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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kuskner, Adam Alfred Aarseth; Hansen, Christian Freese; Grønbech, Michael Holmen; Bagshaw, Oliver Dissing; Berthelsen, Juno; Nshimiyimana, Celeste;
    Publisher: Roskilde Universitet
    Country: Denmark

    This paper examines the impact of the Estonian initiative and push for the implementation of the Once-Only Principle on a European Union level by engaging in an analysis framed within the theoretical frameworks of Michel Foucault, Daniel R. McCarthy and Hartmund Rosa, and will attempt to do so by synthesizing these theories’ notions of power and social acceleration. The paper concludes that the OOP can be seen as a mechanism that reproduce and maintain cultural hegemony, and that this furthermore is both a result of, and a catalyst for social acceleration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gedionsen, Nikolaj; Jakobsen, Natasja Wexøe; Nytofte, Josefine; Kattler, Nina;
    Country: Denmark

    Policy making is a lengthy, legislative process, liable to be subject to various internal and external factors of influence, each practiced within their code of conduct. One influence often kept low-key is that of the interest organisation, attempting to set the agenda to the benefit of its members. A particularly current case of this is the case of the law of buffer zones in Denmark, which allowed for engaged reactions by the agricultural interest organisations. This project is set to examine the workings of these interest organisations, and how they practice lobbyism in order to further their own case via closed door meetings - a black box in the legislative process. Our focus, as such, will be on the current case of buffer zones and how these agricultural interest organisations acquire their influence and thusly may enable themselves to affect legislation. We will largely acquire our empirical data through interviews with agricultural interest organisation representatives and we will base our analysis on several theories regarding democracy, interest organisations and group theory.

  • Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Weber, Rasmus Guldager; Haraszuk, Viktor Andreas;
    Country: Denmark

    Bolivian produced quinoa is the fulcrum of a global value chain-analysis with focus on technology, organizations and production. The report contributes to answering why Bolivian produced quinoa have developed from a local product to a global value chain. The analysis follows an ontological realistic and epistemological relativistic perspective. It is based on statistical data and other scientific theses about the subject, which supports a retroductive approach. Quinoa is a healthy, edible seed, which can grow under various climatic conditions, but primarily is cultivated in the Andes Mountains. The seed has a long history in Bolivia (The Plurinational State of) that involves the Incas, the Spanish inquisition and the present organizing of peasants, which makes mechanization possible. Research and the new technology have enabled an expanding production and a more efficient processing why it is now possible to export. This has attracted new agents from the whole world who have spread the product to new markets. The development is furthermore analyzed as spatial change involving the production of space, new relational space and the breaking down of spatial barriers, which all contributes to a holistic understanding. It is partially therefore concluded that quinoa is a complex object with inner causal potentials that enables a change in its present context.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Foged, Mathias; Lasse, [No Value]; Mathias, [No Value]; Eggert, Martin; Hansen, [No Value]; Jensen, [No Value];
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract This project critically assesses the shift from Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) to Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) by the World Bank and IMF in Zambia. The project is a case study of the agricultural sector in Zambia, which has been chosen on the basis that a vast majority of poor people are situated in rural areas and employed by the agricultural sector. The data on which the project is constituted is therefore the relevant policy-papers and secondary literature. The analytical model, on which the project is based, is framed by a critique of the neoclassical development theory. The critique is grounded in an institutional approach, which together with a framework of theoretical linkages between poverty and agriculture creates the analytical framework. By analysing policy-papers from periods of development assistance loans, the project examines how the strategy-shift can be seen in the policies. The policies that Zambia implements under the SAP and the PRSP are analysed in order to show whether the poor are taken into consideration or not. The analysis of the policies implemented under SAP show that growth, liberalization/privatization and competition was the main focus. Thereby that period of development in Zambia happened very much under the influence of the neoclassical development theory, which entails that market forces and global capital market shall develop a stable and growing economy. The analysis of the PRSP from 2002 shows a shift towards a more nuanced approach. Poverty reduction is in focus, although it is supposed to happen combined with neoclassical ideas of growth and competition. The following progress reports shows that there were constraints to the reduction of poverty. One of these were the institutional inability to effectively allocate and disburse the allocated funds, which made a large part of the capital stay in domestic banks. Another central issue is shown to be the continuing government borrowing from domestic banks, a problem which is argued to be related to the substantial debt servicing. This kept the interest rate at a very high level, impeding investment opportunities for small scale farmers. The latest major policy-paper shows a continuing of the pro-poor tendency, and although it is as vague as the first PRSP it shows a number of pro-poor initiatives and programs. The project concludes that the focus on poverty reduction has increased with the implementation of the PRSP, although there are some constraints to reducing poverty. These include institutional incapacities to effectively invest in poverty reduction programs and debt servicing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Uldahl, Anne;
    Country: Denmark

