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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martin, Adam R.; Rapidel, Bruno; Roupsard, Olivier; Van den Meersche, Karel; +3 Authors

    Understanding species differences in plant functional traits has been critical in developing a mechanistic understanding of terrestrial ecological processes. Greater attention is now being placed on understanding the extent, causes and consequences of intraspecific trait variation (ITV). ITV is especially important in governing ecological processes in cropping systems, where only a small number of species or genotypes exist in high abundances. However, it remains unclear if key principles of trait-based ecology – namely the leaf economics spectrum (LES) – also describe intraspecific variation in crop functional biology. There also remains a need to understand whether ITV within crops is random, or structured across environmental, management-related or biological levels of organization in agroecosystems. We employed a nested design field survey to evaluate ITV in leaf traits in coffee (Coffea arabica), one of the world's most widespread tropical crops. We evaluated ITV in eight physiological, morphological and chemical leaf traits, across five nested categorical levels (sites, management systems, spatial location, plant identity, branch identity). We compared patterns of LES trait covariation in coffee, to interspecific patterns observed across over 700 wild plant species. Patterns of bivariate and multivariate ITV in coffee were broadly consistent with, but considerably weaker than, interspecific patterns associated with the LES, indicating that crops may systematically diverge from global patterns of trait trade-offs observed in wild plants. Physiological traits varied most widely (coefficient of variation (cv) 42–107%), followed by morphological traits (cv = 15–38%) and chemical traits (cv = 3–11%). Physiological ITV was best explained by the site in which a coffee plant was growing (17–55% explained), while ITV for chemical traits was best explained by management treatments within sites (25–36%); morphological ITV was higher even at the individual tree level or branch level and remained largely unexplained. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial selection and high-resource agricultural environments lead crops to systematically deviate from patterns of leaf trait covariation observed across wild plants species. Coupled with an understanding of how different traits vary systematically across multiple levels of biological organization, these findings help integrate ITV into future analyses of agroecosystem structure and function. Martin et al. Functional EcologyFunctional leaf trait data for Coffea arabica (var. Caturra).

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2016
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DANS-EASYarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2016
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Li, Lanping; Cadotte, Marc W.; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; +1 Authors

    1. Phylogenetic and trait-based approaches to community ecology are increasingly being used to test for nonrandom community assembly and are now being applied to assessments of habitat restoration. A critical question for the restoration of tropical forests is how plantings influence the recruitment of new species, and specifically the phylogenetic and functional diversity of restored habitats. 2. We examined 8 years (2006-2014) of tropical forest recruitment in two restoration planting compositions (12 animal-dispersed and 12 wind-dispersed tree species) and a control (no plantings) in 24 plots, Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Specifically, we assessed the influence of plantings on newly arriving individuals’ phylogenetic, functional, taxonomic diversity, abundance and the change of these measures during early succession. 3. The recruiting individuals’ phylogenetic, functional, taxonomic diversity and abundance increased through succession. Both animal-dispersed plantings and wind-dispersed plantings appeared to accelerate forest succession more than controls (natural succession), and the recruits’ diversities in the animal-dispersed plantings were marginally higher after 8 years. We did not find any difference in recruiting individuals’ phylogenetic and functional dispersion (measured as standardized effect sizes) in any given year or when measured as turnover between successive pairs of years between planting composition and the control plots. 4. Recruiting individuals were phylogenetically clustered during early forest restoration regardless of treatment. At the same time, the recruits transitioned from appearing to be constructed randomly to being clustered based on functional traits, which suggests the increase of recruits’ functional similarity during early succession. 5. Synthesis and applications. The plantings accelerated the increase of recruiting individuals’ phylogenetic, functional, taxonomic diversity and abundance during early succession, although planting treatment did not appear to alter community assembly mechanisms of recruiting individuals. Our findings support restoration plantings by showing that planting trees with animal dispersal syndromes could accelerate forest restoration more than unassisted forest regeneration. Further, communities appeared to be phylogenetically and functionally clustered during early succession regardless of initial planted composition. Thus, while overall diversity increased with plantings, if a restoration goal is to maximize phylogenetic or functional dispersion, the planting composition tested did not provide means to achieve this goal, at least during early succession.19-Jun-2017 Maximum likelihood treeMolecular phylogeny estimated from maximum likelihoodLi et al. 2017 ML tree.nwkTrait dataTrait data for species observed in restoration plotsLi et al. 2017 Trait data.xlsxPlot composition -including planted individualsLi et al. 2017 Recruitment data by plots (with transplanted species).xlsxPlot composition -EXCLUDING planted individualsLi et al. 2017 Recruitment data by plots.xlsx

