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  • 2013-2022
  • Publications
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  • ECOADAPT

  • Authors: Cuevas, Melissa; Fallot, Abigaïl;

    With the intention to precise the contribution of water to the socio-economy of Forest Model Landscape, several methodological proposals are revised, that allow to estimate water consumption. Three main methods are considered on the basis of their scope and implementation case: water footprint; estimation from an input-output matrix; life-cycle analysis inventories. They are presented in a synthetic way, highlighting their specificities and possible relevance in the contexts of rural territories with knowledge gaps on the water situation.

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    Authors: Cuevas, Melissa; Fallot, Abigaïl;

    Este documento presenta un diagnóstico de la información existente, a nivel cuantitativo y cualitativo, de las actividades principales en el territorio seleccionado en términos del empleo, la situación del agua y el uso de la tierra en tres Bosques Modelos en Bolivia, Argentina y Chile. El Bosque Modelo Chiquitano se encuentra ubicado en una de las últimas regiones forestales tropicales secas de América del Sur, en el departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. El municipio de Concepción representa un área de 28,514 km2 y una población de 21,000 personas (estimación 2010), 89% con necesidades básicas insatisfechas en cuanto al servicio de agua. Las actividades principales en términos de empleo en Concepción son la agricultura, la ganadería y la silvicultura, seguidas de la industria manufacturera y el comercio. El Bosque Modelo Jujuy se encuentra ubicado en los departamentos de El Carmen y San Antonio, en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Representa un área de 912 + 690 = 1,602 km2 y una población de 97,039 + 4,466 = 101,505 personas (censo 2010). 29% de los hogares sufren de privación material. Las actividades principales del municipio en términos de empleo son la agricultura, la ganadería y la silvicultura, seguidas del comercio y la administración pública. El Bosque Modelo Araucarias de Alto Malleco se encuentra ubicado en la XIX Región, Chile e incluye las comunas de Lonquimay y Curacautín. Representa un área de 3,914 + 1,664 = 5,578 km2 y una población de 15,376 + 11,482 = 26,858 habitantes (estimación 2011) con tasas de pobreza alcanzando 34%. Las principales fuentes de ingreso de estas comunas son la ganadería, la actividad forestal y la agricultura, seguidas del comercio y el turismo. La ganadería en Lonquimay en general es de trashumancia entre invernadas y veranadas, debido a las condiciones geográficas y climáticas. This paper presents a diagnosis of the existing information, quantitative and qualitative, on the main activities in the selected landscapes in terms of employment, water situation and land use , in three Model Forests in Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. The Chiquitano Model Forest is located in one of the last tropical dry forest regions of South America, in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. The municipal district of Concepcion represents an area of 28,514 square kilometers and a population of about 21,000 persons. The main activities in terms of employment in Concepción are agriculture, livestock and forestry, followed by manufacturing and trade. The Jujuy Model Forest is located in the departments of El Carmen and San Antonio, in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. The area is of 1,602 km2 and the population of 101,505 persons. The main activities in terms of employment in El Carmen and San Antonio are agriculture, livestock and forestry, followed by the trade and public administration. The Araucarias de Alto Malleco Model Forest is located in the communes of Lonquimay and Caracautin in the province of Malleco in Region XIX, Chile. The territory is 5,578 km wide and hosts about 27,000 persons. The main sources of income of these communes are livestock, forestry and agriculture, followed by trade and tourism. Lonquimay livestock is predominantly transhumant between wintering and summer pastures, due to the geographic and climatic conditions. 57 pages

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  • Authors: Vilugrón, Lorena; Fallot, Abigaïl; Gonzalez, Diego; Le Coq, Jean-François;

