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  • Authors: S, Lovestone;
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  • Authors: S A, Amiel;

    ‘To keep in equilibrium’, one of the Oxford English Dictionary’s many definitions of balance, is a desirable target for anylife, but has special meaning for the life of a person with diabetes. Achieving balance—between hypo- and hyperglycaemia; between energy intake and energy consumption; between insulin action and insulin secretion; between attention to diabetes and attention to everything else—remains challenging, but progress has been made over the last three decades, both in our understanding of how nature achieves balance and in the tools we have to try to reproduce the actions of nature in disease states. In particular, the role of the brain in controlling diabetes, from glucose sensing to decision making, has been investigated. Physiological and neuro-imaging studies are finally being translated into patient benefit, with the aim of improving, as Dr Banting put it, the provision of ‘energy for the economic burdens of life’.

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  • Authors: Hirokazu, Oguni;

    The correct diagnosis of epilepsy leads to an appropriate treatment.The first step is to distinguish epileptic seizures from nonepileptic attacks, and to make a precise seizure diagnosis and classification. The next step is to identify the etiology or basic disorders underlying the epilepsy by physical and neurologic examinations, laboratory tests, including EEGs and neuroradiologic examinations. Although the EEG is the most important laboratory examination for the diagnosis of epilepsy, limitations of EEG interpretations must be recognized.A syndromic classification of the patients, to determine whether they fit known syndromes, should be attempted. If patients do not match a described syndrome, a neurobiologic approach, utilizing genetic, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacologic knowledge, alternatively provides useful information to understand the neurobiologic background of epilepsy.Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages for diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Both approaches can be used interchangeably with patients with seizure disorders, depending upon their condition. The epilepsy diagnosis, etiology, and seizure-type diagnosis should be reevaluated when seizure control is insufficient with first- and second-line antiepileptic drugs.

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  • Authors: Francisco José, Rubia Vila;
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  • Authors: Roberto, Toni; Giulia, Spaletta; Claudia Della, Casa; Simone, Ravera; +1 Authors

    The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The computational basis of a. standard cybernetic design, in fact, refers to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has been suggested that a number of human cerebral activites, from feedback controls up to mental processes, rely on a mixing of both finitary, digital-like and infinitary, continuous-like procedures. Therefore, the central nervous system (CNS) of man would exploit a form of computation going beyond that of a TM. This "non conventional" computation has been called hybrid computation. Some basic structures for hybrid brain computation are believed to be the brain computational maps, in which both Turing-like (digital) computation and continuous (analog) forms of calculus might occur. The cerebral cortex and brain stem appears primary candidate for this processing. However, also neuroendocrine structures like the hypothalamus are believed to exhibit hybrid computional processes, and might give rise to computational maps. Current theories on neural activity, including wiring and volume transmission, neuronal group selection and dynamic evolving models of brain automata, bring fuel to the existence of natural hybrid computation, stressing a cooperation between discrete and continuous forms of communication in the CNS. In addition, the recent advent of neuromorphic chips, like those to restore activity in damaged retina and visual cortex, suggests that assumption of a discrete-continuum polarity in designing biocompatible neural circuitries is crucial for their ensuing performance. In these bionic structures, in fact, a correspondence exists between the original anatomical architecture and synthetic wiring of the chip, resulting in a correspondence between natural and cybernetic neural activity. Thus, chip "form" provides a continuum essential to chip "function". We conclude that it is reasonable to predict the existence of hybrid computational processes in the course of many human, brain integrating activities, urging development of cybernetic approaches based on this modelling for adequate reproduction of a variety of cerebral performances.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Casamitjana Díaz, Adrià;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ UPCommons. Portal de...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ UPCommons. Portal de...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • Authors: P, Maquet; M S, Schwartz;

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that human REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. While being usually interpreted in relation to physiological and cellular mechanisms, the regionally-specific distribution of brain activity during REM sleep may also be linked to specific dream features. Remarkably, several bizarre features of dreams present similarities with wellknown neuropsychological syndromes after brain damage, such as delusional misidentifications for faces and places. We propose that neuropsychological analysis of dream content might offer new ways of interpreting neuroimaging maps, as well as specific predictions for future neuroimaging studies.

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  • Authors: Francisco José, Rubia Vila;

    The ideologies of the xx century have caused millions of casualties. It is important to know the cognitive processes that originate ideological thinking. Ideologies are typically closed visions of the world with a strong dualistic component. Dualistic thinking is likely to be a distinct mental category which implicates the right inferior parietal lobe of the brain. Nevertheless, the connection between a manichean mental-cognitive thought and an emotional component presents great danger, due to the resulting simplification of history, its reification, and the demonization of the opposite, before proceeding to its destruction. Both communism and national socialism are evident examples of this perversion of thought. To know the neurocognitive underpinnings is hence of great relevance if we do not want ro repeat history.