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2017
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2017
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jacobson, Bailey; Dubois, Fréderique; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.;

    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity within landscapes influences the distribution and phenotypic diversity of individuals both within and across populations. Phenotype-habitat correlations arise either through phenotypes within an environment altering through the process of natural selection or plasticity, or phenotypes remaining constant but individuals altering their distribution across environments. The mechanisms of non-random movement and phenotype-dependent habitat choice may account for associations within highly heterogeneous systems, such as streams, where local adaptation may be negated, plasticity too costly and movement is particularly important. Despite growing attention, however, few empirical tests have yet to be conducted. Here we provide a test of phenotype-dependent habitat choice and ask: 1) if individuals collected from a single habitat type continue to select original habitat; 2) if decisions are phenotype-dependent and functionally related to habitat requirements; and 3) if phenotypic-sorting continues despite increasing population density. To do so we both conducted experimental trials manipulating the density of four stream-fish species collected from either a single riffle or pool and developed a game-theoretical model exploring the influence of individuals’ growth rate, sampling and competitive abilities as well as interference on distribution across two habitats as a function of density. Our experimental trials show individuals selecting original versus alternative habitats differed in their morphologies, that morphologies were functionally related to habitat-type swimming demands, and that phenotypic-sorting remained significant (although decreased) as density increased. According to our model this only occurs when phenotypes have contrasting habitat preferences and only one phenotype disperses (i.e. selects alternatives) in response to density pressures. This supports our explanation that empirical habitat selection was due to a combination of collecting a fraction of mobile individuals with different habitat preferences and the exclusion of individuals via scramble competition at increased densities. Phenotype-dependent habitat choice can thereby account for observed patterns of natural stream-fish distribution. DataJacobsonetal2017This file contains the density level, trial, selected habitat, partial warp and length and size variables for each of the individuals and species tested within artificial stream experiments.

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2017
    Data sources: B2FIND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2017
      Data sources: B2FIND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bennett, Joseph R.; Maxwell, Sean L.; Martin, Amanda E.; Chadès, Iadine; +2 Authors

    1.The question of when to monitor and when to act is fundamental to applied ecology, and notoriously difficult to answer. Value of information (VOI) theory holds great promise to help answer this question for many management problems. However, VOI theory in applied ecology has only been demonstrated in single-decision problems, and has lacked explicit links between monitoring and management costs. 2.Here, we present an extension of VOI theory for solving multi-unit decisions of whether to monitor before managing, while explicitly accounting for monitoring costs. Our formulation helps to choose the optimal monitoring/management strategy among groups of management units (e.g. species, habitat patches), and can be used to examine the benefits of partial and repeat monitoring. 3.To demonstrate our approach, we use case simulated studies of single-species protection that must choose among potential habitat areas, and classification and management of multiple species threatened with extinction. We provide spreadsheets and code to illustrate the calculations and facilitate application. Our case studies demonstrate the utility of predicting the number of units with a given outcome for problems with probabilities of discrete states, and the efficiency of having a flexible approach to manage according to monitoring outcomes. 4.Synthesis and applications. The decision to act or gather more information can have serious consequences for management. No decision, including the decision to monitor, is risk-free. Our multi-unit expansion of Value of Information (VOI) theory can reduce the risk in monitoring/acting decisions for many applied ecology problems. While our approach cannot account for the potential value of discovering previously unknown threats or ecological processes via monitoring programs, it can provide quantitative guidance on whether to monitor before acting, and which monitoring/management actions are most likely to meet management objectives. Multi-unit VOI functionsCode to simulate and analyze data for multi-unit value of information (VOI) problems in Bennett et al. (J. Appl. Ecol.)voi functions multi unit.txt

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2018
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DRYAD; ZENODO; Feder...arrow_drop_down
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2018
      Data sources: B2FIND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dubuc-Messier, Gabrielle; Caro, Samuel P.; Perrier, Charles; van Oers, Kees; +2 Authors

