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  • 2014-2023
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  • Frontiers in Neurology
  • Neuroinformatics

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Carsten M. Klingner; Carsten M. Klingner; Fabian Kattlun; Lena Krolopp; +7 Authors

    Learning from errors as the main mechanism for motor adaptation has two fundamental prerequisites: a mismatch between the intended and performed movement and the ability to adapt motor actions. Many neurological patients are limited in their ability to transfer an altered motor representation into motor action due to a compromised motor pathway. Studies that have investigated the effects of a sustained and unresolvable mismatch over multiple days found changes in brain processing that seem to optimize the potential for motor learning (increased drive for motor adaptation and a weakening of the current implementation of motor programs). However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects can be induced experimentally and more important after shorter periods. Here, we used task-based and resting-state fMRI to investigate whether the known pattern of cortical adaptations due to a sustained mismatch can be induced experimentally by a short (20 min), but unresolvable, sensory–motor mismatch by impaired facial movements in healthy participants by transient facial tapping. Similar to long-term mismatch, we found plastic changes in a network that includes the striatal, cerebellar and somatosensory brain areas. However, in contrast to long-term mismatch, we did not find the involvement of the cerebral motor cortex. The lack of the involvement of the motor cortex can be interpreted both as an effect of time and also as an effect of the lack of a reduction in the motor error. The similar effects of long-term and short-term mismatch on other parts of the sensory–motor network suggest that the brain-state caused by long-term mismatch can be (at least partly) induced by short-term mismatch. Further studies should investigate whether short-term mismatch interventions can be used as therapeutic strategy to induce an altered brain-state that increase the potential for motor learning.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström;
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2015
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: Ortner, Marion; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Barat, Martina; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; +9 Authors

    Very early Alzheimer's disease (AD) - i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia - is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes, such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex and also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of hippocampus and amygdala overlap in healthy persons. Thus, we hypothesized that increased alteration of iFC patterns along AD is not limited to the hippocampus but also concerns the amygdala, independent from atrophy. To address this hypothesis, we applied structural and functional resting-state MRI in healthy controls (CON, n = 33) and patients with AD in the stages of MCI (AD-MCI, n = 38) and mild dementia (AD-D, n = 36). Outcome measures were voxel-based morphometry (VBM) values and region-of-interest-based iFC maps of basolateral amygdala, which has extended cortical connectivity. Amygdala VBM values were progressively reduced in patients (CON > AD-MCI and AD-D). Amygdala iFC was progressively reduced along impairment severity (CON > AD-MCI > AD-D), particularly for hippocampus, temporal lobes, and fronto-parietal areas. Notably, decreased iFC was independent of amygdala atrophy. Results demonstrate progressively impaired amygdala intrinsic connectivity in temporal and fronto-parietal lobes independent from increasing amygdala atrophy in very early AD. Data suggest that early AD disrupts intrinsic connectivity of medial temporal lobe key regions, including that of amygdala.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Charlotte Zejlon; Charlotte Zejlon; Dominik Nakhostin; Sebastian Winklhofer; +13 Authors

    ObjectivesThe lack of systematic evidence on neuroimaging findings in motor neuron diseases (MND) hampers the diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus, we aimed at performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI features in MND including their histopathological correlation.MethodsIn a comprehensive literature search, out of 5941 unique publications, 223 records assessing brain and spinal cord MRI findings in MND were eligible for a qualitative synthesis. 21 records were included in a random effect model meta-analysis.ResultsOur meta-analysis shows that both T2-hyperintensities along the corticospinal tracts (CST) and motor cortex T2*-hypointensitites, also called “motor band sign”, are more prevalent in ALS patients compared to controls [OR 2.21 (95%-CI: 1.40–3.49) and 10.85 (95%-CI: 3.74–31.44), respectively]. These two imaging findings correlate to focal axonal degeneration/myelin pallor or glial iron deposition on histopathology, respectively. Additionally, certain clinical MND phenotypes such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) seem to present with distinct CNS atrophy patterns.ConclusionsAlthough CST T2-hyperintensities and the “motor band sign” are non-specific imaging features, they can be leveraged for diagnostic workup of suspected MND cases, together with certain brain atrophy patterns. Collectively, this study provides high-grade evidence for the usefulness of MRI in the diagnostic workup of suspected MND cases.Systematic review registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier: CRD42020182682.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2022
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Beisteiner, Roland;
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Mohammed Rupawala; Hamid Dehghani; Hamid Dehghani; Samuel J. E. Lucas; +2 Authors