    This document presents an analysis of the Lonquimay and the Curacautin landscapes as a socio-ecological system. The two commune areas constitute the Araucarias of Alto Malleco Forest Model in Chile, respective headwaters of the Bio Bio and the Cautin rivers. The first section introduces the analysis, by presenting its context, the issue addressed and the objective of analyzing socio-ecological dynamics. The second section, Material and Methods, tells how the analysis was led in Lonquimay and in Curacautin, presenting the PARDI method (Problem-Actors-Resources-Dynamics-Interactions) and describing the fieldwork for building conceptual models that allow to visualize practices of land use and water management. The third section of the document presents results. They consist in the formulation of the water security problem that the people of Lonquimay and Curacautin considered a central and shared issue; in the characterization and location of actors and resources that are involved in this problem; and in the representation of the main dynamics and interactions that link those actors and resources. For each landscape, two conceptual models were built, from the biophysical and the legal standpoints. The discussion section deals with the possibility to integrate both standpoints; with the mere modelling process, and; with the cost elements of water access. Main uncertainties highlighted by the analysis are revised and the report concludes by summing up our major findings in this participatory investigation process on socio-ecological dynamics.; Este documento presenta un análisis de los sistemas socio-ecológicos conformados por las comunas de Lonquimay y de Curacautín del Bosque Modelo Araucarias de Alto Malleco (BMAAM) en Chile, respectivamente las cabeceras de las cuencas del Imperial y del Bio Bio. La primera sección introduce el análisis, presentando su contexto, problemática y objetivo, siempre en el marco del proyecto de investigación-acción EcoAdapt. La segunda sección explica cómo se desarrolló el análisis de las dinámicas socio-ecológicas en las comunas de Lonquimay y de Curacautín. Presenta el método PARDI (Problemática, Actores, Dinámica e Interacciones) y el trabajo de campo realizado para llegar a la construcción de modelos conceptuales que permiten visualizar las prácticas en el uso del suelo y el manejo del agua. La tercera sección presenta los resultados. Incluyen la formulación de una problemática compartida de seguridad hídrica en los dos territorios del BMAAM; la caracterización y ubicación de los actores y recursos que conciernen a la problemática común y la representación de las principales dinámicas e interacciones que vinculan dichos actores y recursos. En cada territorio, se construyeron dos modelos: con enfoque biofísico y con enfoque legal. La sección de discusión reflexiona sobre la posibilidad de integrar ambos enfoques, sobre el proceso de modelación conceptual, y sobre elementos de costos para el acceso al agua. Se revisan las principales incertidumbres vislumbradas en el análisis y la conclusión del informe recapitula los hallazgos de la investigación llevada en un proceso participativo.

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    Authors: Sabourin, Eric; Schillinger, Ralf; Cronenbold, Romy; Sandoval, Claudio; +5 Authors

    This document is about the methodology of social validation of the Climate Change Adaptation Plans and its implementation in the three Model Forests (MFs) of the EcoAdapt project. The first part of the paper presents the background and the work method. The second part deals with the specific advances and results of each of the three model forests participating in the EcoAdapt project in regards to the strategy of social validation of their climate change adaptation plans and the pilot “energizing” projects. The third part offers a transversal analysis with some conclusions and recommendations for social validation of adaptation options in the context of an action research project.

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    Agritrop
    Book . 2014
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      Book . 2014
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    Authors: Alfonso Fernández; Ariel A. Muñoz; Álvaro González-Reyes; Isabella Aguilera-Betti; +8 Authors

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management. Fil: Fernández, Alfonso. Universidad de Concepción; Chile Fil: Muñoz, Ariel. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: González Reyes, Álvaro. Universidad Austral de Chile; Chile Fil: Aguilera Betti, Isabella. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: Toledo, Isadora. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: Puchi, Paulina. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: Sauchyn, David. University of Regina; Canadá Fil: Crespo, Sebastián Andrés. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: Frene, Cristian. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Chile Fil: Mundo, Ignacio Alberto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales. Provincia de Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales; Argentina Fil: González, Mauro. Universidad Austral de Chile; Chile Fil: Vignola, Raffaele. Cátedra Latinoamericana en Decisiones Ambientales para el Cambio Global; Costa Rica

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2...
    Preprint . 2017
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    DOAJ
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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    CONICET Digital
    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2...
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    Authors: Leclerc, Grégoire (ed.);