    Understanding the causes and consequences of population phenotypic divergence is a central goal in ecology and evolution. Phenotypic divergence among populations can result from genetic divergence, phenotypic plasticity or a combination of the two. However, few studies have deciphered these mechanisms for populations geographically close and connected by gene flow, especially in the case of personality traits. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to explore the genetic basis of the phenotypic divergence observed between two blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) populations inhabiting contrasting habitats separated by 25 km, for two personality traits (exploration speed and handling aggression), one physiological trait (heart rate during restraint) and two morphological traits (tarsus length and body mass). Blue tit nestlings were removed from their population and raised in a common garden for up to five years. We then compared adult phenotypes between the two populations, as well as trait-specific Qst and Fst . Our results revealed differences between populations similar to those found in the wild, suggesting a genetic divergence for all traits. Qst - Fst comparisons revealed that the traits divergences likely result from dissimilar selection patterns rather than from genetic drift. Our study is one of the first to report a Qst - Fst comparison for personality traits and adds to the growing body of evidence that population genetic divergence is possible at a small scale for a variety of traits including behavioural traits. Data filesArchive.zip

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2018
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2018
    License: CC 0
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2018
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2018
      License: CC 0
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    Authors: Manning, Cara C M; Zheng, Zhiyin; Fenwick, Lindsay; McCulloch, Ross D; +6 Authors

    This dataset contains methane and nitrous oxide dissolved gas concentration, dissolved methane carbon isotope, and ancillary hydrographic data from research cruises in the North American Arctic Ocean between 2015-2018. Ocean samples for methane and nitrous oxide analysis were collected from Niskin bottles mounted on a CTD rosette. Water was collected into glass serum bottles and allowed to overflow three times before preserving with mercuric chloride and sealing with with butyl rubber stoppers and aluminum crimp seals. Gas concentrations were determined using a purge and trap system coupled to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, following the method of Capelle et al. (2015). Equilibrium dry atmospheric concentrations were 328.25, 329.14, 330.11, and 330.96 ppb for N2O and 1919.64, 1933.67, 1934.92, and 1933.50 ppb for CH4 in 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively. Equilibrium dissolved concentrations were calculated from the measured temperature and salinity following Wiesenburg and Guinasso (1979) for CH4 and Weiss and Price (1980) for N2O. Equilibrium concentrations were calculated based on sample temperature and salinity and the atmospheric N2O or CH4 concentrations measured at Barrow, Alaska by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (Dlugokencky et al., 2020a,b), with corrections to local sea level pressure and 100% humidity. Oxygen concentration was determined using an oxygen sensor mounted on the Niskin rosette, calibrated with discrete samples analyzed by Winkler titration. The mixed layer depth was defined based on a potential density difference criterion of 0.125 kg/m³ relative to the density at 5 m depth, using CTD profiles binned to 1 m. The mixed layer depth was set to 5 m as a minimum. The instantaneous gas transfer velocities and fluxes are based on the instantaneous wind speed at the time of sampling. The 30-day weighted gas transfer velocities and fluxes are integrated over the residence time of the gas in the mixed layer, using up to the prior 30 days of observations, following the method of Teeter et al. (2018) as described in the main manuscript of Manning et al. (2022). The 60-day weighted gas transfer velocities and fluxes are integrated over the residence time of the gas in the mixed layer, using the prior 60 days of observations, following the method of Teeter et al. (2018) as described in the main manuscript of Manning et al. (2022). Atmospheric sea level pressure was obtained from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis product, which is provided by the NOAA-ESRL Physical Sciences Laboratory (https://psl.noaa.gov/data/gridded). Fractional ice cover was obtained from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (https://osi-saf.eumetsat.int). Sea ice concentration product AMSR-2 (identifier OSI-408) was used in 2017–2018 and SSMIS (identifier OSI-401-b) was used in 2015–2016.

