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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dessein, Bart;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lachat, Carl; Ma Zhou, Rhui; Zhu Zhan Bin, Bin; Mitchell, Peter; +1 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shi, Jing;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yang, Gang;

    The roots of the practice of divination in Buddhism can be traced back to Ancient India. However, the engagements of medieval Chinese Buddhists with practices of divination did not only draw on traditions of India, but also experienced a strong influence from traditional Chinese forms of divination and the Chinese society’s great interest in various practices of divination. Such deep mutual engagements can be detected in many aspects, such as the appearance of an increasing number of “divination masters”, the translation—and sometimes the “creation” of—many Chinese Buddhist texts on divination. A thorough investigation of the relationship between medieval Chinese Buddhism and the practice of divination can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of how Buddhism developed and why attitudes toward Buddhism changed in China, the interaction between Buddhism and medieval Chinese society, the secularization and sinicization of Buddhism, and the important roles Buddhism played in the cultural exchanges between China and India. This dissertation will explore the relationship between medieval Chinese Buddhism and the practice of divination, based mainly on primary sources such as Chinese Buddhist translated texts, Buddhist texts produced in China, secular texts from the Han to the Song Dynasty, and Dunhuang manuscripts of the late Tang and early Song periods. Besides the introduction, the dissertation consists of six chapters. The first chapter addresses how, from a doctrinal perspective, Buddhism had changed its attitudes towards the practice of divination. Early Buddhism, Sectarian Buddhism, Mahāyāna Buddhism, Hīnayāna Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism had markedly different approaches to the practice of divination. As such, a comparison of their texts is conducted, based on the different Chinese translations of Buddhist Indic texts. These include the four Āgamas, the five Vinaya-piṭakas, the texts of the Tāmraparṇīya, and several other texts that belong to Mahāyāna and Esoteric Buddhism. While the first chapter outlines how the different forms of Buddhism had changed their attitudes toward the practice of divination, the next two chapters examine how Chinese society, especially its intellectuals and elites, viewed the amalgamation between Buddhism and the practice of divination. In Chapter Two, the life stories of the divination monks found in the three hagiographical texts, the Liang Gaoseng zhuan, the Tang Gaozeng zhuan, and the Song Gaoseng zhuan, are carefully studied. The popularization of the practice of divination among the Buddhist monastics of medieval times is explored by identifying and investigating the bibliographical entries scattered in the contemporary history books and catalogues. This chapter also studies how the Chinese translations and responses to Buddhist doctrines and the Vinaya-piṭakas, the state-religion relationship, the relationships among Buddhism, Daoism and Confucius, and the laity-monastic relationship had influenced the practice of divination in Chinese Buddhism. Chapter Three focuses on the origin of the Buddhist apocryphal literature on the practice of divination and the response of Chinese society. After meticulously comparing five such texts in terms of how they view the relationship between Buddhism and the practice of divination, the reason for the long circulation history and the subsequent inclusion of two texts (Fantian shence jing and the Zhancha shan’e yebao jing) in the established body of Buddhist scriptures becomes abundantly clear—these two texts are able to accommodate the needs of the Chinese commoners and the elites concerning Buddhism. Chapter Four, taking the practice of astrology-divination as a case study, discusses the vital role Buddhism played in the introduction of foreign types of divination to China. In the medieval period, many new terminologies and exercises emerged in the practice of Chinese astrology-divination, such as the seven luminaries, the Navagraha, and the twelve zodiac houses. An analysis of the Buddhist texts on the practice of astrology-divination reveals that the spread of Buddhism, especially the Chinese translations of Buddhist texts, explains why the practice of foreign astrology-divination could enter China. In the next two chapters, an examination of the relationship between Buddhism and the practice of divination is done based on a selection of Dunhuang Manuscripts. Chapter Five begins by introducing the special characteristics of Dunhuang and Dunhuang Buddhism, followed by how these special characteristics led to the mutual engagements between Dunhuang Buddhism and the practice of divination, and how these differed from those of central China. The focus of the sixth chapter is solely on a specific Buddhist divination practice recorded in the Dunhuang manuscripts—the four-sides-dice divination. Through a thorough comparative analysis of the 12 four-sides-dice documents, this chapter traces the origin of the practice, the historical connections among the Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese four-sides-dice documents, and the process of how the practice became integrated in a Buddhist context.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wang, Hwa-Chyi; Hsu, Tienpen;