    International debates on climate change have been arguing the need to foster adaptation planning in Latin America where impacts are expected to be more significant given the vulnerable socio‐economic context and reliance on natural resources. However little progress has been made both at national and at community level due to the complexity of adaptation planning in these countries, and due to the difficulty in managing socio-environmental dynamics characterized by deep uncertainties, potential tensions in cross‐scale interactions among scientists, policy makers and local communities among others. This four-year project helped local communities, Civil Society Organizations (CSO) and scientists in Latin America and Europe in engaging in inter‐disciplinary action‐research to increase their collective capacity to adapt to climate change. EcoAdapt focused on water security as a mobilizing issue that is i) critical due to climate and societal changes; ii) is linked to social tensions; iii) is key for the livelihood of local communities. EcoAdapt consortium was made of 5 CSO partners and 4 RTD partners who joined forces to address water security in “Model Forest” landscapes in Argentina (Jujuy), Bolivia (Quiquitano), and Chile (Alto Malleco). Knowledge sharing formed the backbone of the project and was done in such a way that partners develop a critical view of their own sources of knowledge, which fostered the creation of new, socially‐validated knowledge. It has also provided scientists and policy‐makers with an in‐depth insight into local knowledge and issues, which framed the identification of knowledge gaps and the research to be done. We confirmed that adaptation to climate change goes way beyond coping and is not something that can be done in isolation by any player at any organization level. EcoAdapt developed studies, tools, training material, strategic adaptation plans for water security, and implemented several adaptation pilot projects for the benefit of marginal groups in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile. These include labour and resource efficient sleeve irrigation, frost-preventing tree curtains, water harvesting, protection of ritual sites, efficient woodstoves, installation and maintenance of water pumps, and the creation of the Zapoco watershed protected area in Bolivia. The project built lasting capacity in the Model Forests to address water security in a local development perspective and the context of climate change, and capacity in scientists in developing research at the science-society interface. The EcoAdapt process, backed by a broad dissemination strategy with a presence in high-level events such as UNFCCC COP 18/19/20/21, has contributed to improve capacity for institutional coordination, awareness and prevention of water‐related conflicts, and initiated various initiatives that are being scaled-out in the landscape in the region and in Europe.

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    Authors: Coll Besa, Monica; Canedi, Virgina; Leclerc, Grégoire; Schillinger, Ralf; +4 Authors

    La región latinoamericana ha sido afectada de forma creciente por una serie de eventos climáticos extremos en los últimos años. La medida en que estos impactos afectan un territorio depende de la capacidad de respuesta para enfrentarlos, o aprovecharlos de ser el caso. Este enfoque enfatiza la necesidad de una planificación estratégica para la adaptación en la región de Latino América. Bajo la premisa de que el agua y los servicios ambientales que presta son los aspectos más críticos para la adaptación al cambio climático en los territorios de trabajo de EcoAdapt, el proyecto se centra en estudios para la formulación y aplicación de estrategias de adaptación en torno a la gestión hídrica tomando en cuenta las realidades y los planes de desarrollo local en los territorios. Esto implica analizar y entender el contexto socio-institucional de cada sitio del proyecto, para que las estrategias de adaptación que se formulen más adelante se integren más fácilmente a los planes existentes y tengan aceptación social en los espacios de decisión. Este documento se enfoca en el análisis de contexto de la cuenca Los Pericos-Manantiales, área piloto de la Asociación Bosque Modelo Jujuy (BMJ) para el proyecto EcoAdapt. Este análisis se alimenta de los resultados obtenidos en la primera fase de diagnóstico del proyecto. Esta primera fase comprende la indagación, en terreno, sobre las percepciones locales en torno al uso, planificación y gestión del recurso hídrico en la cuenca y el mapeo de redes sociales relevantes para la gestión hídrica de la cuenca. También integra un análisis de contexto de políticas que complementa los datos obtenidos de fuentes primarias. El análisis socio-institucional permite entender mejor la problemática actual percibida por los actores locales en torno al recurso hídrico y sobre el cual se construyen posibles escenarios y estrategias de adaptación para la futura gestión de recursos naturales, pero en especial, de recursos hídricos de la cuenca, de forma colectiva con los actores locales, en un contexto de desarrollo local y mayor variabilidad climática. Combinando estas percepciones locales y el análisis de redes sociales en torno al manejo del recurso hídrico en la cuenca, el estudio identifica barreras y fortalezas para el diagnóstico, planificación y gestión del recurso hídrico en el territorio. Este mapeo de barreras y fortalezas permite visualizar posibles puntos de entrada para sobrellevar algunas de las barreras identificadas construyendo sobre capacidades existentes en el territorio. El análisis también ayuda a identificar actores clave que tienen el potencial de jugar el rol de agentes de cambio a futuro, que como aliados del proyecto, pueden contribuir al proceso de cambio que éste busca generar en el territorio y facilitar el diseño e implementación de acciones piloto bajo un marco más amplio que busca contribuir a la adaptación en el territorio.