    Qualitative clinical assessments of the recovery of awareness after severe brain injury require an assessor to differentiate purposeful behavior from spontaneous behavior. As many such behaviors are minimal and inconsistent, behavioral assessments are susceptible to diagnostic errors. Advanced neuroimaging tools can bypass behavioral responsiveness and reveal evidence of covert awareness and cognition within the brains of some patients, thus providing a means for more accurate diagnoses, more accurate prognoses, and, in some instances, facilitated communication. The majority of reports to date have employed the neuroimaging methods of functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electroencephalography (EEG). However, each neuroimaging method has its own advantages and disadvantages (e.g., signal resolution, accessibility, etc.). Here, we describe a burgeoning technique of non-invasive optical neuroimaging—functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)—and review its potential to address the clinical challenges of prolonged disorders of consciousness. We also outline the potential for simultaneous EEG to complement the fNIRS signal and suggest the future directions of research that are required in order to realize its clinical potential.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Joseph Kuchling; Joseph Kuchling; Joseph Kuchling; Joseph Kuchling; +4 Authors

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are autoimmune central nervous system conditions with increasing incidence and prevalence. While MS is the most frequent inflammatory CNS disorder in young adults, NMOSD is a rare disease, that is pathogenetically distinct from MS, and accounts for approximately 1% of demyelinating disorders, with the relative proportion within the demyelinating CNS diseases varying widely among different races and regions. Most immunomodulatory drugs used in MS are inefficacious or even harmful in NMOSD, emphasizing the need for a timely and accurate diagnosis and distinction from MS. Despite distinct immunopathology and differences in disease course and severity there might be considerable overlap in clinical and imaging findings, posing a diagnostic challenge for managing neurologists. Differential diagnosis is facilitated by positive serology for AQP4-antibodies (AQP4-ab) in NMOSD, but might be difficult in seronegative cases. Imaging of the brain, optic nerve, retina and spinal cord is of paramount importance when managing patients with autoimmune CNS conditions. Once a diagnosis has been established, imaging techniques are often deployed at regular intervals over the disease course as surrogate measures for disease activity and progression and to surveil treatment effects. While the application of some imaging modalities for monitoring of disease course was established decades ago in MS, the situation is unclear in NMOSD where work on longitudinal imaging findings and their association with clinical disability is scant. Moreover, as long-term disability is mostly attack-related in NMOSD and does not stem from insidious progression as in MS, regular follow-up imaging might not be useful in the absence of clinical events. However, with accumulating evidence for covert tissue alteration in NMOSD and with the advent of approved immunotherapies the role of imaging in the management of NMOSD may be reconsidered. By contrast, MS management still faces the challenge of implementing imaging techniques that are capable of monitoring progressive tissue loss in clinical trials and cohort studies into treatment algorithms for individual patients. This article reviews the current status of imaging research in MS and NMOSD with an emphasis on emerging modalities that have the potential to be implemented in clinical practice.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stefano eCaproni; Marco eMuti; Antonio eDi Renzo; Massimo ePrincipi; +4 Authors

