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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Janani, Leila; Mohtasham, Farideh; +7 Authors

    Abstract Background In recent years, Iran has made significant developments in the field of health sciences. However, the question is whether this considerable increase has affected public health. The research budget has always been negligible and unsustainable in developing countries. Hence, using the Payback Framework, we conducted this study to evaluate the impact of health research in Iran. Methods By using a cross-sectional method and two-stage stratified cluster sampling, the projects were randomly selected from six medical universities. A questionnaire was designed according to the Payback Framework and completed by the principle investigators of the randomly selected projects. Results The response rate was 70.4%. Ten point twenty-four percent (10.24%) of the studies had been ordered by a knowledge user organization. The average number of articles published in journals per project was 0.96, and half of the studies had no articles published in Scopus. The results of 12% of the studies had been used in systematic review articles and the same proportion had been utilized in clinical or public health guidelines. The results of 5.3% of the studies had been implemented in the Health Ministry’s policymaking. 62% of the studies were expected to affect health directly, 38% of them had been implemented, and among the latter 60% had achieved the expected results. Concerning the economic impacts, the most common expected impact was the reduction of ‘days of work missed because of illness or disability’ and impact on personal and health system costs. About 36% of these studies had been implemented, and 61% had achieved the expected impact. Conclusion In most aspects, the status of research impact needs improvement. A comparison of Iran’s ranking of knowledge creation and knowledge impact in the Global Innovation Index confirms these findings. The most important problems identified were, not conducting research based on national needs, and the lack of implementation of research results.

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    Collection . 2016
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Collection . 2016
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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      Collection . 2016
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Collection . 2016
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      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Mostafa, Mahmoud; Rider, Christopher; Suharsh Shah; Traves, Suzanne; +4 Authors

    Genes significantly modulated by budesonide or dexamethasone in A549 cells. The 330 genes showing significant induction (fold ≥2, P ≤ 0.05), or repression (fold ≤0.5, P ≤ 0.05), by budesonide (300 nM) or dexamethasone (1 μM), compared to control at 6 h, are listed along with the fold change and P value for each glucocorticoid. Genes are sorted alphabetically according to their official gene symbol. (XLSX 30 kb)

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    Dataset . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Dataset . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Dataset . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Dataset . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Henderson, Sara; Teft, Wendy; Kim, Richard;

    Spreadsheet of analyte concentrations and metabolite/parent ratios for tamoxifen and its metabolites. (XLSX 10 kb)

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    Dataset . 2016
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Dataset . 2016
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Dataset . 2016
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Dataset . 2016
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gagarinova, Alla; Phanse, Sadhna; Miroslaw Cygler; Babu, Mohan;

    Introduction: The threat bacterial pathogens pose to human health is increasing with the number and distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, while the rate of discovery of new antimicrobials dwindles. Proteomics is playing key roles in understanding the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, and in identifying disease outcome determinants. The physical associations identified by proteomics can provide the means to develop pathogen-specific treatment methods that reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance and alleviate the negative effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics on beneficial bacteria. Areas covered: This review discusses recent trends in proteomics and introduces new and developing approaches that can be applied to the study of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlying bacterial pathogenesis. The approaches examined encompass options for mapping proteomes as well as stable and transient interactions in vivo and in vitro. We also explored the coverage of bacterial and human-bacterial PPIs, knowledge gaps in this area, and how they can be filled. Expert commentary: Identifying potential antimicrobial candidates is confounded by the complex molecular biology of bacterial pathogenesis and the lack of knowledge about PPIs underlying this process. Proteomics approaches can offer new perspectives for mechanistic insights and identify essential targets for guiding the discovery of next generation antimicrobials.

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    Dataset . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Dataset . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Dataset . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Dataset . 2017
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Kerr, Craig H.; Skinnider, Michael A.; Andrews, Daniel D. T.; Madero, Angel M.; +5 Authors

    Additional file 6. Autocorrelation z scores between pairs of stimulated and unstimulated chromatograms.

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    Dataset . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Dataset . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Dataset . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      Dataset . 2020
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    Authors: Scott, Gavin A.; Terstege, Dylan J.; Roebuck, Andrew J.; Gorzo, Kelsea A.; +3 Authors