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    Authors: Vignola, Raffaele; Leclerc, Gregoire; Morales, Mariela; Gonzalez, Julian;

    An increasing number of initiatives for adaptation to climate change are occurring at multiple scales and decision focuses (e.g., impact assessment, policy design, technology development, planning management and implementation of adaptation measures etc.) but concrete action is lagging. The complex problems (characterized by deep uncertainties, multiple interests and knowledge references) as well as correspondent solutions of many adaptation initiatives are often addressed through technical analysis (e.g., observed and foreseen impacts of climate change) and a limited consideration of the importance of adopting an adequate leadership styles. Increasingly, authors and practitioners consider that for moving the adaptation agenda forward, leadership should be adapted to the socio-institutional context and informed by behavioral and process-design aspects. We find that different leadership styles might be needed to mobilize social action from one phase of the adaptation cycle to another.

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    Authors: Cuevas, Melissa; Fallot, Abigaïl;

    With the intention to precise the contribution of water to the socio-economy of Forest Model Landscape, several methodological proposals are revised, that allow to estimate water consumption. Three main methods are considered on the basis of their scope and implementation case: water footprint; estimation from an input-output matrix; life-cycle analysis inventories. They are presented in a synthetic way, highlighting their specificities and possible relevance in the contexts of rural territories with knowledge gaps on the water situation.

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    Authors: Prins, Kees; Cáu-Cattan, Alejandra; Azcarrúnz, Nataly; Leclerc, Grégoire;

    EcoAdapt (www.ecoadapt.eu) is an ambitious, complex and demanding action-research project about water security in a context of climate change. The issues the project deals with are also complex and demanding. A central challenge is how to get the investigators, the project partner Model Forest local teams and the relevant local actors in the territorieson the same page. That is why joint knowledge development and shared learning from different sources and ways of knowing is of such strategic importance in EcoAdapt. Moreover, a viable and sustainable community based response to environmental and climaticchallenges requires a critical mass of motivated, informed and concerted local actors. To make good headway in this direction, an arduous but dynamic process has been set into motion resulting in a growing commitment and capacity building among the local actors in the three EcoAdapt territories. The project’s mini and synthesis workshops were building- and stepping-stones in a continuous path of joint learning and capacity development. In the former events the information captured in the base line study was discussed with the locals actors ,while in the second ones, the interest aroused was capitalized upon to form the change agents groups (an essential aspect of the EcoAdapt strategy) and to respond to the demand of more precise and accessible information, by means of a series of field learning activities. This had some promising outcomes such as contributing to a common interest and growing understanding of water as a central watershed ecosystem; widening of the horizon and view towards watershed and landscape management; strengthening of community drinking water systems with regards to its hardware and software (physical infrastructure, local management and governance); growing cooperation among urban and rural groups or between civil society and policy makers around water issues; creating a link between the legal framework and policy making and the processes on the ground. A spiral of learning took place. As people satisfy their curiosity and initial interest they want to know more and understand better, and they become even more investigative as the activity gets geared towards action and towards helping them achieve their needs and aspirations. Learning does not stop and is clearly evolving in the project with regards to aims, content and methods. This proves to be entirely in line with one of the working hypothesis of the project and also with constructivist theories such as meaningful learning. It has been fundamental and very instrumental to induce the formation of multi actor platforms of change agents in the three territories, through which the field learning activities are organized. These new instances are pivotal in the EcoAdapt learning and organization process by the local project partners: due to a broad representation of local groups and institutions, these platforms get grounded and obtain a growing legitimacy in the territory; they fill a real demand by tackling felt needs for local development around water issues and capitalizing human, institutional and financial opportunities and resources; information is spread and debated; trust and chemistry is built and a common language and vision developed; by lowering barriers between groups and institutions transaction costs are lowered and