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    PANGAEA
    Dataset . 2022
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      PANGAEA
      Dataset . 2022
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Campbell, Lesley G.; Lee, David; Shukla, Kruti; Waite, Thomas A.; +2 Authors

    Premise of the study: Agricultural practices routinely create opportunities for crops to hybridize with wild relatives, leading to crop gene introgression into wild genomes. Conservationists typically worry this introgression could lead to genetic homogenization of wild populations, over and above the central concern of transgene escape. Alternatively, viewing introgression as analogous to species invasion, we suggest that increased genetic diversity may likewise be an undesirable outcome. Methods: Here, we compare the sensitivity of conventional population genetic metrics with species diversity indices as indicators of the impact of gene flow on genetic diversity. We illustrate this novel approach using multilocus genotype data (12 allozyme loci) from 10 wild (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima) and eight putative crop–wild hybrid beet populations (B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris × B. vulgaris subsp. maritima) scattered throughout Europe. Results: Conventional population genetic metrics mostly failed to detect shifts in genetic composition of putative hybrid populations. By contrast, species diversity indices unambiguously revealed increased genetic diversity in putative hybrid populations. Discussion: We encourage other workers to explore the utility of our more sensitive approach for risk assessment prior to the release of transgenic crops, with a view toward widespread adoption of our method in studies aimed at detecting allelic invasion. Genotyped Beta vulgaris after Structure ClusteringThis file contains allozyme genotypes of Beta vulgaris individuals collected from cultivated (ssp. vulgaris), wild (ssp. maritima), and putative crop-wild hybrid populations in Europe.

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2018
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2018
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Petermann, Jana S.; Kratina, Pavel; Marino, Nicolas A. C.; MacDonald, A. Andrew M.; +2 Authors

    Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources), top-down interactions (predators) and dispersal at two spatial scales in the field. We found that resource addition strongly increased the abundance and reduced the richness of microfauna communities. Community composition shifted in a predictable way towards assemblages dominated by flagellates and ciliates but with lower abundance and richness of algae and amoebae. While all functional groups responded strongly and predictably to resource addition, similarity among communities at the species level decreased, suggesting a role of stochasticity in species-level assembly processes. Dispersal limitation did not affect the communities. Since our design excluded potential priority effects we can attribute the differences in community similarity to increased demographic stochasticity of resource-enriched communities related to erratic changes in population sizes of some species. In contrast to resources, predators and environmental conditions had negligible effects on community structure. Our results demonstrate that bromeliad microfauna communities are strongly controlled by bottom-up forces. They further suggest that the relative importance of stochasticity may change with productivity and with the organizational level at which communities are examined. protozoa_data.tsvThis file contains a tab-delimited dataset of all protozoa morphospecies counts, as well as sample and treatment information.protozoa_enviro_dataThis file contains a tab-delimited dataset of all environtmental data taken for all samples, including treatment and sampling identification information. This dataset can be merged with protozoa_data.tsv to reproduce the analyses in Petermann et al.protozoa_variables_explanation.rtfThis is a text document (rich text format) which contains metadata regarding all the variables in both .tsv files.

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2015
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2016
    License: CC 0
    Borealis
    Dataset . 2021
    Data sources: Datacite
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2015
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2016
      License: CC 0
      Borealis
      Dataset . 2021
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Hamilton, Stephen G.; Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E.; Sahanatien, Vicki; +2 Authors

    Background: Sea ice across the Arctic is declining and altering physical characteristics of marine ecosystems. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have been identified as vulnerable to changes in sea ice conditions. We use sea ice projections for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from 2006 – 2100 to gain insight into the conservation challenges for polar bears with respect to habitat loss using metrics developed from polar bear energetics modeling. Principal Findings: Shifts away from multiyear ice to annual ice cover throughout the region, as well as lengthening ice-free periods, may become critical for polar bears before the end of the 21st century with projected warming. Each polar bear population in the Archipelago may undergo 2–5 months of ice-free conditions, where no such conditions exist presently. We identify spatially and temporally explicit ice-free periods that extend beyond what polar bears require for nutritional and reproductive demands. Conclusions/Significance: Under business-as-usual climate projections, polar bears may face starvation and reproductive failure across the entire Archipelago by the year 2100. Depth-bathymetry fileUse as land mask file when depth=0depth.ncMITgcm_SeaIce_GFDL_CM3_RCP85_2006-2100Monthly average sea ice and snow conditions in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago 2006-2100 under climate warming scenario RCP85. Model output in netcdf files, time steps of 1 month starting on January 2006.MITgcm_SeaIce_GFDL_CM3_RCP85_2006_2100.zip

