Data collection apparatus was installed by drilling and refreezing of boreholes. Thermistors are placed directly in the soil at shallow depths (to 3m) or in cased steel pipe at greater depths (to 42 m). Pipes are filled with a non-conductive, environmentally benign fluid. Data collection at most sites is by HOBO logger. Collection is at intervals of 6 or 4 hours throughout the year. Data are collected annually. Data will be posted here once analysis is completed and a report is published to the public domain. Sites are near the settlement at Pauline Cove on Herschel Island, principally on Collinson Head. At Herschel Island we are monitoring the temperature in permafrost to see how it responds to climate change. The work is in collaboration with the Park Rangers. We have published one scientific paper about this work, in which we showed that the permafrost has warmed up over the last 100 years, just as the climate has done. We are continuing to measure ground temperatures at several sites. One of the sites is near the ice cellar, where we find that the cellar is colder on average than the surrounding permafrost, because in winter the cold outside air mixes efficiently as it percolates into the cellar through cracks.
Geomicrobiology Methods: Sediment sampling using the box core included bulk surface sediment bags for incubation experiments (mock oil spills) and ethanol-preserved aliquots of sediment for further genomic analysis (DNA sequencing for microbial community composition and biodiversity) at multiple stations. Sediment push cores were sectioned and ethanol-preserved for genomic analysis. Water was collected on board using the CTD-Rosette at multiple stations. At each of the stations, bottom and surface water was collected and filtered on board for future molecular analysis. Mock oil spills consist of small bottles in which artificial seawater is combined with marine sediment and either diesel, bunker fuel or crude oil in different concentrations. Bottles are incubated under either oxic (air in the headspace of the sealed bottles) or anoxic (90:10 N2/CO2 headspace) in the bottles. Incubations are conducted both at 4°C to mimic cold ocean conditions, and at room temperature, which promotes a faster microbial response. Some experiments were set up on board, kept at 4°C, and transported back to Calgary while still incubating in coolers with data loggers to record the incubation temperature. Incubations last from weeks to months, during which time the experiments are subsampled for analysis of the crude oil or fuel composition (via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), oxygen and CO2 in the headspace (via gas chromatography) and sulphate in the aqueous phase (via ion chromatography). DNA extraction uses a modified bead beating approach either using commercial kits from MoBio (PowerSoil) or MP Biomedical (FastDNA Spin Kit) or using an in-house protocol. Using PCR, 16S rRNA genes from bulk environmental DNA extracts are amplified and purified for partial sequencing in the in-house Illumina MiSeq. Samples were made in July and August 2013 at stations 115, 176, 323, 600 and 633. In August and September 2014, stations KANE2B, KEN1, 304, 309, 312, 437, GSC11BC, 435, 407, 405 and 460 were sampled. In 2015, stations QMG3, QMG, 314, CB1 were sampled from August to November.
The global importance of mesopelagic fish is increasingly recognised, but they remain relatively poorly studied. This is particularly true in the Southern Ocean, where mesopelagic fishes are both key predators and prey, but where the remote environment makes sampling challenging. Despite this, multiple national Antarctic research programs have undertaken regional sampling of mesopelagic fish over several decades. However, data are dispersed, and sampling methodologies often differ precluding comparisons and limiting synthetic analyses. Here, we have collated and standardized existing survey data of mesopelagic fishes into a circumpolar dataset called Myctobase. To date, Myctobase holds 17,491 occurrence and 11,190 abundance records from 4780 net hauls from 72 different research cruises. Data include trait-based information of individuals including standard length, weight and life-stage. Data span across 37 years from 1991 to 2019. Detailed metadata has also been provided for each sampling event including the date, time, position (latitude, longitude, and depth), sampling protocol, net type, net mesh size, tow speed, volume filtered and haul type (routine, target, random). The dataset is comprised of three comma-separated files. The first file (event.csv) describes the survey methodology. The second file (groupOccurrence.csv) contains the catch data linked to the survey methodology by an event ID. The final file (individualOccurrence.csv) contains measurements of individuals. Each row contains the event and occurrence ID, which links each measurement to the first and second file. See associated metadata record for definitions and units for each variable in 'definitions.xlsx'. The final dataset was subject to quality control and validation processes. Entries with ambiguous or incomplete records were identified with a '0' in the column labelled 'validation' (event.csv) and a description of the missing data can be found in the proceeding column labelled 'validationDescription'. The taxonomic name for each individual was verified against the World Register of Marine Species (http://www.marinespecies.org/).