opportunities are taken advantage of to decrease operational costs and achieve higher effectiveness in ongoing or initial action around water issues and management. Hence it is also very cost effective in economic terms. Climate change adaptation is a variant of risk management to secure water, food and other means of living. Management of climate risks is a millenarian old need and practice, but recent climate change tendencies give it a whole new dimension. Traditional knowledge and practice is a good springboard to climate change adaptation, but new science based information and views must be inserted in what people already know, do and want to change (or conserve) to widen their horizon and action alternatives, and create in this way, a solid 5 base for a viable and shared climate change adaptation plan. In that perspective it is essential that the complex issue of climate change is made transparent, understandable and meaningful. This still remains a great challenge in tactical and didactical terms. The systematized experience so far teaches us that it may be necessary to deviate a bit from the project proposal (“description of work”, or DoW) in order to advance towards the project vision. So, in Climate Change Adaptation for Local Development (the project slogan) the relation between both aims is inter-active.Local development can be a starting point for advancing to climate change adaptation and ecological and social resilience. Close observation shows that the prime mover of action by the local actors has not been so much climate change adaptation but securing clean water in sufficient quality and quantity or satisfying other felt local needs and aspirations. And this is not just a matter of climate- but also of legal stress, and a lack of equity and legitimacy. Hence, the internal learning and systematization has fed also the adaptive project management. Looking backwards and reflecting on it, one gets more clarity on how to go forwards to reach the vision. But therefore it is also important to look out of the EcoAdapt box and combine internal reflection with relevant literature and other cases, in order to get more out of the empirical data and process.Hence, much emphasis was put in this working paper on a relevant literature review, whose results merged in a conceptual flow chart, with the philosophy and strategy of EcoAdapt. In chapter VI Analysis and Synthesis the link is made between this flowchart with the process and outcomes of the field learning activities described in much detail in chapter V. Many promising results were found as well as pending challenges which both are inputs for action and strategy in the next two years: momentum must be maintained, advances consolidated and a qualitative jump forward made. One of the lessons learned is the importance of combining tangibles and intangibles in water management to motivate participation of the local actors and enable their learning, organization and governance towards the desired change. It also shows the added value of EcoAdapt and how it gets the most out of its limited financial means. Learning outcomes must be converted into input for strategic development, scaling out and up, policy debate and policy incidence. There is clear evidence that this process has already begun. Distances between actors diminish; policy makers get more involved; people become more knowledgeable on legal and policy matters and want to influence them or make better use of them; joint practice and understanding of water issues go hand in hand; scales of intervention are combined. Scaling up is of strategic importance because community based environment management has a limited effect and does not make much sense if policy makers do not respond correspondingly. So, in order for intervention to be effective it must occur at different scales and be articulated. Both literature and the project practice confirm this need and possibility. It is also clearly foreseen in the project strategy expressed in the theory of change of the DoW. A next central priority will be to incorporate, intelligently and tactically, the planned scenarios and measures of climate change adaptation within the activities and processes already in march in the three sites and organized around perceived local needs and opportunities, while at the same time doing the inverse - insert the ongoing activities in a broader framework. A related central challenge in this perspective will be to stimulate in the coming years, a fruitful debate and clarity on water governance and conflict management in a context of growing water scarcity due to the effects of climate change and other stressors. A debate on ‘’hotter issues’’ is quite feasible as more trust, chemistry and cooperation is built around non conflictive issues during start up activities, like what is going on at the moment. 6 As the literature shows, in the history of humankind, water scarcity does not necessarily lead to conflict and often has been a base for cooperation, social organization and synergy, depending on the rules of the game and the governance institutions in place and functioning. This will become an increasingly important issue in light of viable and robust adaptation plans to be made in the three sites in the course of 2014-2015.