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  • Authors: L V, Stakhovskaia;
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  • Authors: Karol, Miller; Adam, Wittek; Grand, Joldes;

    This article presents a summary of the key-note lecture delivered at Biomechanics 10 Conference held in August 2010 in Warsaw. We present selected topics in the area of mathematical and numerical modelling of the brain biomechanics for neurosurgical simulation and brain image registration. These processes can reasonably be described in purely mechanical terms, such as displacements, strains and stresses and therefore can be analysed using established methods of continuum mechanics. We advocate the use of fully non-linear theory of continuum mechanics. We discuss in some detail modelling geometry, boundary conditions, loading and material properties. We consider numerical problems such as the use of hexahedral and mixed hexahedral-tetrahedral meshes as well as meshless spatial discretisation schemes. We advocate the use of Total Lagrangian Formulation of both finite element and meshless methods together with explicit time-stepping procedures. We support our recommendations and conclusions with an example of brain shift computation for intraoperative image registration.

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  • Authors: S, Lovestone;
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    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • Authors: S A, Amiel;

    ‘To keep in equilibrium’, one of the Oxford English Dictionary’s many definitions of balance, is a desirable target for anylife, but has special meaning for the life of a person with diabetes. Achieving balance—between hypo- and hyperglycaemia; between energy intake and energy consumption; between insulin action and insulin secretion; between attention to diabetes and attention to everything else—remains challenging, but progress has been made over the last three decades, both in our understanding of how nature achieves balance and in the tools we have to try to reproduce the actions of nature in disease states. In particular, the role of the brain in controlling diabetes, from glucose sensing to decision making, has been investigated. Physiological and neuro-imaging studies are finally being translated into patient benefit, with the aim of improving, as Dr Banting put it, the provision of ‘energy for the economic burdens of life’.

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  • Authors: Hirokazu, Oguni;

    The correct diagnosis of epilepsy leads to an appropriate treatment.The first step is to distinguish epileptic seizures from nonepileptic attacks, and to make a precise seizure diagnosis and classification. The next step is to identify the etiology or basic disorders underlying the epilepsy by physical and neurologic examinations, laboratory tests, including EEGs and neuroradiologic examinations. Although the EEG is the most important laboratory examination for the diagnosis of epilepsy, limitations of EEG interpretations must be recognized.A syndromic classification of the patients, to determine whether they fit known syndromes, should be attempted. If patients do not match a described syndrome, a neurobiologic approach, utilizing genetic, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacologic knowledge, alternatively provides useful information to understand the neurobiologic background of epilepsy.Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages for diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Both approaches can be used interchangeably with patients with seizure disorders, depending upon their condition. The epilepsy diagnosis, etiology, and seizure-type diagnosis should be reevaluated when seizure control is insufficient with first- and second-line antiepileptic drugs.

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  • Authors: Francisco José, Rubia Vila;
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  • Authors: Roberto, Toni; Giulia, Spaletta; Claudia Della, Casa; Simone, Ravera; +1 Authors

    The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The computational basis of a. standard cybernetic design, in fact, refers to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has been suggested that a number of human cerebral activites, from feedback controls up to mental processes, rely on a mixing of both finitary, digital-like and infinitary, continuous-like procedures. Therefore, the central nervous system (CNS) of man would exploit a form of computation going beyond that of a TM. This "non conventional" computation has been called hybrid computation. Some basic structures for hybrid brain computation are believed to be the brain computational maps, in which both Turing-like (digital) computation and continuous (analog) forms of calculus might occur. The cerebral cortex and brain stem appears primary candidate for this processing. However, also neuroendocrine structures like the hypothalamus are believed to exhibit hybrid computional processes, and might give rise to computational maps. Current theories on neural activity, including wiring and volume transmission, neuronal group selection and dynamic evolving models of brain automata, bring fuel to the existence of natural hybrid computation, stressing a cooperation between discrete and continuous forms of communication in the CNS. In addition, the recent advent of neuromorphic chips, like those to restore activity in damaged retina and visual cortex, suggests that assumption of a discrete-continuum polarity in designing biocompatible neural circuitries is crucial for their ensuing performance. In these bionic structures, in fact, a correspondence exists between the original anatomical architecture and synthetic wiring of the chip, resulting in a correspondence between natural and cybernetic neural activity. Thus, chip "form" provides a continuum essential to chip "function". We conclude that it is reasonable to predict the existence of hybrid computational processes in the course of many human, brain integrating activities, urging development of cybernetic approaches based on this modelling for adequate reproduction of a variety of cerebral performances.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Casamitjana Díaz, Adrià;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ UPCommons. Portal de...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ UPCommons. Portal de...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • Authors: P, Maquet; M S, Schwartz;

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that human REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. While being usually interpreted in relation to physiological and cellular mechanisms, the regionally-specific distribution of brain activity during REM sleep may also be linked to specific dream features. Remarkably, several bizarre features of dreams present similarities with wellknown neuropsychological syndromes after brain damage, such as delusional misidentifications for faces and places. We propose that neuropsychological analysis of dream content might offer new ways of interpreting neuroimaging maps, as well as specific predictions for future neuroimaging studies.

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