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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wu, Yuan-hao; Velenosi, Lisa A.; Schröder, Pia; Ludwig, Simon; +1 Authors

    Decision‐making in the somatosensory domain has been intensively studied using vibrotactile frequency discrimination tasks. Results from human and monkey electrophysiological studies from this line of research suggest that perceptual choices are encoded within a sensorimotor network. These findings, however, rely on experimental settings in which perceptual choices are inextricably linked to sensory and motor components of the task. Here, we devised a novel version of the vibrotactile frequency discrimination task with saccade responses which has the crucial advantage of decoupling perceptual choices from sensory and motor processes. We recorded human fMRI data from 32 participants while they performed the task. Using a whole‐brain searchlight multivariate classification technique, we identify the left lateral prefrontal cortex and the oculomotor system, including the bilateral frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulci, as representing vibrotactile choices. Moreover, we show that the decoding accuracy of choice information in the right FEF correlates with behavioral performance. Not only are these findings in remarkable agreement with previous work, they also provide novel fMRI evidence for choice coding in human oculomotor regions, which is not limited to saccadic decisions, but pertains to contexts where choices are made in a more abstract form.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2018
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: NeuroVault
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2018
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Other ORP type . 2020
      Data sources: NARCIS
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kosterdal, Rebecka;

    Humans are social beings whose interaction with others constitutes an important part of our well-being. In these social interactions there are certain factors that are essential for us to feel comfortable. One of these factors is to keep a proper “breathing space”. A physical distance to whom we interact, to not have our personal space violated. This space we keep to others is called interpersonal distance (IPD) and might be altered depending on the situation. In the recent decade the neural correlates of IPD have been investigated. The current systematic review aimed to investigate the existing literature on the neural correlations of IPD and how it relates to IPD-behaviour. A systematic search was made in the electric databases Scopus and PubMed. Nine articles remained to be reviewed after screening and selection was done.The results showed the superior parietal cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, motor areas, occipital areas, and the amygdala to be the most prominent structural brain areas to be involved in IPD. Some functional connections between mentioned brain areas were found but needs to be replicated for better knowledge. The review provides insight into the neural nature of IPD and its behavioural basis.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Digitala Vetenskapli...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wu, Yuan-hao; Uluç, Işıl; Schmidt, Timo Torsten; Tertel, Kathrin; +2 Authors

    Previous working memory (WM) research based on non-human primate electrophysiology and human EEG has shown that frontal brain regions maintain frequencies of flutter stimulation across different sensory modalities by means of a supramodal parametric WM code. These findings imply that frontal regions encode the memorized frequencies in a sensory-unspecific, quantitative format. Here, we explored which brain regions maintain information about frequencies provided by different sensory modalities at the level of activity pattern across fMRI voxel populations. Moreover, we sought evidence for a supramodal multivariate WM representation. Participants maintained the same set of frequencies of tactile vibration and visual flicker for a 6 s WM delay in a frequency discrimination task. A support vector regression model for multivariate pattern analysis was applied. We observed that sensory cortices were only selective for memoranda of their corresponding modalities, while frontoparietal regions exhibited distinguishable activity patterns to memorized frequencies regardless of sensory modality. A common multivariate code was not evident in our data. Collectively, we show that mnemonic representations for stimulus frequencies are maintained throughout the cortical hierarchy, in line with the suggested transformation of information across different representational formats. Although evidence for a supramodal multivariate code is absent, our findings underpin the generalized role of the frontoparietal cortex for maintaining quantitative information across sensory modalities.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2017
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2017
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Abstract This study used combined electrostimulation, neurophysiology, microinjection and fMRI to investigate the cortical activity patterns elicited during stimulation of cortical afferents in monkeys. We found that stimulation of a site in LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus) increases the fMRI signal in the regions of primary visual cortex (V1) receiving input from that site, but suppresses it in the retinotopically matched regions of extrastriate cortex. In agreement with previous observations, intracranial recordings showed that immediately after a stimulation pulse a short excitatory response is followed by long-lasting inhibition. Following microinjections of GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) antagonists in V1, LGN stimulation induced positive fMRI signals in all cortical areas. Taken together, our findings suggest that ES disrupts cortico-cortical signal propagation by silencing the output of any neocortical area whose afferents are electrically stimulated. nikos.logothetis@tuebingen.mpg.de (Logothetis, Nikos K) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Logothetis, Nikos K) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Augath, Mark A) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Murayama, Yusuke) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Rauch, Alexander) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Sultan, Fahad F) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Goense, Jozien) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Oeltermann, Axel) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Merkle, Hellmut) GERMANY Accepted: 2010-08-04 Received: 2010-06-22 Revised: 2010-08-04

