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  • Authors: Rychert, Catherine A.; Harmon, Nick; Tharimena, Saikiran;
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    Authors: Serrano, Martín; Davy, Steven; Johnsson, Martin; Donnelly, Willie; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Trnkova, Petra;

    Looking into a rather narrow circle of material and people today usually associated with the origins of photomechanical printing, this paper aims to point out two fairly general phenomena and their limits, or their potential, which we regularly come across, both in the study of period sources and the reading of later publications. The first case regards the nationalization which pervades the present and past historiography of photomechanical printing, in other words, the existence of further parallel narratives. The second phenomenon which is stressed, is the networks of personal, institutional, historical, social and cultural links which formed the base for the development and distribution of the first photomechanical prints and technologies.

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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
    Other ORP type . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Jansen, Yvonn; Dragicevic, Pierre; Isenberg, Petra; Alexander, Jason; +4 Authors

    Physical representations of data have existed for thousands of years. Yet it is now that advances in digital fabrication, actuated tangible interfaces, and shape-changing displays are spurring an emerging area of research that we call Data Physicalization. It aims to help people explore, understand, and communicate data using computer-supported physical data representations. We call these representations physicalizations, analogously to visualizations -- their purely visual counterpart. In this article, we go beyond the focused research questions addressed so far by delineating the research area, synthesizing its open challenges and laying out a research agenda.

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  • Authors: Martinet, S.; Meynet, G.; Ekström, S.; Simón-Díaz, S.; +10 Authors

    Spectroscopic studies of Galactic O and B stars show that many stars with masses above 8 M$_{\odot}$ are observed in the HR diagram just beyond the Main-Sequence (MS) band predicted by stellar models computed with a moderate overshooting. This may be an indication that the convective core sizes in stars in the upper part of the HR diagram are larger than predicted by these models. Combining stellar evolution models and spectroscopic parameters derived for a large sample of Galactic O and B stars, including brand new information about their projected rotational velocities, we reexamine the question of the convective core size in MS massive stars. We confirm that for stars more massive than about 8 M$_{\odot}$, the convective core size at the end of the MS phase increases more rapidly with the mass than in models computed with a constant step overshoot chosen to reproduce the main sequence width in the low mass range (around 2 M$_{\odot}$). This conclusion is valid for both the cases of non-rotating models and rotating models either with a moderate or a strong angular momentum transport. The increase of the convective core mass with the mass obtained from the TAMS position is, however, larger than the one deduced from the surface velocity drop for masses above about 15 M$_{\odot}$. Although observations available at the moment cannot decide what is the best choice between the core sizes given by the TAMS and the velocity drop, we discuss different methods to get out of this dilemma. At the moment, comparisons with eclipsing binaries seem to favor the solution given by the velocity drop. While we confirm the need for larger convective cores at higher masses, we find tensions in-between different methods for stars more massive than 15 M$_{\odot}$. The use of single-aged stellar populations (non-interacting binaries or stellar clusters) would be a great asset to resolve this tension.

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    Authors: Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.;
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    Authors: Beggan, C.; Kelly, G.; Baillie, O.; Viljanen, A.; +1 Authors

    The overall objective of Work Package 5 of the EURISGIC project (see website eurisgic.eu) is defined as being: “Estimate the largest possible GIC flowing anywhere in the European high-voltage power grid, based on archive data.” This document is a technical note (deliverable item D5.1) for the results of this work package. For each of the project team members participating in the work package (FMI – Finland; Neurospace – Sweden; IRF – Sweden; NASA and Catholic University of America - USA; BGS - UK) we summarise activities related to worst case scenario modelling: activities such as research into extreme event statistical methods, theoretical extreme event modelling and individual (historical and hypothetical) event studies. We note that research is continuing and therefore some results reported here are subject to further confirmation in published scientific journals.

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    Authors: Costi, Leone; George Thuruthel, Thomas; Iida, Fumiya;

    Soft strain sensors have been widely used for the development of electronic skins both for robotic and wearable applications. To sense contact location on a wide surface, the standard methodology consists of square grids of strain fibers that are able to detect single contact points but fail to detect multiple ones simultaneously. To avoid such a problem, state-of-the-art technologies implement sequential sampling that isolates each sensing node, but at the cost of a lower sampling rate. This theoretical study proposes a design methodology for multi-touch detection for parallel processed grid-based strain sensors. The fundamental idea is to add diagonal grids of varying orientations on top of the standard architecture to achieve multi-touch detection. The maximum number of detectable points and the number of required strain fibers and the overall geometry of the sensor are studied along with the error introduced when trying to sense more contact points than designed for. Overall, compared with state-of-the-art design methodologies, our work provides a guideline for more efficient grid-based architectures that are able to simultaneously detect up to a fixed finite number of contact points.