    Salt marshes are among one of the most productive ecosystems in the world and are important components of estuarine systems, since it provide food and nutrients to both estuarine and coastal ocean consumers, serves as a habitat for young and adult estuarine organisms, and a refuge for larval and juvenile organisms and regulating important compounds of the estuarine chemical cycle. The location of salt marshes as a buffer zone between land and sea and the continuously increasing N-­‐load from land make it a raising concern regarding monitoring and estimation of its vulnerability to eutrophication and interest in its ability to remove N before its enters the estuaries and coastal ocean waters, along with monitoring of the current N status. Remote sensing is a particular helpful tool when trying to extract information from large areas and to estimate N status of vegetation. The spectral reflectance signature of Spartina alterniflora (a dominant salt marsh species) was investigated in 13 sites with varying N input, within two New England salt marshes (Plum Island Sound and Great Sippewisset Marsh, USA), to survey if remote sensing can be use to sense vegetation response to different nutrient input. Two different remote sensing tools was used; a Duel Channel Unispec, which measure canopy reflectance and a SPAD-­‐502 chlorophyll meter, which measure leaf reflectance. Three different vegetation indexes (NDVI, GreenNDVI and EVI) were used to model vegetation biophysical variables. It was not possible to estimate if one index or the other would be better for an overall use to estimate N status but the results indicate the feasibility in predicting N status. SPAD values give an indirect indication of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in leaf biomass but only a low correlation was observed than correlated with red and green reflectance. More emphasis has to be giving on calibration of SPAD measurements to obtain more reliable results. Spectral reflectance data obtained from Unispec measurements, clearly illustrated that the vegetation state in the two sites with highest N input (20 and 300-­‐fold larger than reference sites) represented the healthiest green vegetation with a high plant biomass, which correlated with the N input received. In the remaining sites, there was not observed a clear distinguish between the spectral data and observed N input. Remote sensing can provide information about variations in vegetation and give an insight into important vegetation biophysical features. Therefore using remote sensing to determined N status of vegetation is a low cost useful method, but emphasis on future studies in this area should be a priority.

  • Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Schmidt, Astrid Jagtvard; Eilenberg, Laura Østergaard; Steppat, Camilla Emilie;
    Publisher: IMT
    Country: Denmark

    The following project Agriculture in Liberia - stories from four students seeks to provide a deeperunderstanding about how perceptions of roles and possibilities are linked to their education context.In order to do so an approach inspired by ethnography have been used when carrying out field workat the Oxfam IBIS Education of Youth Empowerment (EYE) center in Zwedru. We have used anexplorative approach doing our fieldwork when collecting our data which gave us the possibility tolet the surroundings influence our topic. Throughout the fieldwork we used informal conversations,participant observations and two types of interview methods. This data being the foundation for ourproject. For the analytical part of the project two theorist, Margaret Somers and Paulo Freire, havebeen used two shed light on the themes we found through coding our empirical data. In the end itbecomes possible to conclude, that the students achieve perspectives about what is possible forthem to change in their own life, but in Liberia as well. These perspectives are related to theagriculture skills accomplish.