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Trinity's Access to ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Davenport, S; Nichols, TE;

    Bansal and Peterson (2018) found that in simple stationary Gaussian simulations Random Field Theory incorrectly estimates the number of clusters of a Gaussian field that lie above a threshold. Their results contradict the existing literature and appear to have arisen due to errors in their code. Using reproducible code we demonstrate that in their simulations Random Field Theory correctly predicts the expected number of clusters and therefore that many of their results are invalid.

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    Authors: Brown, Jesse A.; Hua, Alice Y.; Trujllo, Andrew; Attygalle, Suneth; +8 Authors

    The unthresholded statistical maps for baseline VBM PSP HC (gray and white matter), longitudinal VBM correlations (gray and white matter) with PSPRS, and the 27 rMT network ROIs

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2017
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2017
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    Abstract Recent studies point to a role of neuropeptide S (NPS) in the etiology of anxiety disorders. In animal models, NPS and its receptor (NPSR) were shown to be highly expressed in the amygdala, a central structure in the fear circuit, also known to be hyper-responsive in anxiety disorders. Recently, a functional polymorphism in the NPS receptor gene (rs324981 A/T) has been associated with panic disorder and anxiety sensitivity. However, the role of NPSR gene variation in the modulation of fear-related amygdala responsiveness remains to be clarified. In 79 healthy subjects genotyped for NPSR rs324981, amygdala responses were assessed by means of fMRI. Participants were presented with fear-relevant faces in a robust emotion processing paradigm frequently used to study amygdala responsiveness. We observed a strong association of NPSR T alleles with right amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant faces. The association peak was located in the basolateral amygdala. Furthermore, responsiveness to aversive stimuli within this basolateral amygdala cluster predicted participant's self-reported harm avoidance but not depression level. We conclude that NPSR genotype is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant stimuli. Thereby, NPSR rs324981 apparently causes an indirect effect on anxiety related traits and potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders by shaping fear-related limbic activity. Methods: In 79 healthy subjects genotyped for NPSR rs324981, amygdala responses were assessed by means of fMRI. Participants were presented with fear-relevant faces in a robust emotion processing paradigm frequently used to study amygdala responsiveness. Results: We observed a strong association of NPSR T alleles with right amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant faces. The association peak was located in the basolateral amygdala. Furthermore, responsiveness to aversive stimuli within this basolateral amygdala cluster predicted participant's self-reported harm avoidance but not depression level. Conclusions: NPSR genotype is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant stimuli. Thereby, NPSR rs324981 apparently causes an indirect effect on anxiety related traits and potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders by shaping fear-related limbic activity. dannlow@uni-muenster.de (Dannlowski, Udo) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Dannlowski, Udo) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Kugel, Harald) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Franke, Friederike) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Stuhrmann, Anja) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Hohoff, Christa) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Zwanzger, Peter) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Lenzen, Thomas) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Grotegerd, Dominik) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Suslow, Thomas) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Arolt, Volker) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Heindel, Walter) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Domschke, Katharina E) GERMANY Accepted: 2011-03-31 Received: 2011-02-25 Revised: 2011-03-21

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    Authors: Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-;

    Five pictures of a cerebral hemorrhage and a glioblastoma in a 73-year-old female patient. Cinco imágenes de una hemorragia cerebral y un glioblastoma en una paciente de 73 años.

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    GREDOS
    Other ORP type . 2009
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wu, Yuan-hao; Velenosi, Lisa A.; Schröder, Pia; Ludwig, Simon; +1 Authors

    Decision‐making in the somatosensory domain has been intensively studied using vibrotactile frequency discrimination tasks. Results from human and monkey electrophysiological studies from this line of research suggest that perceptual choices are encoded within a sensorimotor network. These findings, however, rely on experimental settings in which perceptual choices are inextricably linked to sensory and motor components of the task. Here, we devised a novel version of the vibrotactile frequency discrimination task with saccade responses which has the crucial advantage of decoupling perceptual choices from sensory and motor processes. We recorded human fMRI data from 32 participants while they performed the task. Using a whole‐brain searchlight multivariate classification technique, we identify the left lateral prefrontal cortex and the oculomotor system, including the bilateral frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulci, as representing vibrotactile choices. Moreover, we show that the decoding accuracy of choice information in the right FEF correlates with behavioral performance. Not only are these findings in remarkable agreement with previous work, they also provide novel fMRI evidence for choice coding in human oculomotor regions, which is not limited to saccadic decisions, but pertains to contexts where choices are made in a more abstract form.

