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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vanderkooi, Otto G; McConnell, Athena; Church, Deirdre L; Kellner, James D;

    Previous surveys of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae have found differences depending on source of isolate (eg, higher resistance in lower respiratory tract [LRT] versus invasive isolate) and age (higher resistance in children versus adults). Susceptibility profiles in the Calgary Health Region (approximately 1.25 million population) over a 10-year period were studied. Prospective laboratory-based population surveillance for S pneumoniae disease has been conducted since 1998. Patient demographics and susceptibility testing were analyzed. In total, 2382 patient isolates were available for analysis from 1998 to 2007. Of these, 1170 isolates were invasive while 496 were LRT. Patient age distribution was: younger than five years, 14%; five to 17 years, 6%; 18 to 64 years, 56%; and 65 years or older, 24%. Mean patient age was 44.8 years and 60.0% were male. The overall incidence of nonsusceptibility was: penicillin, 8.2%; amoxicillin, 0.3%; cefuroxime, 6.2%; ceftriaxone, 1.7%; erythromycin, 8.8%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 25.6%; clindamycin, 2.3%; and levofloxacin, 0.2%. Overall resistance rates were stable, except for increasing erythromycin resistance from 5.4% (1998) to a high of 14.2% (2004) (P=0.007). Isolates that were nonsusceptible to penicillin or TMP-SMX were more likely to be multidrug resistant (P<0.001) compared with penicillin- or TMP-SMX-susceptible isolates. Compared with invasive isolates, LRT isolates showed more resistance to penicillin, TMP-SMX, cefuroxime and erythromycin, and were more likely to be multidrug resistant. Isolates from children younger than five years of age are more likely to be multidrug resistant and resistant to erythromycin and cefotaxime. Ongoing surveillance of S pneumoniae isolates is important because resistance rates vary by source and patient age among health care regions.

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    Authors: Forward, Kevin R;

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection can vary depending on their individual incidence and prevalence rates.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae coinfections by evaluating the results of testing in 2007 and 2008 to better inform testing and treatment decisions.METHODS: Specimens from the same patient submitted on the same day served as the basis for the present study. The age, sex and the source of the specimen were also linked to the accession number. Infection and coinfection rates were analyzed in both males and females.RESULTS: Concurrent testing was performed on 41,567 female specimens and 1827 male specimens, of which, 1495 female samples (3.6%) tested positive for C trachomatis infection and 88 (0.2%) tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infections. Only 31 females were coinfected; however, for those between 11 and 25 years of age, 25 of 61 females (40.1%) with N gonorrhoeae infection also tested positive for C trachomatis infection; conversely, 25 of 1248 females (2.0%) with C trachomatis infection also tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infection. For males, 213 (11.7%) tested positive for C trachomatis infection, and 59 (3.2%) tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infection. In 30 males with N gonorrhoeae between 11 and 25 years of age, and 149 males with C trachomatis, eight coinfections were observed (26.7% and 5.3%, respectively). Of those older than 25 years of age, only five of 905 men and six of 19,465 women were coinfected. None of the 10,935 women who were 30 years of age or older had coinfections.CONCLUSION: The N gonorrhoeae coinfection rate in males with C trachomatis may justify empirical antimicrobials; however, in females, the proportion of coinfected may not justify empirical treatment for N gonorrhoeae infection when the C trachomatis test is positive and N gonorrhoeae testing has not been performed.

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    Authors: Johnston, BL; Conly, JM;

    This past summer, Lyme disease was the topic of a Focus section in the Globe and Mail (1). In this section, the reporter described her experience of having physicians unable and then unwilling to diagnose her symptoms of "skin on fire, dizziness and chest pains, twitching muscles, and trouble keeping balance" as Lyme disease following a tick bite three years previously on Prince Edward Island. She reported finding support for her diagnosis after obtaining a positive test from a California laboratory and after seeing approximately 20 physicians. In her article, she speaks to the controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease, and the tension it creates between those who believe they have it and the physicians they see.