  • Other research product . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hajjar, Nadine Østby; Le Quang Huy, Philéas Rubaek; Dempsey, Sebastian Celtic; Lusignet-Liltorp, Tristan Søren Halfdan;
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ishak, Adam; Larsen, Signe; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Morizet, Julien; Pedersen, Rikke Schjønberg;
    Country: Denmark

    The central topic of the project is New Global Challenges, with a focus on world agricultural markets, specifically the sugar market. The goal of the project was to analyse the effects of the reform of the sugar sector of 2006 in the various stakeholders, both within the EU and without. This reform, which was prompted by a trial brought up to the WTO by the biggest sugar producers outside of Europe, had wide-ranging effects all over the world. By analysing these effects, the group attempted to draw a connection between the actions of a powerful entity like the EU, and its effects in the rest of the world. The stakeholders chosen for analysis were the sugar producers and consumers in Europe, with a focus in Denmark; the sugar industry in Brazil; and the ACP countries. The findings of the project showed that while the goal of the reform, which was to reduce the amount of inefficient production in Europe and increase competitiveness was achieved, the reform had various side effects. Countries like Brazil were greatly benefited by the reform, while the ACP countries suffered in varying degrees from the changes brought upon in 2006.

  • Other research product . 2018
    Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Jensen, Pernille Baade; Sommer, Jonas Viby; Nielsen, Jeppe Klit; Sørensen, Jeppe Svan;
    Publisher: Roskilde Universitet
    Country: Denmark

    This paper examines an alternative to the conventional Danish farming industry, from the perspective of the next generation of organic farmers from Kalø Økologiske Landbrugsskole (Kalø Organic Agriculture College). We found that the current state of affairs is liable for negatively contributing to the climate crisis, through excessive cultivation of the Danish land mass, and CO₂ and methane emissions emanating from the meat-industry, specifically, in pig production. Moreover, we found that the industry is economically unstable, caused by inflation and overreliance on growth and optimization, limiting the flexibility of Danish farmers and hindering conversion to sustainable land-use. As such, we proceeded on the base of necessity for a fundamental re-shaping and -thinking of the field of agriculture going forward and examined the understanding of the forthcoming landscape for young Danish farmers. To this end, we accounted for the environmental ethics in the normative view of nature, superseded from an anthropocentric worldview based on liberal values and domestication of nature – as seen through our inclusion of anthropologist Ghassan Hage. We then examined the principles of organic farming, and the accompanying ontology of ‘green ecology’, prevalent, in part, on Kalø Økologiske Landbrugsskole. To gather empiric data of the institution and its students, we went on a field excursion, where we overlooked two courses, in pig’s digestion and introduction to pig production, and interviewed two farming-students with tangible plans for the future. Both the institution and our two subjects, Adrian (A) and Viktor (V), showcased different schools of thought in regard to the future of agriculture and view of nature, but a definite wish for a disruption of the conventional Danish farming. A seemed to project an idealistic execution of the organic principles, but, in lingo with his future partner, V, took certain reservations with adhering to the economic ‘reality’ of running a business. In so, displaying both an ecological view of nature and sustainability, whilst reproducing anthropocentric liberal values as defined by Hage. Conclusively, we discussed the pros and cons of the different views of nature, the future of organic agriculture in Denmark and the potential of A and V’s participation in shifting the paradigm. Nonetheless, we find the necessity for a future shift in the view of nature, to accommodate a different approach to agriculture in regards to the climate crisis and sustainability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clausen, Sofie Terp; Clausen, Thomas Wolff; Simonsen, Lasse Willads; Back, Yannick; Hornung, Lena;
    Country: Denmark

    This project report seeks to understand the possibilities and issues in relation to an agricultural expansion into the New Valley area of Egypt based on selected irrigation technologies. The interest for the project is based upon the knowledge of population growth and issues of food security in Egypt. The theoretical and methodological background of the project is drawn from different schools in Human Ecology and from Karl August Wittfogel. The theories included are used as a theoretical framework for the understanding of the human-nature relationship, the production process and potentials, as well as hydraulic civilizations, in the project. Through an analysis of the different potentials of the irrigation technologies; seasonal irrigation and permanent irrigation, as both dams and wells, it is discussed whether or not an agricultural expansion into the New Valley area is possible and which related consequences might occur. The project concludes that an expansion can be done through permanent irrigation in the form of wells, however the idea of creating a new lake, with the help of dams, into the New Valley area seems unlikely to succeed due to several environmental factors. Even though an expansion with wells, using the NSAS aquifer, is possible, several factors must be considered in order to determine the success of such expansion, this includes regulations, management and research. The theoretical potential of an expansion based on wells is there, however the practical potential is determined by how well this theoretical water resource is utilized for agriculture.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
29 Research products, page 1 of 3
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kuskner, Adam Alfred Aarseth; Hansen, Christian Freese; Grønbech, Michael Holmen; Bagshaw, Oliver Dissing; Berthelsen, Juno; Nshimiyimana, Celeste;
    Publisher: Roskilde Universitet
    Country: Denmark