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Scheepens, Dominique S.; van Waarde, Jeroen A.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Glenn; +2 Authors

    Background: Adequate and timely identification of depression is essential to improve patient care. A potential method to achieve this is by using neuroimaging. Many neuroimaging studies have revealed widespread abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression, but in most studies only single neuroimaging modalities were used. Links between abnormalities in brain structure and function need to be therefore further explored in order to define diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods: A systematic literature review according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Results: Out of 2,516 articles, only 14 studies were eligible to be included. These studies combined structural and functional neuroimaging methods in depressed patients compared to controls. Four studies reported a negative relationship between brain structure and function within the default mode network: reduced gray or white matter integrity in depressed patients compared to healthy controls was associated with enhanced neural activity or connectivity. The other studies reported positive relationships (two studies), mixed relationships (two studies), or no link (six studies) between structural and functional brain abnormalities. Conclusion: This systematic literature review revealed no robust relationship between abnormalities in brain structure and function in patients with depression. Remarkably, only 14 studies could be included and four of these suggested enhanced default mode network connectivity associated with reduced structural brain integrity. In the ongoing development of the diagnostic and treatment applications of neuroimaging, large-scale studies that combine structural with functional neuroimaging are required to determine the relationship between structural and functional abnormalities in depression.

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    Authors: Kosterdal, Rebecka;

    Humans are social beings whose interaction with others constitutes an important part of our well-being. In these social interactions there are certain factors that are essential for us to feel comfortable. One of these factors is to keep a proper “breathing space”. A physical distance to whom we interact, to not have our personal space violated. This space we keep to others is called interpersonal distance (IPD) and might be altered depending on the situation. In the recent decade the neural correlates of IPD have been investigated. The current systematic review aimed to investigate the existing literature on the neural correlations of IPD and how it relates to IPD-behaviour. A systematic search was made in the electric databases Scopus and PubMed. Nine articles remained to be reviewed after screening and selection was done.The results showed the superior parietal cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, motor areas, occipital areas, and the amygdala to be the most prominent structural brain areas to be involved in IPD. Some functional connections between mentioned brain areas were found but needs to be replicated for better knowledge. The review provides insight into the neural nature of IPD and its behavioural basis.

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    Authors: Wu, Yuan-hao; Uluç, Işıl; Schmidt, Timo Torsten; Tertel, Kathrin; +2 Authors

    Previous working memory (WM) research based on non-human primate electrophysiology and human EEG has shown that frontal brain regions maintain frequencies of flutter stimulation across different sensory modalities by means of a supramodal parametric WM code. These findings imply that frontal regions encode the memorized frequencies in a sensory-unspecific, quantitative format. Here, we explored which brain regions maintain information about frequencies provided by different sensory modalities at the level of activity pattern across fMRI voxel populations. Moreover, we sought evidence for a supramodal multivariate WM representation. Participants maintained the same set of frequencies of tactile vibration and visual flicker for a 6 s WM delay in a frequency discrimination task. A support vector regression model for multivariate pattern analysis was applied. We observed that sensory cortices were only selective for memoranda of their corresponding modalities, while frontoparietal regions exhibited distinguishable activity patterns to memorized frequencies regardless of sensory modality. A common multivariate code was not evident in our data. Collectively, we show that mnemonic representations for stimulus frequencies are maintained throughout the cortical hierarchy, in line with the suggested transformation of information across different representational formats. Although evidence for a supramodal multivariate code is absent, our findings underpin the generalized role of the frontoparietal cortex for maintaining quantitative information across sensory modalities.