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    BACKGROUND: The management of HIV-infected patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease has changed significantly with the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).OBJECTIVES: These updated guidelines are intended to provide practical help to physicians managing HIV-positive patients with or at risk for CMV disease.METHODS: The 10 members of the Canadian CMV Disease in HIV/AIDS Consensus Group were infectious disease specialists, a primary care physician and ophthalmologists with expertise in HIV and CMV infection. Financial support by Hoffmann-La Roche Canada Ltd was unrestricted, and was limited to travel expenses and honoraria. The consensus group met in June and October 2002. Key areas to be considered were identified, and group members selected, reviewed and presented relevant recent literature for their assigned section for the group's consideration. Evidence was assessed based on established criteria, which were expert opinions of the members. Draft documents were circulated to the entire group and modified until consensus was reached. The final guidelines represent the group's consensus agreement. The guidelines were approved by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society.RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines address symptom monitoring, screening for early detection and prevention, and treatment using oral, intravenous and intraocular anti-CMV therapies in conjunction with HAART.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hughes, Christine A; Cashin, Richard P; Eurich, Dean T; Houston, Stan;

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus (DM) have been associated with protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Risk factors for the development of DM are not well-defined.OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for the development of new-onset DM in patients initiated on PI therapy.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify predictors of developing DM in subjects started on PI therapy between January 1997 and January 2003. Diabetes cases were defined as physician documentation of DM in the outpatient medical chart and/or those subjects receiving an antidiabetic agent. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between new-onset DM and demographic characteristics, and between new-onset DM and total treatment days with PI therapy. Body mass index could not be entered into the model due to missing height measurements.RESULTS: A total of 496 subjects on PI therapy were included, of which 18 (3.6%) developed DM. The mean age of the subjects was 43.4±9.4 years (range 19 to 77) and the mean duration of therapy was 3.0±1.9 years (range 0.17 to 7.9). In the multivariate model, older subjects were more likely to develop DM (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19; P=0.001). This corresponds to a 12% increased risk of DM for each one-year increase in age. Subjects that weighed more had an increased risk (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.10; P=0.001), as did those belonging to a non-Aboriginal minority group when compared with Caucasians (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.56 to 28.41; P=0.01). A longer duration of PI therapy was also significantly associated with developing DM (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17; P=0.02).CONCLUSION: A longer duration of PI therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing DM. As with HIV-negative subjects, demographic characteristics such as age, weight and ethnicity were important predictors of developing DM in the present study.

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    Authors: Johnston, BL; Conly, JM;
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    Authors: Levenstadt, Jeremy S; Poutanen, Susan M; Mohan, Subhash; Zhang, Sean; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Quan, Grahame; Gilbert, Mark; David, Samara T; Rahim, Tazim; +5 Authors

    Two major outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease serogroup C (IMD-C) were identified in British Columbia between 2000 and 2004. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and porA gene sequencing of all retained IMD-C isolates were used to assess correlations between genotypes and epidemiological patterns. PFGE patterns of IMD-C genotypes correlated with epidemiological patterns between 2000 and 2004 in British Columbia, and demonstrated that PFGE can identify outbreak-related cases. Both IMD-C outbreaks correlated with a respective PFGE pattern. PFGE analysis demonstrated that the 2004 British Columbia outbreak strain in men who have sex with men was closely related to the 2001 Abbotsford outbreak strain. PorA sequencing data indicated low diversity of class 1 outer membrane proteins in British Columbia, and did not correlate with epidemiological trends. There was a trend for outbreak-associated PFGE types to demonstrate higher case fatality rates.