    BACKGROUND: Visual perception deficits are a recurrent manifestation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, structural abnormalities of fronto-parietal areas and subcortical regions, implicated in visual stimuli analysis, have been observed in PD patients with cognitive decline and visual hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salient aspects of visual perception in cognitively unimpaired PD patients. METHODS: Eleven right-handed non-demented right-sided onset PD patients without visuospatial impairment or hallucinations and eleven healthy controls were studied with fMRI while performing a specific visuoperceptual/visuospatial paradigm that allowed to highlight the specific process underlying visuospatial judgment. RESULTS: Significant changes in both cortical areas and subcortical regions involved in visual stimuli processing were observed. In particular, PD patients showed a reduced activation for the right insula, left putamen, bilateral caudate and right hippocampus, as well as an over-activation of the right dorso-lateral prefrontal and of the posterior parietal cortices, particularly in the right hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: We found that both loss of efficiency and compensatory mechanisms occur in PD patients, providing further insight into the pathophysiological role of the functional alterations of basal ganglia and limbic structures in the impairment of visuoperceptual and visuospatial functions observed in PD.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2014
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    Article . 2014
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Martin Gorges; Hans-Peter Müller; Jan Kassubek;

    The investigation of the human oculomotor system by eye movement recordings provides an approach to behavior and its alterations in disease. The neurodegenerative process underlying parkinsonian syndromes, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multisystem atrophy (MSA) changes structural and functional brain organization, and thus affects eye movement control in a characteristic manner. Video-oculography has been established as a non-invasive recording device for eye movements, and systematic investigations of eye movement control in a clinical framework have emerged as a functional diagnostic tool in neurodegenerative parkinsonism. Disease-specific brain atrophy in parkinsonian syndromes has been reported for decades, these findings were refined by studies utilizing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and task-based/task-free functional MRI—both MRI techniques revealed disease-specific patterns of altered structural and functional brain organization. Here, characteristic disturbances of eye movement control in parkinsonian syndromes and their correlations with the structural and functional brain network alterations are reviewed. On this basis, we discuss the growing field of graph-based network analysis of the structural and functional connectome as a promising candidate for explaining abnormal phenotypes of eye movement control at the network level, both in health and in disease.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2018
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Alexander Seiler; Alexander Seiler; Ulrike Nöth; Ulrike Nöth; +23 Authors

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard imaging technique for diagnosis and monitoring of many neurological diseases. However, the application of conventional MRI in clinical routine is mainly limited to the visual detection of macroscopic tissue pathology since mixed tissue contrasts depending on hardware and protocol parameters hamper its application for the assessment of subtle or diffuse impairment of the structural tissue integrity. Multiparametric quantitative (q)MRI determines tissue parameters quantitatively, enabling the detection of microstructural processes related to tissue remodeling in aging and neurological diseases. In contrast to measuring tissue atrophy via structural imaging, multiparametric qMRI allows for investigating biologically distinct microstructural processes, which precede changes of the tissue volume. This facilitates a more comprehensive characterization of tissue alterations by revealing early impairment of the microstructural integrity and specific disease-related patterns. So far, qMRI techniques have been employed in a wide range of neurological diseases, including in particular conditions with inflammatory, cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative pathology. Numerous studies suggest that qMRI might add valuable information, including the detection of microstructural tissue damage in areas appearing normal on conventional MRI and unveiling the microstructural correlates of clinical manifestations. This review will give an overview of current qMRI techniques, the most relevant tissue parameters and potential applications in neurological diseases, such as early (differential) diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and evaluating effects of therapeutic interventions.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Carsten M. Klingner; Carsten M. Klingner; Fabian Kattlun; Lena Krolopp; +7 Authors

    Learning from errors as the main mechanism for motor adaptation has two fundamental prerequisites: a mismatch between the intended and performed movement and the ability to adapt motor actions. Many neurological patients are limited in their ability to transfer an altered motor representation into motor action due to a compromised motor pathway. Studies that have investigated the effects of a sustained and unresolvable mismatch over multiple days found changes in brain processing that seem to optimize the potential for motor learning (increased drive for motor adaptation and a weakening of the current implementation of motor programs). However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects can be induced experimentally and more important after shorter periods. Here, we used task-based and resting-state fMRI to investigate whether the known pattern of cortical adaptations due to a sustained mismatch can be induced experimentally by a short (20 min), but unresolvable, sensory–motor mismatch by impaired facial movements in healthy participants by transient facial tapping. Similar to long-term mismatch, we found plastic changes in a network that includes the striatal, cerebellar and somatosensory brain areas. However, in contrast to long-term mismatch, we did not find the involvement of the cerebral motor cortex. The lack of the involvement of the motor cortex can be interpreted both as an effect of time and also as an effect of the lack of a reduction in the motor error. The similar effects of long-term and short-term mismatch on other parts of the sensory–motor network suggest that the brain-state caused by long-term mismatch can be (at least partly) induced by short-term mismatch. Further studies should investigate whether short-term mismatch interventions can be used as therapeutic strategy to induce an altered brain-state that increase the potential for motor learning.