    近年來台灣一股自行車風行之熱潮,各縣市政府逐漸重視自行車行車空間,紛紛廣設自行車道,然而目前自行車道連續部分,如橋樑之處理,因受限於橋面上可用空間而確實較少進行研究與探討。就台北市內現有自行車道中,僅規劃幾處自橋面通過,但多數區內橋樑扮演民眾通勤與通學之運輸功能,故有規劃開放自行車旅次使用之必要性。另一方面,台北市區中多數橋樑跨越河川,具有坡度,往往讓自行車騎乘者感到不便,也不適宜規劃與其他車種共道而產生衝突之疑慮,且橋樑與河岸周邊多具有通勤型與休憩型自行車道整合問題,在考量自行車事故安全與使用連續性的情況,本研究將探討上述兩議題,規劃與設計橋面上自行車道設置以及相關自行車牽引道,以滿足當地之自行車道系統使用與連續之需求與功能。本研究以台北市承德橋為例,此橋樑具有坡度且坡道長,自行車騎乘不易,騎乘者常在機慢車道或右轉車道上牽引車行走,故目前常有自行車與其他機車於機慢車道上發生事故。再者基隆河兩岸河濱自行車路線未銜接,且下橋處三所學校學生有自行車通行之需求,故承德橋自行車道規劃勢必需將運輸型及休憩型自行車道路線作一整合之工作,在此應有一套系統之流程,合理評估與規劃橋樑周邊自行車道與牽引道之實際佈設形式,以達到自行車系統完整性之設計。 因此,本研究將透過系統化流程分析方式,探討自行車騎士騎乘於橋面上之能力,分析之項目涵蓋負二項肇事分析、交通工程、道路幾何特性、駕駛行為、行駛特性等,並且設計一套自行車道連續之系統評估與規劃流程,冀望找出市區橋樑周邊自行車道與牽引道最佳之佈設方式,以改善目前自行車騎乘安全及便利性,進而提供交通及警察相關單位作為改善橋樑周邊自行車易肇事地點安全或評估橋樑交通管理措施可行性之參考

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christiaens, Johan; Vanslembrouck, Sandrijn;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gao, Zihe;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Wang, Benjin; De Backer, Hans; Chen, A.;
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    Authors: Anderl, Christoph; Bingenheimer, Marcus; Chang, Po-yung; Lin, Ching-hui; +3 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pan, Lifei;
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dessein, Bart;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lachat, Carl; Ma Zhou, Rhui; Zhu Zhan Bin, Bin; Mitchell, Peter; +1 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shi, Jing;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yang, Gang;