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    Authors: Coutlee, François(Département de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal) Rouleau, Danielle(Département de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal) Ferenczy, Alex(Department of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Sir Mortimer B Davis-Jewish General Hospital, McGill University) Franco, Eduardo(Division of Cancer Epidemiology, McGill University);

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA) are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

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    Authors: Vanderkooi, Otto G; McConnell, Athena; Church, Deirdre L; Kellner, James D;

    Previous surveys of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae have found differences depending on source of isolate (eg, higher resistance in lower respiratory tract [LRT] versus invasive isolate) and age (higher resistance in children versus adults). Susceptibility profiles in the Calgary Health Region (approximately 1.25 million population) over a 10-year period were studied. Prospective laboratory-based population surveillance for S pneumoniae disease has been conducted since 1998. Patient demographics and susceptibility testing were analyzed. In total, 2382 patient isolates were available for analysis from 1998 to 2007. Of these, 1170 isolates were invasive while 496 were LRT. Patient age distribution was: younger than five years, 14%; five to 17 years, 6%; 18 to 64 years, 56%; and 65 years or older, 24%. Mean patient age was 44.8 years and 60.0% were male. The overall incidence of nonsusceptibility was: penicillin, 8.2%; amoxicillin, 0.3%; cefuroxime, 6.2%; ceftriaxone, 1.7%; erythromycin, 8.8%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 25.6%; clindamycin, 2.3%; and levofloxacin, 0.2%. Overall resistance rates were stable, except for increasing erythromycin resistance from 5.4% (1998) to a high of 14.2% (2004) (P=0.007). Isolates that were nonsusceptible to penicillin or TMP-SMX were more likely to be multidrug resistant (P<0.001) compared with penicillin- or TMP-SMX-susceptible isolates. Compared with invasive isolates, LRT isolates showed more resistance to penicillin, TMP-SMX, cefuroxime and erythromycin, and were more likely to be multidrug resistant. Isolates from children younger than five years of age are more likely to be multidrug resistant and resistant to erythromycin and cefotaxime. Ongoing surveillance of S pneumoniae isolates is important because resistance rates vary by source and patient age among health care regions.

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    Authors: Forward, Kevin R;

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection can vary depending on their individual incidence and prevalence rates.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae coinfections by evaluating the results of testing in 2007 and 2008 to better inform testing and treatment decisions.METHODS: Specimens from the same patient submitted on the same day served as the basis for the present study. The age, sex and the source of the specimen were also linked to the accession number. Infection and coinfection rates were analyzed in both males and females.RESULTS: Concurrent testing was performed on 41,567 female specimens and 1827 male specimens, of which, 1495 female samples (3.6%) tested positive for C trachomatis infection and 88 (0.2%) tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infections. Only 31 females were coinfected; however, for those between 11 and 25 years of age, 25 of 61 females (40.1%) with N gonorrhoeae infection also tested positive for C trachomatis infection; conversely, 25 of 1248 females (2.0%) with C trachomatis infection also tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infection. For males, 213 (11.7%) tested positive for C trachomatis infection, and 59 (3.2%) tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infection. In 30 males with N gonorrhoeae between 11 and 25 years of age, and 149 males with C trachomatis, eight coinfections were observed (26.7% and 5.3%, respectively). Of those older than 25 years of age, only five of 905 men and six of 19,465 women were coinfected. None of the 10,935 women who were 30 years of age or older had coinfections.CONCLUSION: The N gonorrhoeae coinfection rate in males with C trachomatis may justify empirical antimicrobials; however, in females, the proportion of coinfected may not justify empirical treatment for N gonorrhoeae infection when the C trachomatis test is positive and N gonorrhoeae testing has not been performed.

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    Authors: Johnston, BL; Conly, JM;

    This past summer, Lyme disease was the topic of a Focus section in the Globe and Mail (1). In this section, the reporter described her experience of having physicians unable and then unwilling to diagnose her symptoms of "skin on fire, dizziness and chest pains, twitching muscles, and trouble keeping balance" as Lyme disease following a tick bite three years previously on Prince Edward Island. She reported finding support for her diagnosis after obtaining a positive test from a California laboratory and after seeing approximately 20 physicians. In her article, she speaks to the controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease, and the tension it creates between those who believe they have it and the physicians they see.