    This paper examines the impact of the Estonian initiative and push for the implementation of the Once-Only Principle on a European Union level by engaging in an analysis framed within the theoretical frameworks of Michel Foucault, Daniel R. McCarthy and Hartmund Rosa, and will attempt to do so by synthesizing these theories’ notions of power and social acceleration. The paper concludes that the OOP can be seen as a mechanism that reproduce and maintain cultural hegemony, and that this furthermore is both a result of, and a catalyst for social acceleration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gedionsen, Nikolaj; Jakobsen, Natasja Wexøe; Nytofte, Josefine; Kattler, Nina;
    Country: Denmark

    Policy making is a lengthy, legislative process, liable to be subject to various internal and external factors of influence, each practiced within their code of conduct. One influence often kept low-key is that of the interest organisation, attempting to set the agenda to the benefit of its members. A particularly current case of this is the case of the law of buffer zones in Denmark, which allowed for engaged reactions by the agricultural interest organisations. This project is set to examine the workings of these interest organisations, and how they practice lobbyism in order to further their own case via closed door meetings - a black box in the legislative process. Our focus, as such, will be on the current case of buffer zones and how these agricultural interest organisations acquire their influence and thusly may enable themselves to affect legislation. We will largely acquire our empirical data through interviews with agricultural interest organisation representatives and we will base our analysis on several theories regarding democracy, interest organisations and group theory.

  • Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Weber, Rasmus Guldager; Haraszuk, Viktor Andreas;
    Country: Denmark

    Bolivian produced quinoa is the fulcrum of a global value chain-analysis with focus on technology, organizations and production. The report contributes to answering why Bolivian produced quinoa have developed from a local product to a global value chain. The analysis follows an ontological realistic and epistemological relativistic perspective. It is based on statistical data and other scientific theses about the subject, which supports a retroductive approach. Quinoa is a healthy, edible seed, which can grow under various climatic conditions, but primarily is cultivated in the Andes Mountains. The seed has a long history in Bolivia (The Plurinational State of) that involves the Incas, the Spanish inquisition and the present organizing of peasants, which makes mechanization possible. Research and the new technology have enabled an expanding production and a more efficient processing why it is now possible to export. This has attracted new agents from the whole world who have spread the product to new markets. The development is furthermore analyzed as spatial change involving the production of space, new relational space and the breaking down of spatial barriers, which all contributes to a holistic understanding. It is partially therefore concluded that quinoa is a complex object with inner causal potentials that enables a change in its present context.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Foged, Mathias; Lasse, [No Value]; Mathias, [No Value]; Eggert, Martin; Hansen, [No Value]; Jensen, [No Value];
    Country: Denmark

    Abstract This project critically assesses the shift from Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) to Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) by the World Bank and IMF in Zambia. The project is a case study of the agricultural sector in Zambia, which has been chosen on the basis that a vast majority of poor people are situated in rural areas and employed by the agricultural sector. The data on which the project is constituted is therefore the relevant policy-papers and secondary literature. The analytical model, on which the project is based, is framed by a critique of the neoclassical development theory. The critique is grounded in an institutional approach, which together with a framework of theoretical linkages between poverty and agriculture creates the analytical framework. By analysing policy-papers from periods of development assistance loans, the project examines how the strategy-shift can be seen in the policies. The policies that Zambia implements under the SAP and the PRSP are analysed in order to show whether the poor are taken into consideration or not. The analysis of the policies implemented under SAP show that growth, liberalization/privatization and competition was the main focus. Thereby that period of development in Zambia happened very much under the influence of the neoclassical development theory, which entails that market forces and global capital market shall develop a stable and growing economy. The analysis of the PRSP from 2002 shows a shift towards a more nuanced approach. Poverty reduction is in focus, although it is supposed to happen combined with neoclassical ideas of growth and competition. The following progress reports shows that there were constraints to the reduction of poverty. One of these were the institutional inability to effectively allocate and disburse the allocated funds, which made a large part of the capital stay in domestic banks. Another central issue is shown to be the continuing government borrowing from domestic banks, a problem which is argued to be related to the substantial debt servicing. This kept the interest rate at a very high level, impeding investment opportunities for small scale farmers. The latest major policy-paper shows a continuing of the pro-poor tendency, and although it is as vague as the first PRSP it shows a number of pro-poor initiatives and programs. The project concludes that the focus on poverty reduction has increased with the implementation of the PRSP, although there are some constraints to reducing poverty. These include institutional incapacities to effectively invest in poverty reduction programs and debt servicing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Uldahl, Anne;
    Country: Denmark