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    Apollo
    Other ORP type . 2021
    Data sources: Apollo
    https://doi.org/10.17863/cam.6...
    Collection . 2021
    Data sources: Sygma
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      Apollo
      Other ORP type . 2021
      Data sources: Apollo
      https://doi.org/10.17863/cam.6...
      Collection . 2021
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

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    Authors: Crise, Alessandro; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mariani, Patrizio; Petihakis, George; +4 Authors

    In the field of ocean observing, the term of “observatory” is often used without a unique meaning. A clear and unified definition of observatory is needed in order to facilitate the communication in a multidisciplinary community, to capitalize on future technological innovations and to support the observatory design based on societal needs. In this paper, we present a general framework to define the next generation Marine OBservatory (MOB), its capabilities and functionalities in an operational context. The MOB consists of four interconnected components or “gears” (observation infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support capacity, and knowledge generation engine) that are constantly and adaptively interacting with each other. Therefore, a MOB is a complex infrastructure focused on a specific geographic area with the primary scope to generate knowledge via data synthesis and thereby addressing scientific, societal, or economic challenges. Long-term sustainability is a key MOB feature that should be guaranteed through an appropriate governance. MOBs should be open to innovations and good practices to reduce operational costs and to allow their development in quality and quantity. A deeper biological understanding of the marine ecosystem should be reached with the proliferation of MOBs, thus contributing to effective conservation of ecosystems and management of human activities in the oceans. We provide an actionable model for the upgrade and development of sustained marine observatories producing knowledge to support science-based economic and societal decisions. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2018-09-07

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  • Authors: Rychert, Catherine A.; Harmon, Nick; Tharimena, Saikiran;
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    Authors: Serrano, Martín; Davy, Steven; Johnsson, Martin; Donnelly, Willie; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Trnkova, Petra;

    Looking into a rather narrow circle of material and people today usually associated with the origins of photomechanical printing, this paper aims to point out two fairly general phenomena and their limits, or their potential, which we regularly come across, both in the study of period sources and the reading of later publications. The first case regards the nationalization which pervades the present and past historiography of photomechanical printing, in other words, the existence of further parallel narratives. The second phenomenon which is stressed, is the networks of personal, institutional, historical, social and cultural links which formed the base for the development and distribution of the first photomechanical prints and technologies.

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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
    Other ORP type . 2020
    License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Jansen, Yvonn; Dragicevic, Pierre; Isenberg, Petra; Alexander, Jason; +4 Authors

    Physical representations of data have existed for thousands of years. Yet it is now that advances in digital fabrication, actuated tangible interfaces, and shape-changing displays are spurring an emerging area of research that we call Data Physicalization. It aims to help people explore, understand, and communicate data using computer-supported physical data representations. We call these representations physicalizations, analogously to visualizations -- their purely visual counterpart. In this article, we go beyond the focused research questions addressed so far by delineating the research area, synthesizing its open challenges and laying out a research agenda.

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  • Authors: Martinet, S.; Meynet, G.; Ekström, S.; Simón-Díaz, S.; +10 Authors

    Spectroscopic studies of Galactic O and B stars show that many stars with masses above 8 M$_{\odot}$ are observed in the HR diagram just beyond the Main-Sequence (MS) band predicted by stellar models computed with a moderate overshooting. This may be an indication that the convective core sizes in stars in the upper part of the HR diagram are larger than predicted by these models. Combining stellar evolution models and spectroscopic parameters derived for a large sample of Galactic O and B stars, including brand new information about their projected rotational velocities, we reexamine the question of the convective core size in MS massive stars. We confirm that for stars more massive than about 8 M$_{\odot}$, the convective core size at the end of the MS phase increases more rapidly with the mass than in models computed with a constant step overshoot chosen to reproduce the main sequence width in the low mass range (around 2 M$_{\odot}$). This conclusion is valid for both the cases of non-rotating models and rotating models either with a moderate or a strong angular momentum transport. The increase of the convective core mass with the mass obtained from the TAMS position is, however, larger than the one deduced from the surface velocity drop for masses above about 15 M$_{\odot}$. Although observations available at the moment cannot decide what is the best choice between the core sizes given by the TAMS and the velocity drop, we discuss different methods to get out of this dilemma. At the moment, comparisons with eclipsing binaries seem to favor the solution given by the velocity drop. While we confirm the need for larger convective cores at higher masses, we find tensions in-between different methods for stars more massive than 15 M$_{\odot}$. The use of single-aged stellar populations (non-interacting binaries or stellar clusters) would be a great asset to resolve this tension.