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2014
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      DANS-EASY
      Dataset . 2014
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Losdat, Sylvain; Germain, Ryan R.; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Arcese, Peter; +1 Authors

    Inbreeding is widely hypothesized to shape mating systems and population persistence, but such effects will depend on which traits show inbreeding depression. Population and evolutionary consequences could be substantial if inbreeding decreases sperm performance and hence decreases male fertilisation success and female fertility. However, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits has rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural variation in inbreeding. Further, the hypothesis that inbreeding could increase within-ejaculate variation in sperm traits, and thereby further affect male fertilisation success has not been explicitly tested. We used a wild pedigreed song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population, where frequent extra-pair copulations likely create strong post-copulatory competition for fertilisation success, to quantify effects of male coefficient of inbreeding (f) on key sperm performance traits. We found no evidence of inbreeding depression in sperm motility, longevity or velocity, and the within-ejaculate variance in sperm velocity did not increase with male f. Contrary to inferences from highly inbred captive and experimental populations, our results imply that moderate inbreeding will not necessarily constrain sperm performance in wild populations. Consequently, the widely observed individual-level and population-level inbreeding depression in male and female fitness may not stem from reduced sperm performance in inbred males. Data for inbreeding depression in sperm performance (Losdat et al. 2017)Losdat et al_ ID in sperm song sparrows.txt

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    DANS-EASY
    Dataset . 2018
    Data sources: B2FIND
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    DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
    Dataset . 2018
    License: CC 0
    Borealis
    Dataset . 2021
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Dataset . 2018
      Data sources: B2FIND
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      DRYAD; ZENODO; NARCIS
      Dataset . 2018
      License: CC 0
      Borealis
      Dataset . 2021
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martin, Adam R.; Rapidel, Bruno; Roupsard, Olivier; Van den Meersche, Karel; +3 Authors

    Understanding species differences in plant functional traits has been critical in developing a mechanistic understanding of terrestrial ecological processes. Greater attention is now being placed on understanding the extent, causes and consequences of intraspecific trait variation (ITV). ITV is especially important in governing ecological processes in cropping systems, where only a small number of species or genotypes exist in high abundances. However, it remains unclear if key principles of trait-based ecology – namely the leaf economics spectrum (LES) – also describe intraspecific variation in crop functional biology. There also remains a need to understand whether ITV within crops is random, or structured across environmental, management-related or biological levels of organization in agroecosystems. We employed a nested design field survey to evaluate ITV in leaf traits in coffee (Coffea arabica), one of the world's most widespread tropical crops. We evaluated ITV in eight physiological, morphological and chemical leaf traits, across five nested categorical levels (sites, management systems, spatial location, plant identity, branch identity). We compared patterns of LES trait covariation in coffee, to interspecific patterns observed across over 700 wild plant species. Patterns of bivariate and multivariate ITV in coffee were broadly consistent with, but considerably weaker than, interspecific patterns associated with the LES, indicating that crops may systematically diverge from global patterns of trait trade-offs observed in wild plants. Physiological traits varied most widely (coefficient of variation (cv) 42–107%), followed by morphological traits (cv = 15–38%) and chemical traits (cv = 3–11%). Physiological ITV was best explained by the site in which a coffee plant was growing (17–55% explained), while ITV for chemical traits was best explained by management treatments within sites (25–36%); morphological ITV was higher even at the individual tree level or branch level and remained largely unexplained. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial selection and high-resource agricultural environments lead crops to systematically deviate from patterns of leaf trait covariation observed across wild plants species. Coupled with an understanding of how different traits vary systematically across multiple levels of biological organization, these findings help integrate ITV into future analyses of agroecosystem structure and function. Martin et al. Functional EcologyFunctional leaf trait data for Coffea arabica (var. Caturra).