Steven H. Ferguson; Tara Bortoluzzi; various local hunters;
Steven H. Ferguson; Tara Bortoluzzi; various local hunters;
Publisher: Polar Data Catalogue
Biological samples and information were gathered from ringed and bearded seals by local hunters during annual community subsistance harvests in the community. Biological samples gathered by hunters include: blubber (fist size), liver, muscle (fist size), kidney, lower jaw, reproductive tract, stomach, intestine, blood (5 ml), and a small muscle sample in DMFO (for genetic analysis). Other sample information collected includes: species, sex, date and time of harvest, location, GPS coordinates, habitat, total length, axillary girth, hips girth, fat depth, body weight, and sculp weight. These biological samples and related information were collected from 25 ringed seals and 15 bearded seals in 2008. All samples are stored at -25C.
n the alpine area of the subarctic oceanic Faroe Islands, a combined warming and grazing experiment has been made for twelve years, beginning when an ITEX site was established in 2001. Ten Open Top Chambers (OTC) were placed inside an enclosure with control plots inside and outside the enclosure in order to study the combined effects on the vegetation of warming and sheep grazing. The study site is on the mountain of Sornfelli (62°04 ́N, 6°57 ́W) at 600 m a.s.l. on Streymoy in the central part of the Faroe Islands. Temperatures are measured 1 cm below the soil surface but due to the cloudy weather conditions in the area the experimental warming has varied from year to year with almost no effect some years. Despite this, significant changes in the measured vegetation parameters have been observed. The vegetation was monitored during the period in 0.25 cm 2 plots in the OTCs and control(grazed and un-grazed) and the changes in species composition as well as the changes between life forms are studied. Changes in leaf size of the two species Salix herbacea and Polygonum vivipara were measured And phenological studies of Silene acau lis were conducted during the growing season. A summary of the results from these studies will be presented and the effects of warming and grazing will be compared.
With the help of a local interpreter, semi-structured interviews were conducted with Elders and people still active on the land. Old and actual berry picking sites were identified on maps to evaluate spatial and temporal variability in vegetation and berry production. Interviews were recorded, filmed and transcribed. Similar projects are ongoing in Kangiqsujuaq and Umiujaq (Nunavik) as well as in Pangnirtung, Pond Inlet, Baker Lake and Kugluktuk (Nunavut), and Nain (Nunatsiavut).
The Emiliania huxleyi stoichiometry database contains data for the growth rate, cellular elemental content (particulate inorganic carbon - PIC, organic carbon - C, nitrogen - N and phosphorous - P) and C:N:P stoichiometry (PIC:C, C:N, N:P, C:P) compiled through a meta-analysis of literature reporting the results of laboratory experiments (cultures) on the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi, an important calcifying marine phytoplankton. The database also reports selected additional parameters including cell size and/or volume, and chlorophyll a as well as additional meta-data associated with the original data source including strain details and culture experimental conditions. A description of the parameters contained in the database can be found in the file "The Emiliania huxleyi stoichiometry database data description". Please cite this dataset as: Sheward et al. (2021) The Emiliania huxleyi stoichiometry database. doi:10.5281/zenodo.4601185
With the help of a local interpreter, semi-structured interviews were conducted with Elders and people still active on the land. Old and actual berry picking sites were identified on maps to evaluate spatial and temporal variability in vegetation and berry production. Interviews were recorded, filmed and transcribed. Similar projects are ongoing in Kangiqsualujjuaq, Kangiqsujuaq and Umiujaq (Nunavik) as well as in Pangnirtung, Pond Inlet and Kugluktuk (Nunavut), and Nain (Nunatsiavut).
41 large plots were established, varying in terms of moisture, cover and height of erect shrubs and in abundance and productivity of three berry species (Vaccinium vitis-idea L., Vaccinium L. uliginosum, Empetrum nigrum L.). A sub-sample of 15 quadras (70 cm x 70 cm) was conducted to evaluate the cover of erect shrubs, berries and various strata: Herbaceous, Rock, Water, Ground, Litter, Foam, Lichen, and Low shrub (0-50 cm), medium (50-100 cm) and high (> 100 cm). The fruits were harvested in 10 quadras (70 cm x 70 cm) in each sites and have subsequently been counted and weighed (fresh and dried) by ripening stage (1-Not ripe, 2-In ripening, 3-Ripe, 4-unsustainable fruit / prominent abortion). Several environmental variables were taken: slope, aspect, height of shrub cover and some soil characteristics (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, pH, moisture and temperature (time for 1 year)). In the same project, a paired approach was used to determine the impact of the presence, cover and height of erect shrubs. 402 pairs were made in August 2015 near Umiujaq. Each pair consisted of 4 forties (70 cm x 70 cm) arranged on a transect to cover three different conditions: under cover, open environment, external and internal margin of shrub patches. In each quadras shrubs cover (total and by species) and the recovery of berry species were assessed. In each quadra, a sub-sample of fruit was collected in 4 circles of 10 cm diameter always placed in the same locations. Then the fruits were weighed (fresh and dried) and sorted by maturity. The slope, soil type, type of environment, orientation of the transect and the average height of the shrub cover were also noted.