of responses to an online questionnaire eliciting experiences (N = 187) as well as interviews (N = 27, conducted in groups or alone). To aid our analysis, we employ the sociological pragmatist theory of the concept of "habit." The analysis focuses on gambler experiences on EGM shutdowns and re-openings, and views on whether closures have contributed to abstaining from gambling or to shifting to other gambling products. Policy implications of the results are discussed. Peer reviewed

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    Frontiers in Psychology
    Article . 2022
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2022
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      Frontiers in Psychology
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xu, Yixing Yang; Yanan Ma; Gang Wu; Qian Guo; Hongbo;

    The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on fresh food e-commerce has led to a loss of consumers, and “e-commerce temperature” is seen as an important means of alleviating consumer dissatisfaction and retaining consumers. To explore the connotation and effect of it, and to break through possible “comfort” bottlenecks, we used online reviews of the Jingdong fresh food platform as research data, mined the characteristics of “e-commerce temperature” with the help of the LDA topic model, and evaluated the mechanism of “e-commerce temperature” on consumer satisfaction during the pandemic by using quasi-natural experiments and Word2vec-based sentiment analysis. The results show that “e-commerce temperature” has five connotations of logistics commitment, humanized delivery, health pledge, pandemic perseverance, and consumer care, which can effectively mitigate the loss of consumer satisfaction. Interestingly, we found that the “e-commerce temperature” has a limited “comfort” effect. Additionally, further social network analysis shows that the bottleneck is mainly due to the consumers’ psychological gaps when comparing the usual e-commerce services, and cretailers can repair them through financial compensation and spiritual solace. The study explores e-commerce service quality at different pandemic stages with the help of text mining techniques, enriches the theory of e-commerce research, and alleviates the Hawthorne bias in traditional empirical studies. This study also provides a reference for e-retailers to improve service quality and respond to emergencies in a changing post-pandemic era.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Theoretic...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Ezgi Dogan-Sander; Elisabeth Kohls; Elisabeth Kohls; Sabrina Baldofski; +1 Authors

    Background: As the majority of studies examining mental health during the pandemic are cross-sectional, little is known about the changes in mental health during the pandemic, especially in university students. Most studies indicate a worsening of mental health conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the mental health status of German university students during the third wave of the pandemic in 2021 and to compare the results to a sample of a congruent cross-sectional study from 2020.Methods: Two cross-sectional and anonymous online surveys among university students were conducted (first survey: July-August 2020, N = 3,382; second survey: March-April 2021, N = 5,642). Mental health status was assessed with standardized measures (depressive symptoms, alcohol and drug consumption, and eating disorder symptoms), and social and emotional aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed. In addition to descriptive statistics and group comparisons of the two survey samples from 2020 and 2021, respectively, risk and protective factors related to mental health were analyzed.Results: There were significant differences in severities of depressive symptoms and alcohol and drug consumption between the two online surveys from 2020 and 2021. Findings suggest an increase in the severity of depressive symptoms as well as alcohol and drug consumption. Significantly more respondents reported suicidal ideation in the survey from 2021. Lower self-efficacy, less social support and lower resilience as well as higher perceived stress and more loneliness were reported by the participants of the survey from 2021 compared to 2020. Regarding factors predicting mental health symptoms, being female was a positive predictor for hazardous alcohol use and anorexia nervosa in comparison to men. Further, younger age, being diverse, higher perceived stress and loneliness were positive predictors for all mental health outcomes.Conclusion: This study reveals an increase in severities of depressive symptoms, including suicidal ideation, drug and alcohol consumption among students. Being diverse, younger age, higher perceived stress and loneliness were mutual risk factors for higher depressive and eating disorder symptoms as well as alcohol consumption. Universities and health care policy should recognize and address mental health issues of young adults during ongoing times of crisis and invest in easy-to-access interventions.