    Salt marshes are among one of the most productive ecosystems in the world and are important components of estuarine systems, since it provide food and nutrients to both estuarine and coastal ocean consumers, serves as a habitat for young and adult estuarine organisms, and a refuge for larval and juvenile organisms and regulating important compounds of the estuarine chemical cycle. The location of salt marshes as a buffer zone between land and sea and the continuously increasing N-­‐load from land make it a raising concern regarding monitoring and estimation of its vulnerability to eutrophication and interest in its ability to remove N before its enters the estuaries and coastal ocean waters, along with monitoring of the current N status. Remote sensing is a particular helpful tool when trying to extract information from large areas and to estimate N status of vegetation. The spectral reflectance signature of Spartina alterniflora (a dominant salt marsh species) was investigated in 13 sites with varying N input, within two New England salt marshes (Plum Island Sound and Great Sippewisset Marsh, USA), to survey if remote sensing can be use to sense vegetation response to different nutrient input. Two different remote sensing tools was used; a Duel Channel Unispec, which measure canopy reflectance and a SPAD-­‐502 chlorophyll meter, which measure leaf reflectance. Three different vegetation indexes (NDVI, GreenNDVI and EVI) were used to model vegetation biophysical variables. It was not possible to estimate if one index or the other would be better for an overall use to estimate N status but the results indicate the feasibility in predicting N status. SPAD values give an indirect indication of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in leaf biomass but only a low correlation was observed than correlated with red and green reflectance. More emphasis has to be giving on calibration of SPAD measurements to obtain more reliable results. Spectral reflectance data obtained from Unispec measurements, clearly illustrated that the vegetation state in the two sites with highest N input (20 and 300-­‐fold larger than reference sites) represented the healthiest green vegetation with a high plant biomass, which correlated with the N input received. In the remaining sites, there was not observed a clear distinguish between the spectral data and observed N input. Remote sensing can provide information about variations in vegetation and give an insight into important vegetation biophysical features. Therefore using remote sensing to determined N status of vegetation is a low cost useful method, but emphasis on future studies in this area should be a priority.

  • Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Schmidt, Astrid Jagtvard; Eilenberg, Laura Østergaard; Steppat, Camilla Emilie;
    Publisher: IMT
    Country: Denmark

    The following project Agriculture in Liberia - stories from four students seeks to provide a deeperunderstanding about how perceptions of roles and possibilities are linked to their education context.In order to do so an approach inspired by ethnography have been used when carrying out field workat the Oxfam IBIS Education of Youth Empowerment (EYE) center in Zwedru. We have used anexplorative approach doing our fieldwork when collecting our data which gave us the possibility tolet the surroundings influence our topic. Throughout the fieldwork we used informal conversations,participant observations and two types of interview methods. This data being the foundation for ourproject. For the analytical part of the project two theorist, Margaret Somers and Paulo Freire, havebeen used two shed light on the themes we found through coding our empirical data. In the end itbecomes possible to conclude, that the students achieve perspectives about what is possible forthem to change in their own life, but in Liberia as well. These perspectives are related to theagriculture skills accomplish.