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  • Authors: Cuevas, Melissa; Fallot, Abigaïl;

    With the intention to precise the contribution of water to the socio-economy of Forest Model Landscape, several methodological proposals are revised, that allow to estimate water consumption. Three main methods are considered on the basis of their scope and implementation case: water footprint; estimation from an input-output matrix; life-cycle analysis inventories. They are presented in a synthetic way, highlighting their specificities and possible relevance in the contexts of rural territories with knowledge gaps on the water situation.

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    Authors: Cuevas, Melissa; Fallot, Abigaïl;

    Este documento presenta un diagnóstico de la información existente, a nivel cuantitativo y cualitativo, de las actividades principales en el territorio seleccionado en términos del empleo, la situación del agua y el uso de la tierra en tres Bosques Modelos en Bolivia, Argentina y Chile. El Bosque Modelo Chiquitano se encuentra ubicado en una de las últimas regiones forestales tropicales secas de América del Sur, en el departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. El municipio de Concepción representa un área de 28,514 km2 y una población de 21,000 personas (estimación 2010), 89% con necesidades básicas insatisfechas en cuanto al servicio de agua. Las actividades principales en términos de empleo en Concepción son la agricultura, la ganadería y la silvicultura, seguidas de la industria manufacturera y el comercio. El Bosque Modelo Jujuy se encuentra ubicado en los departamentos de El Carmen y San Antonio, en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Representa un área de 912 + 690 = 1,602 km2 y una población de 97,039 + 4,466 = 101,505 personas (censo 2010). 29% de los hogares sufren de privación material. Las actividades principales del municipio en términos de empleo son la agricultura, la ganadería y la silvicultura, seguidas del comercio y la administración pública. El Bosque Modelo Araucarias de Alto Malleco se encuentra ubicado en la XIX Región, Chile e incluye las comunas de Lonquimay y Curacautín. Representa un área de 3,914 + 1,664 = 5,578 km2 y una población de 15,376 + 11,482 = 26,858 habitantes (estimación 2011) con tasas de pobreza alcanzando 34%. Las principales fuentes de ingreso de estas comunas son la ganadería, la actividad forestal y la agricultura, seguidas del comercio y el turismo. La ganadería en Lonquimay en general es de trashumancia entre invernadas y veranadas, debido a las condiciones geográficas y climáticas. This paper presents a diagnosis of the existing information, quantitative and qualitative, on the main activities in the selected landscapes in terms of employment, water situation and land use , in three Model Forests in Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. The Chiquitano Model Forest is located in one of the last tropical dry forest regions of South America, in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. The municipal district of Concepcion represents an area of 28,514 square kilometers and a population of about 21,000 persons. The main activities in terms of employment in Concepción are agriculture, livestock and forestry, followed by manufacturing and trade. The Jujuy Model Forest is located in the departments of El Carmen and San Antonio, in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. The area is of 1,602 km2 and the population of 101,505 persons. The main activities in terms of employment in El Carmen and San Antonio are agriculture, livestock and forestry, followed by the trade and public administration. The Araucarias de Alto Malleco Model Forest is located in the communes of Lonquimay and Caracautin in the province of Malleco in Region XIX, Chile. The territory is 5,578 km wide and hosts about 27,000 persons. The main sources of income of these communes are livestock, forestry and agriculture, followed by trade and tourism. Lonquimay livestock is predominantly transhumant between wintering and summer pastures, due to the geographic and climatic conditions. 57 pages

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  • Authors: Vilugrón, Lorena; Fallot, Abigaïl; Gonzalez, Diego; Le Coq, Jean-François;

    This document presents an analysis of the Lonquimay and the Curacautin landscapes as a socio-ecological system. The two commune areas constitute the Araucarias of Alto Malleco Forest Model in Chile, respective headwaters of the Bio Bio and the Cautin rivers. The first section introduces the analysis, by presenting its context, the issue addressed and the objective of analyzing socio-ecological dynamics. The second section, Material and Methods, tells how the analysis was led in Lonquimay and in Curacautin, presenting the PARDI method (Problem-Actors-Resources-Dynamics-Interactions) and describing the fieldwork for building conceptual models that allow to visualize practices of land use and water management. The third section of the document presents results. They consist in the formulation of the water security problem that the people of Lonquimay and Curacautin considered a central and shared issue; in the characterization and location of actors and resources that are involved in this problem; and in the representation of the main dynamics and interactions that link those actors and resources. For each landscape, two conceptual models were built, from the biophysical and the legal standpoints. The discussion section deals with the possibility to integrate both standpoints; with the mere modelling process, and; with the cost elements of water access. Main uncertainties highlighted by the analysis are revised and the report concludes by summing up our major findings in this participatory investigation process on socio-ecological dynamics.; Este documento presenta un análisis de los sistemas socio-ecológicos conformados por las comunas de Lonquimay y de Curacautín del Bosque Modelo Araucarias de Alto Malleco (BMAAM) en Chile, respectivamente las cabeceras de las cuencas del Imperial y del Bio Bio. La primera sección introduce el análisis, presentando su contexto, problemática y objetivo, siempre en el marco del proyecto de investigación-acción EcoAdapt. La segunda sección explica cómo se desarrolló el análisis de las dinámicas socio-ecológicas en las comunas de Lonquimay y de Curacautín. Presenta el método PARDI (Problemática, Actores, Dinámica e Interacciones) y el trabajo de campo realizado para llegar a la construcción de modelos conceptuales que permiten visualizar las prácticas en el uso del suelo y el manejo del agua. La tercera sección presenta los resultados. Incluyen la formulación de una problemática compartida de seguridad hídrica en los dos territorios del BMAAM; la caracterización y ubicación de los actores y recursos que conciernen a la problemática común y la representación de las principales dinámicas e interacciones que vinculan dichos actores y recursos. En cada territorio, se construyeron dos modelos: con enfoque biofísico y con enfoque legal. La sección de discusión reflexiona sobre la posibilidad de integrar ambos enfoques, sobre el proceso de modelación conceptual, y sobre elementos de costos para el acceso al agua. Se revisan las principales incertidumbres vislumbradas en el análisis y la conclusión del informe recapitula los hallazgos de la investigación llevada en un proceso participativo.

