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35 Research products, page 1 of 4

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  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    KOUTA, Nataly;
    Country: France

    Mémoire de stage; The use of adhesively bonded composite reinforcement for steel structures induce a closer study of the adhesive as it is considered the weakest point in the assembly. A reliable numerical damage model has been developed for the adhesively bonded joints and then verified for different types of configurations. A bi- linear traction separation description of a cohesive zone model was used in ABAQUS to simulate the damage evaluation in the adhesive. It was then compared to experimental results for the global structure behavior (local strains, applied load, applied displacement).; L'utilisation des renforcements par composites collés pour des structures métalliques implique une étude plus approfondie des adhésifs puisqu'il s'agit dans ce cas de l'élément le plus faible dans l'assemblage. Un modèle d'endommagement numérique a été développé pour le joint collé étudié et appliqué pour diffèrent type de configurations. Le modèle bi linéaire de traction- séparation (modèle de zone cohésives) est réalisé sur ABAQUS pour visualiser l'évaluation de l'endommagement de l'adhésive et pouvoir réaliser une comparaison avec les investigations expérimentales (déformation locale, effort appliqué, déplacement appliqué).

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bocher, Erwan; Petit, Gwendall; Picaut, Judicaël; FORTIN, Nicolas; GUILLAUME, Gwenael;
    Country: France

    Présentation du projet NoiseCapture dans le cadre du séminaire Immersion Sciences 2018, organisé conjointement par l’Académiede Rennes, la région Bretagne et le CNRS.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    ADELE, Sonia; DIONISIO, Corinne;
    Publisher: Springer Open
    Country: France

    Aim: This paper explores the real practices of users of a smart carpooling application that learns their mobility habits and predicts their future trips to propose relevant matches. Method: A combination of usage data and interviews analysis allows us to explore the commuter experience from registration to the first and the next shared rides. Findings: The results highlight the shortcomings associated with human factors in carpooling and with human-smart system interactions. They show that perceptions of practical constraints and poor counterparts are the major reasons for difficulty in incorporating carpooling into daily mobility. Psychosocial barriers take different forms at different steps of the carpooling experience (search for information or guarantees about other users, the necessity of conversing with others, much uncertainty about how to behave). The fact that the service is smart amplifies these problems and reduces the desire to carpool again because it creates new misunderstandings (i.e., the user does not understand what the system vs. the other users do) and discomfort in relation to other riders (no answer, too many refusals, necessity of refusing, negative carpool experience, or concern over proposing a bad carpool). Despite these difficulties, the users perceive carpooling as a good solution and a positive human experience when the matching is accurate. We propose some recommendations to overcome the identified difficulties.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vidal, Olivier; Weihed, Pär; Hagelüken, Christian; Bol, Derk; Christmann, Patrice; Arndt, Nicholas;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | AORVM (201312), EC | ERA-MIN (291870)

    European Research Area - Network on the Industrial Handling of Raw Materials for European Industries; roadmap of the "ERA-MIN" eranet; Non-energy and non-agricultural raw materials underpin the global economy and our quality of life. They are vital for the EU's economy and for the development of environmentally friendly technologies essential to European industries. However, the EU is highly dependent on imports, and securing supplies has therefore become crucial. A sustainable supply of mineral products and metals for European industry requires a more efficient and rational consumption, enhanced substitution and improved recycling. Recycling from scrap to raw materials has been rapidly gaining in quantity and efficiency over the last years. However, continuous re-use cannot provide alone the necessary quantities of mineral raw materials, due to i) recycling losses, ii) the worldwide growing demand in raw materials, and iii) the need of "new" elements for the industry. To fully meet future needs, metals and mineral products from primary sources will still be needed in the future. Most of them will continue to be imported from sources outside Europe; but others can, and should, be produced domestically. Advanced research and innovation are required to improve the capacity of existing technologies to discover new deposits, to improve the efficiency of the entire geomaterials life cycle from mineral extraction to the use as secondary resource of products at the end of their industrial life, and to reduce the environmental footprint of raw materials extraction and use. Research and innovation must be made to acquire knowledge as well, and to improve our basic understanding of all engineering and natural processes involved in the raw materials life cycle, as well as the coupling of these processes. Finally, research has to go beyond the present-day economic and technological constraints, and it should be closely associated with training and education in order to maintain existing skills and to share the most recent developments with the industrial sector. A long-term vision of research is necessary in order to have the capacity of evaluating the environmental and societal impacts of present and developing industrial activities and to imagine tomorrow's breakthrough concepts and technologies that will create new industrial opportunities. These objectives require the input of contrasted scientific and technical skills and competences (earth science, material science and technology, chemistry, physics, engineer, biology, engineering, environmental science, economy, social and human sciences, etc). An important challenge is to gather all these domains of expertise towards the same objective. The ERA-MIN Research Agenda aims at listing the most important topics of research and innovation that will contribute to i) secure the sustainable supply and management of non-energy and non-agricultural raw materials, and ii) offer opportunities of investment and employment opportunities in the EU.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Agier, Lydiane; Basagaña, Xavier; Urquiza, José; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Robinson, Oliver; Siroux, Valérie; Maitre, Léa; de Castro, Montserrat; +17 more
    Publisher: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - NIEHS
    Country: France