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    Authors: Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.;
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    Authors: Beggan, C.; Kelly, G.; Baillie, O.; Viljanen, A.; +1 Authors

    The overall objective of Work Package 5 of the EURISGIC project (see website eurisgic.eu) is defined as being: “Estimate the largest possible GIC flowing anywhere in the European high-voltage power grid, based on archive data.” This document is a technical note (deliverable item D5.1) for the results of this work package. For each of the project team members participating in the work package (FMI – Finland; Neurospace – Sweden; IRF – Sweden; NASA and Catholic University of America - USA; BGS - UK) we summarise activities related to worst case scenario modelling: activities such as research into extreme event statistical methods, theoretical extreme event modelling and individual (historical and hypothetical) event studies. We note that research is continuing and therefore some results reported here are subject to further confirmation in published scientific journals.

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    Authors: Costi, Leone; George Thuruthel, Thomas; Iida, Fumiya;

    Soft strain sensors have been widely used for the development of electronic skins both for robotic and wearable applications. To sense contact location on a wide surface, the standard methodology consists of square grids of strain fibers that are able to detect single contact points but fail to detect multiple ones simultaneously. To avoid such a problem, state-of-the-art technologies implement sequential sampling that isolates each sensing node, but at the cost of a lower sampling rate. This theoretical study proposes a design methodology for multi-touch detection for parallel processed grid-based strain sensors. The fundamental idea is to add diagonal grids of varying orientations on top of the standard architecture to achieve multi-touch detection. The maximum number of detectable points and the number of required strain fibers and the overall geometry of the sensor are studied along with the error introduced when trying to sense more contact points than designed for. Overall, compared with state-of-the-art design methodologies, our work provides a guideline for more efficient grid-based architectures that are able to simultaneously detect up to a fixed finite number of contact points.

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    Apollo
    Other ORP type . 2021
    Data sources: Apollo
    https://doi.org/10.17863/cam.6...
    Collection . 2021
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      Apollo
      Other ORP type . 2021
      Data sources: Apollo
      https://doi.org/10.17863/cam.6...
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    Authors: Van Audenhaege, Loïc; Broad, Emmeline; Hendry, Katharine R; Huvenne, Veerle A I;

    We used a multibeam echosounder (Reson7125) front-mounted onto the ROV Isis (Dive D333, DY081 expedition) to map the terrain of a vertical feature marking the edge of a deep-sea glacial trough (Labrador Sea, [63°51.9'N, 53°16.9'W, depth: 650 to 800 m]). After correction of the ROV navigation (i.e. merging of USBL and DVL), bathymetry [m] and backscatter [nominal unit] were extracted at a resolution of 0.3 m and different terrain descriptors were computed: Slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), Terrain Ruggedness Index, Roughness, Mean and Gaussian curvatures and orientations (Northness and Eastness), at scales of 0.9, 3 and 9 m. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the terrain descriptors enabled to retrieve 4 terrain clusters and their associated confusion index, to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the terrain. This approach also underlined the presence of geomorphic features in the wall terrain. The extraction of the backscatter intensity for the first time considering vertical terrains, opens space for further acquisition and processing development. Using photographs collected by the ROV Isis (Dive D334, DY081 expedition), epibenthic fauna was annotated. Each image was linked to a terrain cluster in the 3D space and pooled into 20-m² bins of images. A Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix was constructed from morphospecies abundances. This enabled to test for differences of assemblage composition among clusters. Few species appeared more abundant in particular clusters such as L. pertusa in high-roughness cluster. However, nMDS suggested differences in assemblage composition but these dissimilarities were not strongly delineated. Whereas the design of this study may have limited distinctive differences among assemblages, this shows the potential of this cost-effective method of top-down habitat mapping to be applied in undersampled benthic habitat in order to provide a priori knwoledge for defining appropriate sampling design.

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    Authors: Crise, Alessandro; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mariani, Patrizio; Petihakis, George; +4 Authors

    In the field of ocean observing, the term of “observatory” is often used without a unique meaning. A clear and unified definition of observatory is needed in order to facilitate the communication in a multidisciplinary community, to capitalize on future technological innovations and to support the observatory design based on societal needs. In this paper, we present a general framework to define the next generation Marine OBservatory (MOB), its capabilities and functionalities in an operational context. The MOB consists of four interconnected components or “gears” (observation infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support capacity, and knowledge generation engine) that are constantly and adaptively interacting with each other. Therefore, a MOB is a complex infrastructure focused on a specific geographic area with the primary scope to generate knowledge via data synthesis and thereby addressing scientific, societal, or economic challenges. Long-term sustainability is a key MOB feature that should be guaranteed through an appropriate governance. MOBs should be open to innovations and good practices to reduce operational costs and to allow their development in quality and quantity. A deeper biological understanding of the marine ecosystem should be reached with the proliferation of MOBs, thus contributing to effective conservation of ecosystems and management of human activities in the oceans. We provide an actionable model for the upgrade and development of sustained marine observatories producing knowledge to support science-based economic and societal decisions. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2018-09-07

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