    The roots of the practice of divination in Buddhism can be traced back to Ancient India. However, the engagements of medieval Chinese Buddhists with practices of divination did not only draw on traditions of India, but also experienced a strong influence from traditional Chinese forms of divination and the Chinese society’s great interest in various practices of divination. Such deep mutual engagements can be detected in many aspects, such as the appearance of an increasing number of “divination masters”, the translation—and sometimes the “creation” of—many Chinese Buddhist texts on divination. A thorough investigation of the relationship between medieval Chinese Buddhism and the practice of divination can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of how Buddhism developed and why attitudes toward Buddhism changed in China, the interaction between Buddhism and medieval Chinese society, the secularization and sinicization of Buddhism, and the important roles Buddhism played in the cultural exchanges between China and India. This dissertation will explore the relationship between medieval Chinese Buddhism and the practice of divination, based mainly on primary sources such as Chinese Buddhist translated texts, Buddhist texts produced in China, secular texts from the Han to the Song Dynasty, and Dunhuang manuscripts of the late Tang and early Song periods. Besides the introduction, the dissertation consists of six chapters. The first chapter addresses how, from a doctrinal perspective, Buddhism had changed its attitudes towards the practice of divination. Early Buddhism, Sectarian Buddhism, Mahāyāna Buddhism, Hīnayāna Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism had markedly different approaches to the practice of divination. As such, a comparison of their texts is conducted, based on the different Chinese translations of Buddhist Indic texts. These include the four Āgamas, the five Vinaya-piṭakas, the texts of the Tāmraparṇīya, and several other texts that belong to Mahāyāna and Esoteric Buddhism. While the first chapter outlines how the different forms of Buddhism had changed their attitudes toward the practice of divination, the next two chapters examine how Chinese society, especially its intellectuals and elites, viewed the amalgamation between Buddhism and the practice of divination. In Chapter Two, the life stories of the divination monks found in the three hagiographical texts, the Liang Gaoseng zhuan, the Tang Gaozeng zhuan, and the Song Gaoseng zhuan, are carefully studied. The popularization of the practice of divination among the Buddhist monastics of medieval times is explored by identifying and investigating the bibliographical entries scattered in the contemporary history books and catalogues. This chapter also studies how the Chinese translations and responses to Buddhist doctrines and the Vinaya-piṭakas, the state-religion relationship, the relationships among Buddhism, Daoism and Confucius, and the laity-monastic relationship had influenced the practice of divination in Chinese Buddhism. Chapter Three focuses on the origin of the Buddhist apocryphal literature on the practice of divination and the response of Chinese society. After meticulously comparing five such texts in terms of how they view the relationship between Buddhism and the practice of divination, the reason for the long circulation history and the subsequent inclusion of two texts (Fantian shence jing and the Zhancha shan’e yebao jing) in the established body of Buddhist scriptures becomes abundantly clear—these two texts are able to accommodate the needs of the Chinese commoners and the elites concerning Buddhism. Chapter Four, taking the practice of astrology-divination as a case study, discusses the vital role Buddhism played in the introduction of foreign types of divination to China. In the medieval period, many new terminologies and exercises emerged in the practice of Chinese astrology-divination, such as the seven luminaries, the Navagraha, and the twelve zodiac houses. An analysis of the Buddhist texts on the practice of astrology-divination reveals that the spread of Buddhism, especially the Chinese translations of Buddhist texts, explains why the practice of foreign astrology-divination could enter China. In the next two chapters, an examination of the relationship between Buddhism and the practice of divination is done based on a selection of Dunhuang Manuscripts. Chapter Five begins by introducing the special characteristics of Dunhuang and Dunhuang Buddhism, followed by how these special characteristics led to the mutual engagements between Dunhuang Buddhism and the practice of divination, and how these differed from those of central China. The focus of the sixth chapter is solely on a specific Buddhist divination practice recorded in the Dunhuang manuscripts—the four-sides-dice divination. Through a thorough comparative analysis of the 12 four-sides-dice documents, this chapter traces the origin of the practice, the historical connections among the Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Chinese four-sides-dice documents, and the process of how the practice became integrated in a Buddhist context.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Wang, Hwa-Chyi; Hsu, Tienpen;

    近年來台灣一股自行車風行之熱潮,各縣市政府逐漸重視自行車行車空間,紛紛廣設自行車道,然而目前自行車道連續部分,如橋樑之處理,因受限於橋面上可用空間而確實較少進行研究與探討。就台北市內現有自行車道中,僅規劃幾處自橋面通過,但多數區內橋樑扮演民眾通勤與通學之運輸功能,故有規劃開放自行車旅次使用之必要性。另一方面,台北市區中多數橋樑跨越河川,具有坡度,往往讓自行車騎乘者感到不便,也不適宜規劃與其他車種共道而產生衝突之疑慮,且橋樑與河岸周邊多具有通勤型與休憩型自行車道整合問題,在考量自行車事故安全與使用連續性的情況,本研究將探討上述兩議題,規劃與設計橋面上自行車道設置以及相關自行車牽引道,以滿足當地之自行車道系統使用與連續之需求與功能。本研究以台北市承德橋為例,此橋樑具有坡度且坡道長,自行車騎乘不易,騎乘者常在機慢車道或右轉車道上牽引車行走,故目前常有自行車與其他機車於機慢車道上發生事故。再者基隆河兩岸河濱自行車路線未銜接,且下橋處三所學校學生有自行車通行之需求,故承德橋自行車道規劃勢必需將運輸型及休憩型自行車道路線作一整合之工作,在此應有一套系統之流程,合理評估與規劃橋樑周邊自行車道與牽引道之實際佈設形式,以達到自行車系統完整性之設計。 因此,本研究將透過系統化流程分析方式,探討自行車騎士騎乘於橋面上之能力,分析之項目涵蓋負二項肇事分析、交通工程、道路幾何特性、駕駛行為、行駛特性等,並且設計一套自行車道連續之系統評估與規劃流程,冀望找出市區橋樑周邊自行車道與牽引道最佳之佈設方式,以改善目前自行車騎乘安全及便利性,進而提供交通及警察相關單位作為改善橋樑周邊自行車易肇事地點安全或評估橋樑交通管理措施可行性之參考

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