    Background: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life.Objective:We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight.Methods:We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either continuous birth weight or term low birth weight (TLBW) risk, we primarily relied on the Deletion-Substitution-Addition (DSA) algorithm, which is an extension of the stepwise variable selection method. Second, we used an exposure-by-exposure exposome-wide association studies (ExWAS) method accounting for multiple hypotheses testing to report associations not adjusted for coexposures.Results:The most consistent statistically significant associations were observed between increasing green space exposure estimated as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and increased birth weight and decreased TLBW risk. Furthermore, we observed statistically significant associations among presence of public bus line, land use Shannon's Evenness Index, and traffic density and birth weight in our DSA analysis.Conclusion:This investigation is the first large urban exposome study of birth weight that tests many environmental urban exposures. It confirmed previously reported associations for NDVI and generated new hypotheses for a number of built-environment exposures.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    MENEROUX, Yann; LE GUILCHER, Arnaud; SAINT PIERRE, Guillaume; GHASEMI HAMED, Mohammad; MUSTIERE, Sébastien; ORFILA, Olivier;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: France

    The increasing availability of large-scale global positioning system data stemming from in-vehicle-embedded terminal devices enables the design of methods deriving road network cartographic information from drivers' recorded traces. Some machine learning approaches have been proposed in the past to train automatic road network map inference, and recently this approach has been successfully extended to infer road attributes as well, such as speed limitation or number of lanes. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting traffic signals from a set of vehicle speed profiles, under a classification perspective. Each data instance is a speed versus distance plot depicting over a hundred profiles on a 100-m-long road span. We proposed three different ways of deriving features: The first one relies on the raw speed measurements; the second one uses image recognition techniques; and the third one is based on functional data analysis. We input them into most commonly used classification algorithms, and a comparative analysis demonstrated that a functional description of speed profiles with wavelet transforms seems to outperform the other approaches with most of the tested classifiers. It also highlighted that random forests yield an accurate detection of traffic signals, regardless of the chosen feature extraction method, while keeping a remarkably low confusion rate with stop signs.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bocher, Erwan; Picaut, Judicaël; Guillaume, Gwenaël; Petit, Gwendall; Fortin, Nicolas; Can, Arnaud; Palominos, Sylvain; Gauvreau, Benoit;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    We present at the LSSR journey, the ENERGIC-OD project and the application developed by the LAB-STICC (CNRS) and LEA (IFSTTAR) laboratories to collect noise data from smartphones.; We present the ENERGIC-OD project and the application developed by the LAB-STICC (CNRS) and LEA (IFSTTAR) laboratories to collect noise data from smartphones.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Purwanto, Joko;
    Publisher: Cogitatio
    Country: France

    Les inégalités économiques et sociales ont fortement crû à la fin du 20e siècle. Au cours de cette période, l'Europe a connu un taux de chômage croissant, une baisse des salaires pour les travailleurs les moins qualifiés, un ralentissement de la croissance des revenus et un écart se creusant de plus en plus en entre les plus riches et les plus pauvres. Sur la base de l'hypothèse de la relation entre condition socio-économique et comportement de la mobilité, il est nécessaire de se demander comment ces inégalités socio-économiques se manifestent dans les transports : les accroissements de l'inégalité des revenus conduisent-ils à une augmentation de l'inégalité dans les transports et les pratiques de mobilité ? Cette question est particulièrement pertinente à l'heure où certains pays européens sont confrontés à des inégalités socio-économiques élevées suite à la crise financière qui a débuté en 2008. En utilisant les résultats d'enquêtes sur le transport, la propriété de la voiture et la mobilité (comme les EGT de l'Île-de-France) entre les années 80 et la fin des années 90, cet article tente de répondre à cette question. Les résultats montrent comment les inégalités dans le transport et la pratique de la mobilité ont diminué au cours de la période, en dépit d'une augmentation des inégalités de revenus. Nous constatons que l'évolution de l'inégalité socio-économique, et plus particulièrement l'inégalité des revenus était tout simplement l'un des facteurs déterminants de l'évolution des inégalités dans le transport et les pratiques de mobilité. En fait, le rôle le plus important dans cette évolution n'est pas joué par l'évolution des inégalités de revenu, mais par l'évolution de l'élasticité entre le transport et le revenu. Réduire les effets de cette élasticité devrait être la principale cible des politiques de transport pour réduire les inégalités dans les pratiques de transport et de mobilité. Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France) region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lamort-Bouché, Marion; Sarnin, Philippe; Kok, Gerjo; Rouat, Sabrina; Péron, Julien; Letrilliart, Laurent; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: France

    OBJECTIVES: The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol provides a structured framework to develop, implement and evaluate complex interventions. The main objective of this review was to identify and describe the content of the interventions developed in the field of cancer with the IM protocol. Secondary objectives were to assess their fidelity to the IM protocol and to review their theoretical frameworks. METHODS: Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Pascal, Francis, and BDSP databases were searched. All titles and abstracts were reviewed. A standardized extraction form was developed. All included studies were reviewed by two reviewers blinded to each other. RESULTS: Sixteen studies were identified, and these reported 15 interventions. The objectives were to increase cancer screening participation (n=7), early consultation (n=1) and aftercare / quality of life among cancer survivors (n=7). Six reported a complete participatory planning group and seven described a complete logic model of the problem. Ten studies described a complete logic model of change. The main theoretical frameworks used were the theory of planned behaviour (n=8), the transtheoretical model (n=6), the health belief model (n=6) and the social cognitive theory (n=6). The environment was rarely integrated in the interventions (n=4). Five interventions were reported as effective. CONCLUSIONS: Culturally relevant interventions were developed with the IM protocol that were effective to increase cancer screening and reduce social disparities, particularly when they were developed through a participative approach and integrated the environment. Stakeholders' involvement and the role of the environment were heterogeneously integrated in the interventions.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chabot , Armelle;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Invited presentation in conjunction with the grand opening of the MAPIL lab (Mizzou Asphalt Pavement and Innovation Laboratory) at the University of Missoury, Columbia (USA).http://moasphalt.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/MAPIL-Grand-Opening-March-27-Detailed-Program-final.pdf

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