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    Article . 2022
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2022
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      Article . 2022
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström;
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    Article . 2015
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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    Authors: Ortner, Marion; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Barat, Martina; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; +9 Authors

    Very early Alzheimer's disease (AD) - i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia - is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes, such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex and also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of hippocampus and amygdala overlap in healthy persons. Thus, we hypothesized that increased alteration of iFC patterns along AD is not limited to the hippocampus but also concerns the amygdala, independent from atrophy. To address this hypothesis, we applied structural and functional resting-state MRI in healthy controls (CON, n = 33) and patients with AD in the stages of MCI (AD-MCI, n = 38) and mild dementia (AD-D, n = 36). Outcome measures were voxel-based morphometry (VBM) values and region-of-interest-based iFC maps of basolateral amygdala, which has extended cortical connectivity. Amygdala VBM values were progressively reduced in patients (CON > AD-MCI and AD-D). Amygdala iFC was progressively reduced along impairment severity (CON > AD-MCI > AD-D), particularly for hippocampus, temporal lobes, and fronto-parietal areas. Notably, decreased iFC was independent of amygdala atrophy. Results demonstrate progressively impaired amygdala intrinsic connectivity in temporal and fronto-parietal lobes independent from increasing amygdala atrophy in very early AD. Data suggest that early AD disrupts intrinsic connectivity of medial temporal lobe key regions, including that of amygdala.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Charlotte Zejlon; Charlotte Zejlon; Dominik Nakhostin; Sebastian Winklhofer; +13 Authors

    ObjectivesThe lack of systematic evidence on neuroimaging findings in motor neuron diseases (MND) hampers the diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus, we aimed at performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI features in MND including their histopathological correlation.MethodsIn a comprehensive literature search, out of 5941 unique publications, 223 records assessing brain and spinal cord MRI findings in MND were eligible for a qualitative synthesis. 21 records were included in a random effect model meta-analysis.ResultsOur meta-analysis shows that both T2-hyperintensities along the corticospinal tracts (CST) and motor cortex T2*-hypointensitites, also called “motor band sign”, are more prevalent in ALS patients compared to controls [OR 2.21 (95%-CI: 1.40–3.49) and 10.85 (95%-CI: 3.74–31.44), respectively]. These two imaging findings correlate to focal axonal degeneration/myelin pallor or glial iron deposition on histopathology, respectively. Additionally, certain clinical MND phenotypes such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) seem to present with distinct CNS atrophy patterns.ConclusionsAlthough CST T2-hyperintensities and the “motor band sign” are non-specific imaging features, they can be leveraged for diagnostic workup of suspected MND cases, together with certain brain atrophy patterns. Collectively, this study provides high-grade evidence for the usefulness of MRI in the diagnostic workup of suspected MND cases.Systematic review registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier: CRD42020182682.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2022
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Beisteiner, Roland;
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      2017 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Frontiers
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    Authors: Mohammed Rupawala; Hamid Dehghani; Hamid Dehghani; Samuel J. E. Lucas; +2 Authors