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    BACKGROUND: The management of HIV-infected patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease has changed significantly with the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).OBJECTIVES: These updated guidelines are intended to provide practical help to physicians managing HIV-positive patients with or at risk for CMV disease.METHODS: The 10 members of the Canadian CMV Disease in HIV/AIDS Consensus Group were infectious disease specialists, a primary care physician and ophthalmologists with expertise in HIV and CMV infection. Financial support by Hoffmann-La Roche Canada Ltd was unrestricted, and was limited to travel expenses and honoraria. The consensus group met in June and October 2002. Key areas to be considered were identified, and group members selected, reviewed and presented relevant recent literature for their assigned section for the group's consideration. Evidence was assessed based on established criteria, which were expert opinions of the members. Draft documents were circulated to the entire group and modified until consensus was reached. The final guidelines represent the group's consensus agreement. The guidelines were approved by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society.RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines address symptom monitoring, screening for early detection and prevention, and treatment using oral, intravenous and intraocular anti-CMV therapies in conjunction with HAART.

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    Authors: Hughes, Christine A; Cashin, Richard P; Eurich, Dean T; Houston, Stan;

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus (DM) have been associated with protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Risk factors for the development of DM are not well-defined.OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for the development of new-onset DM in patients initiated on PI therapy.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify predictors of developing DM in subjects started on PI therapy between January 1997 and January 2003. Diabetes cases were defined as physician documentation of DM in the outpatient medical chart and/or those subjects receiving an antidiabetic agent. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between new-onset DM and demographic characteristics, and between new-onset DM and total treatment days with PI therapy. Body mass index could not be entered into the model due to missing height measurements.RESULTS: A total of 496 subjects on PI therapy were included, of which 18 (3.6%) developed DM. The mean age of the subjects was 43.4±9.4 years (range 19 to 77) and the mean duration of therapy was 3.0±1.9 years (range 0.17 to 7.9). In the multivariate model, older subjects were more likely to develop DM (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19; P=0.001). This corresponds to a 12% increased risk of DM for each one-year increase in age. Subjects that weighed more had an increased risk (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.10; P=0.001), as did those belonging to a non-Aboriginal minority group when compared with Caucasians (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.56 to 28.41; P=0.01). A longer duration of PI therapy was also significantly associated with developing DM (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17; P=0.02).CONCLUSION: A longer duration of PI therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing DM. As with HIV-negative subjects, demographic characteristics such as age, weight and ethnicity were important predictors of developing DM in the present study.

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    Authors: Johnston, BL; Conly, JM;
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    Authors: Levenstadt, Jeremy S; Poutanen, Susan M; Mohan, Subhash; Zhang, Sean; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Quan, Grahame; Gilbert, Mark; David, Samara T; Rahim, Tazim; +5 Authors

    Two major outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease serogroup C (IMD-C) were identified in British Columbia between 2000 and 2004. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and porA gene sequencing of all retained IMD-C isolates were used to assess correlations between genotypes and epidemiological patterns. PFGE patterns of IMD-C genotypes correlated with epidemiological patterns between 2000 and 2004 in British Columbia, and demonstrated that PFGE can identify outbreak-related cases. Both IMD-C outbreaks correlated with a respective PFGE pattern. PFGE analysis demonstrated that the 2004 British Columbia outbreak strain in men who have sex with men was closely related to the 2001 Abbotsford outbreak strain. PorA sequencing data indicated low diversity of class 1 outer membrane proteins in British Columbia, and did not correlate with epidemiological trends. There was a trend for outbreak-associated PFGE types to demonstrate higher case fatality rates.

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    Authors: Coutlee, François(Département de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal) Rouleau, Danielle(Département de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal) Ferenczy, Alex(Department of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Sir Mortimer B Davis-Jewish General Hospital, McGill University) Franco, Eduardo(Division of Cancer Epidemiology, McGill University);

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA) are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

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