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2017
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      NeuroVault
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    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

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    NeuroVault
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      NeuroVault
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    Abstract This study used combined electrostimulation, neurophysiology, microinjection and fMRI to investigate the cortical activity patterns elicited during stimulation of cortical afferents in monkeys. We found that stimulation of a site in LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus) increases the fMRI signal in the regions of primary visual cortex (V1) receiving input from that site, but suppresses it in the retinotopically matched regions of extrastriate cortex. In agreement with previous observations, intracranial recordings showed that immediately after a stimulation pulse a short excitatory response is followed by long-lasting inhibition. Following microinjections of GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) antagonists in V1, LGN stimulation induced positive fMRI signals in all cortical areas. Taken together, our findings suggest that ES disrupts cortico-cortical signal propagation by silencing the output of any neocortical area whose afferents are electrically stimulated. nikos.logothetis@tuebingen.mpg.de (Logothetis, Nikos K) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Logothetis, Nikos K) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Augath, Mark A) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Murayama, Yusuke) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Rauch, Alexander) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Sultan, Fahad F) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Goense, Jozien) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Oeltermann, Axel) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Merkle, Hellmut) GERMANY Accepted: 2010-08-04 Received: 2010-06-22 Revised: 2010-08-04

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    Authors: Davenport, S; Nichols, TE;

    Bansal and Peterson (2018) found that in simple stationary Gaussian simulations Random Field Theory incorrectly estimates the number of clusters of a Gaussian field that lie above a threshold. Their results contradict the existing literature and appear to have arisen due to errors in their code. Using reproducible code we demonstrate that in their simulations Random Field Theory correctly predicts the expected number of clusters and therefore that many of their results are invalid.

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    Authors: Brown, Jesse A.; Hua, Alice Y.; Trujllo, Andrew; Attygalle, Suneth; +8 Authors

    The unthresholded statistical maps for baseline VBM PSP HC (gray and white matter), longitudinal VBM correlations (gray and white matter) with PSPRS, and the 27 rMT network ROIs

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2017
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      NeuroVault
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    Abstract Recent studies point to a role of neuropeptide S (NPS) in the etiology of anxiety disorders. In animal models, NPS and its receptor (NPSR) were shown to be highly expressed in the amygdala, a central structure in the fear circuit, also known to be hyper-responsive in anxiety disorders. Recently, a functional polymorphism in the NPS receptor gene (rs324981 A/T) has been associated with panic disorder and anxiety sensitivity. However, the role of NPSR gene variation in the modulation of fear-related amygdala responsiveness remains to be clarified. In 79 healthy subjects genotyped for NPSR rs324981, amygdala responses were assessed by means of fMRI. Participants were presented with fear-relevant faces in a robust emotion processing paradigm frequently used to study amygdala responsiveness. We observed a strong association of NPSR T alleles with right amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant faces. The association peak was located in the basolateral amygdala. Furthermore, responsiveness to aversive stimuli within this basolateral amygdala cluster predicted participant's self-reported harm avoidance but not depression level. We conclude that NPSR genotype is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant stimuli. Thereby, NPSR rs324981 apparently causes an indirect effect on anxiety related traits and potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders by shaping fear-related limbic activity. Methods: In 79 healthy subjects genotyped for NPSR rs324981, amygdala responses were assessed by means of fMRI. Participants were presented with fear-relevant faces in a robust emotion processing paradigm frequently used to study amygdala responsiveness. Results: We observed a strong association of NPSR T alleles with right amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant faces. The association peak was located in the basolateral amygdala. Furthermore, responsiveness to aversive stimuli within this basolateral amygdala cluster predicted participant's self-reported harm avoidance but not depression level. Conclusions: NPSR genotype is associated with increased amygdala responsiveness to fear-relevant stimuli. Thereby, NPSR rs324981 apparently causes an indirect effect on anxiety related traits and potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders by shaping fear-related limbic activity. dannlow@uni-muenster.de (Dannlowski, Udo) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Dannlowski, Udo) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Kugel, Harald) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Franke, Friederike) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Stuhrmann, Anja) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Hohoff, Christa) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Zwanzger, Peter) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Lenzen, Thomas) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Grotegerd, Dominik) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Suslow, Thomas) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Arolt, Volker) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Heindel, Walter) Department of Psychiatry - Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 11, Muenster, NRW 48149--> - GERMANY (Domschke, Katharina E) GERMANY Accepted: 2011-03-31 Received: 2011-02-25 Revised: 2011-03-21

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