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    Frontiers in Psychiatry
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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      Frontiers in Psychiatry
      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Jin, Mengdi; Li, Zhijun; Li, Xinwei; Xie, Mengtong; +8 Authors

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading worldwide. Many COVID-19 patients were accompanied by myocardial injury during the course of the disease. To evaluate the association of cardiac injury with clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, we recruited 261 COVID-19 cases admitted to Tongji Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in this study. Compared with patients without myocardial injury, those with myocardial injury were older, with shorter hospital stays and lower survival rates. They also had higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers (Interleukin-6,8,10 and C-reactive protein), coagulation biomarkers, liver and kidney function markers. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with myocardial injury had a higher mortality rate. The multivariate Cox regression model and the nomogram revealed that myocardial injury, co-morbidity, and abnormal procalcitonin (PCT) levels were independent risk factors of the mortality of COVID-19 patients. The linear correlation analysis and the ROC curve suggested a predictive value of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in cardiac injury. Summarily, myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients is associated with a higher mortality risk. Attention should be paid to monitoring myocardial injury in patients with significantly elevated myocardial markers and NLR at admission.

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    Authors: Radon, K.; Saathoff, E.; Pritsch, M.; Guggenbühl Noller, J.M.; +11 Authors

    BackgroundDue to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, public health interventions have been introduced globally in order to prevent the spread of the virus and avoid the overload of health care systems, especially for the most severely affected patients. Scientific studies to date have focused primarily on describing the clinical course of patients, identifying treatment options and developing vaccines. In Germany, as in many other regions, current tests for SARS-CoV2 are not conducted on a representative basis and in a longitudinal design. Furthermore, knowledge about the immune status of the population is lacking. Nonetheless, these data are needed to understand the dynamics of the pandemic and hence to appropriately design and evaluate interventions. For this purpose, we recently started a prospective population-based cohort in Munich, Germany, with the aim to develop a better understanding of the state and dynamics of the pandemic.MethodsIn 100 out of 755 randomly selected constituencies, 3000 Munich households are identified via random route and offered enrollment into the study. All household members are asked to complete a baseline questionnaire and subjects >= 14years of age are asked to provide a venous blood sample of <= 3ml for the determination of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgA status. The residual plasma and the blood pellet are preserved for later genetic and molecular biological investigations. For twelve months, each household member is asked to keep a diary of daily symptoms, whereabouts and contacts via WebApp. If symptoms suggestive for COVID-19 are reported, family members, including children <14years, are offered a pharyngeal swab taken at the Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, LMU University Hospital Munich, for molecular testing for SARS-CoV-2. In case of severe symptoms, participants will be transferred to a Munich hospital. For one year, the study teams re-visits the households for blood sampling every six weeks.DiscussionWith the planned study we will establish a reliable epidemiological tool to improve the understanding of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and to better assess the effectiveness of public health measures as well as their socio-economic effects. This will support policy makers in managing the epidemic based on scientific evidence.

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    Authors: Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Schimieguel, Dulce Marta; Corrêa, Cristiane Bani; +6 Authors

    EXCLI Journal; 20:Doc276; ISSN 1611-2156

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    https://doi.org/10.17179/excli...
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    Authors: Vassileva, Radosveta;

    In a prior article, I explained how the Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borissov was using the COVID-19 emergency in spring 2020 as an opportunity to implement measures curtailing fundamental rights and solidifying his autocracy. Subsequently, Borissov’s GERB party enacted questionable amendments to the Law on Health permitting the executive to usurp powers traditionally conferred onto Parliament in Bulgaria’s constitutional order.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Müller, Henrik; Hornig, Nico;