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    Dataset . 2016
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      Dataset . 2016
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Li, Lanping; Cadotte, Marc W.; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; +1 Authors

    1. Phylogenetic and trait-based approaches to community ecology are increasingly being used to test for nonrandom community assembly and are now being applied to assessments of habitat restoration. A critical question for the restoration of tropical forests is how plantings influence the recruitment of new species, and specifically the phylogenetic and functional diversity of restored habitats. 2. We examined 8 years (2006-2014) of tropical forest recruitment in two restoration planting compositions (12 animal-dispersed and 12 wind-dispersed tree species) and a control (no plantings) in 24 plots, Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Specifically, we assessed the influence of plantings on newly arriving individuals’ phylogenetic, functional, taxonomic diversity, abundance and the change of these measures during early succession. 3. The recruiting individuals’ phylogenetic, functional, taxonomic diversity and abundance increased through succession. Both animal-dispersed plantings and wind-dispersed plantings appeared to accelerate forest succession more than controls (natural succession), and the recruits’ diversities in the animal-dispersed plantings were marginally higher after 8 years. We did not find any difference in recruiting individuals’ phylogenetic and functional dispersion (measured as standardized effect sizes) in any given year or when measured as turnover between successive pairs of years between planting composition and the control plots. 4. Recruiting individuals were phylogenetically clustered during early forest restoration regardless of treatment. At the same time, the recruits transitioned from appearing to be constructed randomly to being clustered based on functional traits, which suggests the increase of recruits’ functional similarity during early succession. 5. Synthesis and applications. The plantings accelerated the increase of recruiting individuals’ phylogenetic, functional, taxonomic diversity and abundance during early succession, although planting treatment did not appear to alter community assembly mechanisms of recruiting individuals. Our findings support restoration plantings by showing that planting trees with animal dispersal syndromes could accelerate forest restoration more than unassisted forest regeneration. Further, communities appeared to be phylogenetically and functionally clustered during early succession regardless of initial planted composition. Thus, while overall diversity increased with plantings, if a restoration goal is to maximize phylogenetic or functional dispersion, the planting composition tested did not provide means to achieve this goal, at least during early succession.19-Jun-2017 Maximum likelihood treeMolecular phylogeny estimated from maximum likelihoodLi et al. 2017 ML tree.nwkTrait dataTrait data for species observed in restoration plotsLi et al. 2017 Trait data.xlsxPlot composition -including planted individualsLi et al. 2017 Recruitment data by plots (with transplanted species).xlsxPlot composition -EXCLUDING planted individualsLi et al. 2017 Recruitment data by plots.xlsx

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    Dataset . 2017
    Data sources: B2FIND
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      Dataset . 2017
      Data sources: B2FIND
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    Authors: Jacobson, Bailey; Dubois, Fréderique; Peres-Neto, Pedro R.;

    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity within landscapes influences the distribution and phenotypic diversity of individuals both within and across populations. Phenotype-habitat correlations arise either through phenotypes within an environment altering through the process of natural selection or plasticity, or phenotypes remaining constant but individuals altering their distribution across environments. The mechanisms of non-random movement and phenotype-dependent habitat choice may account for associations within highly heterogeneous systems, such as streams, where local adaptation may be negated, plasticity too costly and movement is particularly important. Despite growing attention, however, few empirical tests have yet to be conducted. Here we provide a test of phenotype-dependent habitat choice and ask: 1) if individuals collected from a single habitat type continue to select original habitat; 2) if decisions are phenotype-dependent and functionally related to habitat requirements; and 3) if phenotypic-sorting continues despite increasing population density. To do so we both conducted experimental trials manipulating the density of four stream-fish species collected from either a single riffle or pool and developed a game-theoretical model exploring the influence of individuals’ growth rate, sampling and competitive abilities as well as interference on distribution across two habitats as a function of density. Our experimental trials show individuals selecting original versus alternative habitats differed in their morphologies, that morphologies were functionally related to habitat-type swimming demands, and that phenotypic-sorting remained significant (although decreased) as density increased. According to our model this only occurs when phenotypes have contrasting habitat preferences and only one phenotype disperses (i.e. selects alternatives) in response to density pressures. This supports our explanation that empirical habitat selection was due to a combination of collecting a fraction of mobile individuals with different habitat preferences and the exclusion of individuals via scramble competition at increased densities. Phenotype-dependent habitat choice can thereby account for observed patterns of natural stream-fish distribution. DataJacobsonetal2017This file contains the density level, trial, selected habitat, partial warp and length and size variables for each of the individuals and species tested within artificial stream experiments.

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    Dataset . 2017
    Data sources: B2FIND
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