    Abstract The formation and retention of hippocampus-dependent memories is impacted by neurogenesis, a process that involves the production of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies demonstrate that increasing neurogenesis after memory formation induces forgetting of previously acquired memories. Neurogenesis-induced forgetting was originally demonstrated in mice, but a recent report suggests that the same effect may be absent in rats. Although a general species difference is possible, other potential explanations for these incongruent findings are that memories which are more strongly reinforced become resilient to forgetting or that perhaps only certain types of memories are affected. Here, we investigated whether neurogenesis-induced forgetting occurs in rats using several hippocampus-dependent tasks including contextual fear conditioning (CFC), the Morris Water Task (MWT), and touchscreen paired associates learning (PAL). Neurogenesis was increased following training using voluntary exercise for 4 weeks before recall of the previous memory was assessed. We show that voluntary running causes forgetting of context fear memories in a neurogenesis-dependent manner, and that neurogenesis-induced forgetting is present in rats across behavioral tasks despite differences in complexity or reliance on spatial, context, or object memories. In addition, we asked whether stronger memories are less susceptible to forgetting by varying the strength of training. Even with a very strong training protocol in the CFC task, we still observed enhanced forgetting related to increased neurogenesis. These results suggest that forgetting due to neurogenesis is a conserved mechanism that aids in the clearance of memories.

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    Collection . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Collection . 2021
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      Collection . 2021
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      Collection . 2021
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    Authors: Markoulakis, Roula; Da Silva, Andreina; Kodeeswaran, Sugy; Levitt, Anthony;

    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly had a significant impact on youth mental health and/or addiction concerns and exacerbated pre-existing gaps in access to mental health and/or addiction care. Caregivers can support their youth in seeking and participating in care, however, their experiences in doing so in the pandemic and their perspectives of their youth’s care needs are not well-understood. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to better understand youth’s and caregivers’ experiences accessing care during the pandemic, from the caregivers’ standpoint. Participants completed semi-structured qualitative interviews that focused on experiences seeking and accessing mental health and/or addiction services, with specific questions regarding their experiences accessing services during the pandemic. A total of 46 interviews were included in the thematic analysis of the data. Study findings highlight the impacts of the pandemic on everyday life, on youth mental health and/or addiction needs, on caregiver’s experiences seeking and accessing services for their youth, and on service access, including perceptions of virtual care modalities. The discussion highlights the importance of focusing on factors that enable youth’s participation in care, to ensure accessibility of appropriate and timely care that meets youth’s and families’ needs. Also highlighted is the frustration and despair experienced by caregivers seeking critical mental health and addictions supports for their youth during the pandemic, as well as the sense of isolation and of being left behind by the system. Identifying caregiver perspectives of youth mental health and addiction needs and service access during the COVID-19 pandemic provided important insights that can help inform approaches to youth mental health and addictions care during the pandemic and beyond.

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    Authors: Nix, Hayden P.; Weijer, Charles;

    Abstract Background Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the urgent need to discover effective therapies for COVID-19 prompted questions about the ethical problem of randomization along with its widely accepted solution: equipoise. In this scoping review, uses of equipoise in discussions of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of COVID-19 therapies are evaluated to answer three questions. First, how has equipoise been applied to COVID-19 research? Second, has equipoise been employed accurately? And third, do concerns about equipoise pose a barrier to the ethical conduct of COVID-19 RCTs? Methods Google Scholar and Pubmed were searched for articles containing substantial discussion about equipoise and COVID-19 RCTs. 347 article titles were screened, 91 full text articles were assessed, and 48 articles were included. Uses of equipoise were analyzed and abstracted into seven categories. Results and discussion Approximately two-thirds of articles (33/48 articles) used equipoise in a way that is consistent with the concept. They invoked equipoise to support (1) RCTs of specific therapies, (2) RCTs in general, and (3) the early termination of RCTs after achieving the primary outcome. Approximately one-third of articles (15/48 articles) used equipoise in a manner that is inconsistent with the concept. These articles argued that physician preference, widespread use of unproven therapies, patient preference, or expectation of therapeutic benefit may undermine equipoise and render RCTs unethical. In each case, the purported ethical problem can be resolved by correcting the use of equipoise. Conclusions Our findings highlight the continued relevance of equipoise as it supports the conduct of well-conceived RCTs and provides moral guidance to physicians and researchers as they search for effective therapies for COVID-19.

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    Authors: Lukasz Wlodarek; Cao, Feng; Alibhai, Faisal; Fekete, Adam; +9 Authors