    News-based indicators are in vogue in economics. But they tend to be applied with little consideration for the properties of news itself. In this paper, we try to shed light on the nature of this type of data. Drawing from established findings in communication science and journalism studies we argue that news-based indicators should be taken with a pinch of salt, since news is a somewhat biased representation of political and social reality. Contrary to economics and other social sciences, journalism tends to be driven by outliers, the outrageous, and the outraged. This structural dissonance between journalism and other disciplines needs to be born in mind when dealing with news content as data, and it is of particular concern in the context of economic developments. While economics and statistics are inherently backward looking, trying to make sense of the (immediate) past using models and probability distributions derived from bygone observations, journalism is about the present, and sometimes about the future. What’s going on right now? And where does it lead us? Seeking answers to these questions makes news a valuable data input, as a measure of what drives society at a given point in time. We show how taking the properties of news into consideration influences the entire process of large-scale news analysis. As an example, we update our Uncertainty Perception Indicator (Müller and Hornig 2020), setting it on a firmer footing by enlarging the newspaper corpus considerably. The new version of the UPI for Germany yields some remarkable results. At the trough of the Covid-19-induced economic crisis in Q2 of 2020, the overall indicator already decreased considerably, although it stayed at elevated levels. Deconstructing the UPI by applying the topic modelling approach Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), shows that the coverage of the pandemic has merged with the issue of climate change and its mitigation. In the past decade or so incalculable politics was the main driver of economic uncertainty perception. Now truly exogenous developments, neither elicited by the economy nor by politics, come to the fore, adding to the sense of an inherently unstable world. DoCMA Working Paper;2-2020

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    Authors: Henrik Heitmann; Philipp Wagner; Elisabeth Fischer; Martin Gartmeier; +1 Authors

    Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic poses a huge challenge for clinical teaching due to contact restrictions and social distancing. Medical teachers have to balance potential risks and benefits of bedside teaching, especially in course formats intended to foster practical clinical skills. In this context, we aimed to address the question, whether presence-based teaching formats without patient involvement are suitable to teach practical skills. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, presence-based teaching formats with and without patient contact were retrospectively compared regarding their effects on medical students’ theoretical knowledge and practical skills, i.e. the performance and clinical interpretation of the neurological exam. To this end, evaluations from 102 students and their lecturers participating in a neurological bedside teaching course at a German university hospital between October 2020 and April 2021 were obtained. Students were initially randomly assigned to course dates. However, 53 students assigned to courses in November and December 2020, were not able to go bedside due to contact restrictions. These students formed the interventional group and the remaining 49 students the control group. The primary outcome measures were students’ overall grading of the course (school grades, 1–6) as well as ratings of knowledge and skills provided by the students themselves and their lecturers on a numerical rating scale (0–10). Comparison between groups was performed using frequentist and Bayesian t-statistics. Results The teaching format without patient contact received a significantly poorer overall grade by the students (p = 0.018). However, improvements in the students’ self-ratings of knowledge and skills did not differ between the two formats (all p > 0.05, BF10max = 0.42). Moreover, especially practical skills were even rated significantly better in the group without patient contact by the lecturers (p < 0.001). Conclusions Teaching formats without patient contact are less well-received by the students. However, they are able to teach practical skills regarding the performance and clinical interpretation of examination techniques. Still, the evaluations obtained might not adequately capture the importance of bedside teaching in preparing future physicians for their practice. Perspectively, hybrid teaching approaches including flipped-classroom concepts hold considerable potential to enhance effectiveness of bedside teaching in the present pandemic situation and in the future.

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    Authors: Chen, Peijie; Mao, Lijuan; Nassis, George P.; Harmer, Peter; +2 Authors
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Marionneau, Virve; Järvinen-Tassopoulos, Johanna;

    Electronic gambling machines (EGMs) are among the most harmful forms of gambling. The structural characteristics of EGMs prolong and reinforce gambling similarly to other habit-forming technologies. In Finland, the wide availability of EGMs in non-casino locations is likely to further reinforce the habit-creating nature of gambling offer by incorporating EGMs into everyday practices. The COVID-19 pandemic changed the landscape of gambling in Finland. The most visible change was the closure of land-based EGMs in non-casino environments, arcades, and the casino in March 2020. Since then, the status of EGMs has varied depending on the pandemic situation. The current qualitative study focuses on how Finnish past-year gamblers experience prolonged EGM closures and occasional re-openings 1 year into the pandemic. The data consist of responses to an online questionnaire eliciting experiences (N = 187) as well as interviews (N = 27, conducted in groups or alone). To aid our analysis, we employ the sociological pragmatist theory of the concept of "habit." The analysis focuses on gambler experiences on EGM shutdowns and re-openings, and views on whether closures have contributed to abstaining from gambling or to shifting to other gambling products. Policy implications of the results are discussed. Peer reviewed

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Psychology
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