  • Other research product . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hajjar, Nadine Østby; Le Quang Huy, Philéas Rubaek; Dempsey, Sebastian Celtic; Lusignet-Liltorp, Tristan Søren Halfdan;
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ishak, Adam; Larsen, Signe; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Morizet, Julien; Pedersen, Rikke Schjønberg;
    Country: Denmark

    The central topic of the project is New Global Challenges, with a focus on world agricultural markets, specifically the sugar market. The goal of the project was to analyse the effects of the reform of the sugar sector of 2006 in the various stakeholders, both within the EU and without. This reform, which was prompted by a trial brought up to the WTO by the biggest sugar producers outside of Europe, had wide-ranging effects all over the world. By analysing these effects, the group attempted to draw a connection between the actions of a powerful entity like the EU, and its effects in the rest of the world. The stakeholders chosen for analysis were the sugar producers and consumers in Europe, with a focus in Denmark; the sugar industry in Brazil; and the ACP countries. The findings of the project showed that while the goal of the reform, which was to reduce the amount of inefficient production in Europe and increase competitiveness was achieved, the reform had various side effects. Countries like Brazil were greatly benefited by the reform, while the ACP countries suffered in varying degrees from the changes brought upon in 2006.

  • Other research product . 2018
    Open Access Danish
    Authors: 
    Jensen, Pernille Baade; Sommer, Jonas Viby; Nielsen, Jeppe Klit; Sørensen, Jeppe Svan;
    Publisher: Roskilde Universitet
    Country: Denmark

    This paper examines an alternative to the conventional Danish farming industry, from the perspective of the next generation of organic farmers from Kalø Økologiske Landbrugsskole (Kalø Organic Agriculture College). We found that the current state of affairs is liable for negatively contributing to the climate crisis, through excessive cultivation of the Danish land mass, and CO₂ and methane emissions emanating from the meat-industry, specifically, in pig production. Moreover, we found that the industry is economically unstable, caused by inflation and overreliance on growth and optimization, limiting the flexibility of Danish farmers and hindering conversion to sustainable land-use. As such, we proceeded on the base of necessity for a fundamental re-shaping and -thinking of the field of agriculture going forward and examined the understanding of the forthcoming landscape for young Danish farmers. To this end, we accounted for the environmental ethics in the normative view of nature, superseded from an anthropocentric worldview based on liberal values and domestication of nature – as seen through our inclusion of anthropologist Ghassan Hage. We then examined the principles of organic farming, and the accompanying ontology of ‘green ecology’, prevalent, in part, on Kalø Økologiske Landbrugsskole. To gather empiric data of the institution and its students, we went on a field excursion, where we overlooked two courses, in pig’s digestion and introduction to pig production, and interviewed two farming-students with tangible plans for the future. Both the institution and our two subjects, Adrian (A) and Viktor (V), showcased different schools of thought in regard to the future of agriculture and view of nature, but a definite wish for a disruption of the conventional Danish farming. A seemed to project an idealistic execution of the organic principles, but, in lingo with his future partner, V, took certain reservations with adhering to the economic ‘reality’ of running a business. In so, displaying both an ecological view of nature and sustainability, whilst reproducing anthropocentric liberal values as defined by Hage. Conclusively, we discussed the pros and cons of the different views of nature, the future of organic agriculture in Denmark and the potential of A and V’s participation in shifting the paradigm. Nonetheless, we find the necessity for a future shift in the view of nature, to accommodate a different approach to agriculture in regards to the climate crisis and sustainability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clausen, Sofie Terp; Clausen, Thomas Wolff; Simonsen, Lasse Willads; Back, Yannick; Hornung, Lena;
    Country: Denmark

    This project report seeks to understand the possibilities and issues in relation to an agricultural expansion into the New Valley area of Egypt based on selected irrigation technologies. The interest for the project is based upon the knowledge of population growth and issues of food security in Egypt. The theoretical and methodological background of the project is drawn from different schools in Human Ecology and from Karl August Wittfogel. The theories included are used as a theoretical framework for the understanding of the human-nature relationship, the production process and potentials, as well as hydraulic civilizations, in the project. Through an analysis of the different potentials of the irrigation technologies; seasonal irrigation and permanent irrigation, as both dams and wells, it is discussed whether or not an agricultural expansion into the New Valley area is possible and which related consequences might occur. The project concludes that an expansion can be done through permanent irrigation in the form of wells, however the idea of creating a new lake, with the help of dams, into the New Valley area seems unlikely to succeed due to several environmental factors. Even though an expansion with wells, using the NSAS aquifer, is possible, several factors must be considered in order to determine the success of such expansion, this includes regulations, management and research. The theoretical potential of an expansion based on wells is there, however the practical potential is determined by how well this theoretical water resource is utilized for agriculture.

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