    Abstract Background Radiotherapy is widely used and effective for treating brain tumours, but inevitably impairs cognition as it arrests cellular processes important for learning and memory. This is particularly evident in the aged brain with limited regenerative capacity, where radiation produces irreparable neuronal damage and activation of neighbouring microglia. The latter is responsible for increased neuronal death and contributes to cognitive decline after treatment. To date, there are few effective means to prevent cognitive deficits after radiotherapy. Methods Here we implanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from young or old (2- or 18-month-old, respectively) donor mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) into old recipients and assessed cognitive abilities 3Â months post-reconstitution. Results Regardless of donor age, GFP+ cells homed to the brain of old recipients and expressed the macrophage/microglial marker, Iba1. However, only young cells attenuated deficits in novel object recognition and spatial memory and learning in old mice post-irradiation. Mechanistically, old recipients that received young HSCs, but not old, displayed significantly greater dendritic spine density and long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus. Lastly, we found that GFP+/Iba1+ cells from young and old donors were differentially polarized to an anti- and pro-inflammatory phenotype and produced neuroprotective factors and reactive nitrogen species in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest aged peripherally derived microglia-like cells may exacerbate cognitive impairments after radiotherapy, whereas young microglia-like cells are polarized to a reparative phenotype in the irradiated brain, particularly in neural circuits associated with rewards, learning, and memory. These findings present a proof-of-principle for effectively reinstating central cognitive function of irradiated brains with peripheral stem cells from young donor bone marrow.

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    Authors: Tuor, Ursula; Zonghang Zhao; Barber, Philip; Qiao, Min;

    Additional file 4. Histological assessments for Figure 4. Shown are the data for each animal at either 1d or 3d post a single mild ischemic insult. Positive staining counts for TNF, Iba1 and EBA in addition to the Lectin scores and IgG gray level measures are presented.

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    Authors: Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Janani, Leila; Mohtasham, Farideh; +7 Authors

    Abstract Background In recent years, Iran has made significant developments in the field of health sciences. However, the question is whether this considerable increase has affected public health. The research budget has always been negligible and unsustainable in developing countries. Hence, using the Payback Framework, we conducted this study to evaluate the impact of health research in Iran. Methods By using a cross-sectional method and two-stage stratified cluster sampling, the projects were randomly selected from six medical universities. A questionnaire was designed according to the Payback Framework and completed by the principle investigators of the randomly selected projects. Results The response rate was 70.4%. Ten point twenty-four percent (10.24%) of the studies had been ordered by a knowledge user organization. The average number of articles published in journals per project was 0.96, and half of the studies had no articles published in Scopus. The results of 12% of the studies had been used in systematic review articles and the same proportion had been utilized in clinical or public health guidelines. The results of 5.3% of the studies had been implemented in the Health Ministry’s policymaking. 62% of the studies were expected to affect health directly, 38% of them had been implemented, and among the latter 60% had achieved the expected results. Concerning the economic impacts, the most common expected impact was the reduction of ‘days of work missed because of illness or disability’ and impact on personal and health system costs. About 36% of these studies had been implemented, and 61% had achieved the expected impact. Conclusion In most aspects, the status of research impact needs improvement. A comparison of Iran’s ranking of knowledge creation and knowledge impact in the Global Innovation Index confirms these findings. The most important problems identified were, not conducting research based on national needs, and the lack of implementation of research results.

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    Authors: Mostafa, Mahmoud; Rider, Christopher; Suharsh Shah; Traves, Suzanne; +4 Authors

    Genes significantly modulated by budesonide or dexamethasone in A549 cells. The 330 genes showing significant induction (fold ≥2, P ≤ 0.05), or repression (fold ≤0.5, P ≤ 0.05), by budesonide (300 nM) or dexamethasone (1 μM), compared to control at 6 h, are listed along with the fold change and P value for each glucocorticoid. Genes are sorted alphabetically according to their official gene symbol. (XLSX 30 kb)

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    Authors: Henderson, Sara; Teft, Wendy; Kim, Richard;

    Spreadsheet of analyte concentrations and metabolite/parent ratios for tamoxifen and its metabolites. (XLSX 10 kb)

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      Dataset . 2016
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    Authors: Gagarinova, Alla; Phanse, Sadhna; Miroslaw Cygler; Babu, Mohan;

    Introduction: The threat bacterial pathogens pose to human health is increasing with the number and distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, while the rate of discovery of new antimicrobials dwindles. Proteomics is playing key roles in understanding the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, and in identifying disease outcome determinants. The physical associations identified by proteomics can provide the means to develop pathogen-specific treatment methods that reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance and alleviate the negative effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics on beneficial bacteria. Areas covered: This review discusses recent trends in proteomics and introduces new and developing approaches that can be applied to the study of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlying bacterial pathogenesis. The approaches examined encompass options for mapping proteomes as well as stable and transient interactions in vivo and in vitro. We also explored the coverage of bacterial and human-bacterial PPIs, knowledge gaps in this area, and how they can be filled. Expert commentary: Identifying potential antimicrobial candidates is confounded by the complex molecular biology of bacterial pathogenesis and the lack of knowledge about PPIs underlying this process. Proteomics approaches can offer new perspectives for mechanistic insights and identify essential targets for guiding the discovery of next generation antimicrobials.

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    Dataset . 2017
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