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111 Research products, page 1 of 12

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wathuo, Miriam; Medley, Graham; Nokes, D. James; Munywoki, Patrick K.;
    Publisher: F1000Research
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT | Household transmission of... (090853), WT | Defining pathways of resp... (102975)

    Background: A better understanding of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemiology requires realistic estimates of RSV shedding patterns, quantities shed, and identification of the related underlying factors.\ud \ud Methods: RSV infection data arise from a cohort study of 47 households with 493 occupants, in coastal Kenya, during the 2009/2010 RSV season. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken every 3 to 4 days and screened for RSV using a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The amount of virus shed was quantified by calculating the ‘area under the curve’ using the trapezoidal rule applied to rescaled PCR cycle threshold output. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify correlates of amount of virus shed.\ud \ud Results: The median quantity of virus shed per infection episode was 29.4 (95% CI: 15.2, 54.2) log10 ribonucleic acid (RNA) copies. Young age (<1 year), presence of upper respiratory symptoms, intra-household acquisition of infection, an individual’s first infection episode in the RSV season, and having a co-infection of RSV group A and B were associated with increased amount of virus shed.\ud \ud Conclusions: The findings provide insight into which groups of individuals have higher potential for transmission, information which may be useful in designing RSV prevention strategies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Deans, Zandra C.; Costa, Jose Luis; Cree, Ian; Dequeker, Els; Edsjo, Anders; Henderson, Shirley; Hummel, Michael; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Loddo, Marco; Machado, Jose Carlos; +12 more
    Project: WT

    The clinical demand for mutation detection within multiple genes from a single tumour sample requires molecular diagnostic laboratories to develop rapid, high-throughput, highly sensitive, accurate and parallel testing within tight budget constraints. To meet this demand, many laboratories employ next-generation sequencing (NGS) based on small amplicons. Building on existing publications and general guidance for the clinical use of NGS and learnings from germline testing, the following guidelines establish consensus standards for somatic diagnostic testing, specifically for identifying and reporting mutations in solid tumours. These guidelines cover the testing strategy, implementation of testing within clinical service, sample requirements, data analysis and reporting of results. In conjunction with appropriate staff training and international standards for laboratory testing, these consensus standards for the use of NGS in molecular pathology of solid tumours will assist laboratories in implementing NGS in clinical services.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dijk, E.M.S.; Dimitropoulos, Harry; Iatropoulou, Katerina; Foufoulas, Ioannis;
    Publisher: OpenAIRE2020
    Project: WT , EC | OpenAIRE2020 (643410)

    This deliverable relates to the work carried out under task T8.3, “Research Impact Services”. The task’s focus is on the development of pilots with selected National funding agencies and infrastructure initiatives in order to serve them with the OpenAIRE research impact suite of services. A major service that OpenAIRE provides is the linking of research results to funding. Aside from importing the links from the repositories and journals, OpenAIRE designs, develops and enhances mining algorithms that identify and extract funding information from the text of scientific publications. With the help of NOADs we have initiated bi-lateral, often informal, collaborations with national funding agencies to facilitate mining extraction on their data. This is an on-going activity throughout the duration of the project. Currently the national funding agencies that we are working with are: FCT (Portugal), ARC (Australia), NHMRC (Australia), NSF & NIH (USA), SFI (Ireland), “Ministry of Science Education and Sport” & "Croatian Science Foundation” (Croatia), NWO (Netherlands), and DFG (Germany). This deliverable describes the nature of the data of the identified National funding agencies, as well as their export technologies, and provides the specification of the general-purpose OpenAIRE services required to support research impact measurements.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Gauntlett, David;
    Publisher: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    Both the ‘green’ and the ‘gold’ models of open access tend to preserve the world of academic journals, where anonymous reviewers typically dictate what may appear. David Gauntlett looks forward to a system which gets rid of them altogether.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2009
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Curtis, Lesley A.;
    Publisher: Personal Social Services Research Unit, University of Kent
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    This is the seventeenth volume in a series of reports from a Department of Health-funded programme of work based at the Personal Social Services Research Unit at the University of Kent.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2007
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chataway, Jo; Chaturvedi, Kalpana; Hanlin, Rebecca; Mugwagwa, Julius; Smith, James; Wield, David;
    Publisher: ESRC Innogen Centre
    Project: WT

    Science, technology and innovation are vital to poverty alleviation and improved health. However, although improving immediate access to health care and existing health technologies is essential, simply importing technologies and products is not enough to create sustainable health care systems. Countries also need to build the capacities and institutions to develop their own technology and innovations which are tailored to local needs.\ud \ud But for innovation to meet local needs, countries need to develop dynamic and integrated health innovation systems. This is for several reasons. Firstly, there tends to be a profound lack of understanding between those in the world of healthcare and those who work in health innovation and production of pharmaceuticals. And unless researchers and producers network with local users and consumers, they are much less likely to respond to local needs.\ud \ud Secondly improved innovation capacity that responds to the needs of users does not occur in isolation - it is not the product of one-off scientific inventions, heavy investment in science or one-off policies. Rather it is dependent on networks through government institutions, private companies and a wide variety of end-user groupings at national, international and sectoral levels. Finally, knowledge is not accumulated and built up in one set of institutions and transferred to another set - it results instead from the interplay between different organisations and institutions.\ud \ud There is now an unparalleled opportunity to address both the issues of neglected diseases and to develop such integrated health innovation systems. Huge investments are currently being made in global health programmes which seek to improve health services and health innovation systems. The challenge for African policymakers is to adopt strategies for integrating global programmes with local and regional health innovation systems.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Montgomery, Lucy;
    Publisher: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    The crisis in academic publishing raises fundamental questions about the nature of scholarly enquiry and highlights a lack of connection between the prized forms of scholarship and contemporary readers. Lucy Montgomery explains why partnering with an academic publisher could produce a revolutionary approach to making scholarly work available for free.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marks, Sarah;
    Publisher: SAGE
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    This article will briefly explore some of the ways in which the past has been used as a means to talk about psychotherapy as a practice and as a profession, its impact on individuals and society, and the ethical debates at stake. It will show how, despite the multiple and competing claims about psychotherapy’s history and its meanings, historians themselves have, to a large degree, not attended to the intellectual and cultural development of many therapeutic approaches. This absence has the potential consequence of implying that therapies have emerged as value-free techniques, outside of a social, economic and political context. The relative neglect of psychotherapy, by contrast with the attention historians have paid to other professions, particularly psychiatry, has also underplayed its societal impact. This article will foreground some of the instances where psychotherapy has become an object of emerging historical interest, including the new research that forms the substance of this special issue of History of the Human Sciences.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Scholtens, Salome; Postma, Dirkje S.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Melen, Erik; Nyberg, Fredrik; Pershagen, Goeran; Jarvis, Deborah; +44 more
    Project: WT | A second-generation genom... (084703)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Devenoges, Anne;
    Project: WT

    The present survey evaluates the attitude, towards Open Access, of the teaching staff of the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences at the University of Geneva (Switzerland). It contributes to the reflection currently in progress at the BSES, the Faculty's Library – and beyond, at the University of Geneva – about the place which this new type of scientific publishing should be granted in the future. As a conclusion this study suggests various actions which might be taken, so that Open Access can find its proper place within the institution. In addition, one interrogation underlying this study deals with the differences which may exist between scientific disciplines – such as the ones, often referred to, between STM (Sciences, Technique and Medicine) and SHS (Social and Human Sciences) – concerning on the one hand current communication practices among scientists and, on the other, their attitude towards Open Access.

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