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    Authors: Sabourin, Eric; Schillinger, Ralf; Cronenbold, Romy; Sandoval, Claudio; +5 Authors

    This document is about the methodology of social validation of the Climate Change Adaptation Plans and its implementation in the three Model Forests (MFs) of the EcoAdapt project. The first part of the paper presents the background and the work method. The second part deals with the specific advances and results of each of the three model forests participating in the EcoAdapt project in regards to the strategy of social validation of their climate change adaptation plans and the pilot “energizing” projects. The third part offers a transversal analysis with some conclusions and recommendations for social validation of adaptation options in the context of an action research project.

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    Authors: Alfonso Fernández; Ariel A. Muñoz; Álvaro González-Reyes; Isabella Aguilera-Betti; +8 Authors

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ∼ 37–42∘ S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial (∼ 37∘ 40′ S–38∘ 50′ S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record (∼ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management. Fil: Fernández, Alfonso. Universidad de Concepción; Chile Fil: Muñoz, Ariel. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: González Reyes, Álvaro. Universidad Austral de Chile; Chile Fil: Aguilera Betti, Isabella. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: Toledo, Isadora. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: Puchi, Paulina. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: Sauchyn, David. University of Regina; Canadá Fil: Crespo, Sebastián Andrés. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Chile Fil: Frene, Cristian. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; Chile Fil: Mundo, Ignacio Alberto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales. Provincia de Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales; Argentina Fil: González, Mauro. Universidad Austral de Chile; Chile Fil: Vignola, Raffaele. Cátedra Latinoamericana en Decisiones Ambientales para el Cambio Global; Costa Rica

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2...
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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    Article . 2018
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2...
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    Authors: Leclerc, Grégoire (ed.);

    International debates on climate change have been arguing the need to foster adaptation planning in Latin America where impacts are expected to be more significant given the vulnerable socio‐economic context and reliance on natural resources. However little progress has been made both at national and at community level due to the complexity of adaptation planning in these countries, and due to the difficulty in managing socio-environmental dynamics characterized by deep uncertainties, potential tensions in cross‐scale interactions among scientists, policy makers and local communities among others. This four-year project helped local communities, Civil Society Organizations (CSO) and scientists in Latin America and Europe in engaging in inter‐disciplinary action‐research to increase their collective capacity to adapt to climate change. EcoAdapt focused on water security as a mobilizing issue that is i) critical due to climate and societal changes; ii) is linked to social tensions; iii) is key for the livelihood of local communities. EcoAdapt consortium was made of 5 CSO partners and 4 RTD partners who joined forces to address water security in “Model Forest” landscapes in Argentina (Jujuy), Bolivia (Quiquitano), and Chile (Alto Malleco). Knowledge sharing formed the backbone of the project and was done in such a way that partners develop a critical view of their own sources of knowledge, which fostered the creation of new, socially‐validated knowledge. It has also provided scientists and policy‐makers with an in‐depth insight into local knowledge and issues, which framed the identification of knowledge gaps and the research to be done. We confirmed that adaptation to climate change goes way beyond coping and is not something that can be done in isolation by any player at any organization level. EcoAdapt developed studies, tools, training material, strategic adaptation plans for water security, and implemented several adaptation pilot projects for the benefit of marginal groups in Argentina, Bolivia and Chile. These include labour and resource efficient sleeve irrigation, frost-preventing tree curtains, water harvesting, protection of ritual sites, efficient woodstoves, installation and maintenance of water pumps, and the creation of the Zapoco watershed protected area in Bolivia. The project built lasting capacity in the Model Forests to address water security in a local development perspective and the context of climate change, and capacity in scientists in developing research at the science-society interface. The EcoAdapt process, backed by a broad dissemination strategy with a presence in high-level events such as UNFCCC COP 18/19/20/21, has contributed to improve capacity for institutional coordination, awareness and prevention of water‐related conflicts, and initiated various initiatives that are being scaled-out in the landscape in the region and in Europe.

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