    Qualitative clinical assessments of the recovery of awareness after severe brain injury require an assessor to differentiate purposeful behavior from spontaneous behavior. As many such behaviors are minimal and inconsistent, behavioral assessments are susceptible to diagnostic errors. Advanced neuroimaging tools can bypass behavioral responsiveness and reveal evidence of covert awareness and cognition within the brains of some patients, thus providing a means for more accurate diagnoses, more accurate prognoses, and, in some instances, facilitated communication. The majority of reports to date have employed the neuroimaging methods of functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electroencephalography (EEG). However, each neuroimaging method has its own advantages and disadvantages (e.g., signal resolution, accessibility, etc.). Here, we describe a burgeoning technique of non-invasive optical neuroimaging—functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)—and review its potential to address the clinical challenges of prolonged disorders of consciousness. We also outline the potential for simultaneous EEG to complement the fNIRS signal and suggest the future directions of research that are required in order to realize its clinical potential.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Article . 2018
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2018
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Joseph Kuchling; Joseph Kuchling; Joseph Kuchling; Joseph Kuchling; +4 Authors

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are autoimmune central nervous system conditions with increasing incidence and prevalence. While MS is the most frequent inflammatory CNS disorder in young adults, NMOSD is a rare disease, that is pathogenetically distinct from MS, and accounts for approximately 1% of demyelinating disorders, with the relative proportion within the demyelinating CNS diseases varying widely among different races and regions. Most immunomodulatory drugs used in MS are inefficacious or even harmful in NMOSD, emphasizing the need for a timely and accurate diagnosis and distinction from MS. Despite distinct immunopathology and differences in disease course and severity there might be considerable overlap in clinical and imaging findings, posing a diagnostic challenge for managing neurologists. Differential diagnosis is facilitated by positive serology for AQP4-antibodies (AQP4-ab) in NMOSD, but might be difficult in seronegative cases. Imaging of the brain, optic nerve, retina and spinal cord is of paramount importance when managing patients with autoimmune CNS conditions. Once a diagnosis has been established, imaging techniques are often deployed at regular intervals over the disease course as surrogate measures for disease activity and progression and to surveil treatment effects. While the application of some imaging modalities for monitoring of disease course was established decades ago in MS, the situation is unclear in NMOSD where work on longitudinal imaging findings and their association with clinical disability is scant. Moreover, as long-term disability is mostly attack-related in NMOSD and does not stem from insidious progression as in MS, regular follow-up imaging might not be useful in the absence of clinical events. However, with accumulating evidence for covert tissue alteration in NMOSD and with the advent of approved immunotherapies the role of imaging in the management of NMOSD may be reconsidered. By contrast, MS management still faces the challenge of implementing imaging techniques that are capable of monitoring progressive tissue loss in clinical trials and cohort studies into treatment algorithms for individual patients. This article reviews the current status of imaging research in MS and NMOSD with an emphasis on emerging modalities that have the potential to be implemented in clinical practice.

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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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      Frontiers in Neurology
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Stefano eCaproni; Marco eMuti; Antonio eDi Renzo; Massimo ePrincipi; +4 Authors

    BACKGROUND: Visual perception deficits are a recurrent manifestation in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, structural abnormalities of fronto-parietal areas and subcortical regions, implicated in visual stimuli analysis, have been observed in PD patients with cognitive decline and visual hallucinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salient aspects of visual perception in cognitively unimpaired PD patients. METHODS: Eleven right-handed non-demented right-sided onset PD patients without visuospatial impairment or hallucinations and eleven healthy controls were studied with fMRI while performing a specific visuoperceptual/visuospatial paradigm that allowed to highlight the specific process underlying visuospatial judgment. RESULTS: Significant changes in both cortical areas and subcortical regions involved in visual stimuli processing were observed. In particular, PD patients showed a reduced activation for the right insula, left putamen, bilateral caudate and right hippocampus, as well as an over-activation of the right dorso-lateral prefrontal and of the posterior parietal cortices, particularly in the right hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: We found that both loss of efficiency and compensatory mechanisms occur in PD patients, providing further insight into the pathophysiological role of the functional alterations of basal ganglia and limbic structures in the impairment of visuoperceptual and visuospatial functions observed in PD.

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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2014
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    Article . 2014
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