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  • Authors: Zhou, Haibo;

    To study the ecological regulation effects of species diversity in wheat fields on Sitobion avenae, field experiments were carried out in Langfang Experimental Station of Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences from October of 2007 to July of 2008. The intercropping patterns of wheat and pea, by the proportion of planting row of pea and wheat in 2:2, 2:4, 2:6 and 2:8, were plotted, and the field cultivar monoculture of wheat was planted as the control. Population dynamics of apterae and alatae S. avenae, population dynamics, species richness, diversity index and evenness of main natural enemies were investigated systematically and analyzed. The results showed that, compared with monoculture of wheat, the amount of S. avenae apterae per 100 plants (square-root transformed) in aphid peak period were very significantly lower in the intercropping treatments (P 2-2 intercropping (68.62) > 2-4 intercropping (68.51) > 2-8 intercropping (65.19) > 2-6 intercropping (64.94). Although population dynamics of main natural enemies showed a similar trend with time, wheat-pea intercropping could preserve and augment natural enemies more than monoculture of wheat, and there were higher population densities of ladybeetles and aphid parasitoids, and higher species richness and diversity index of natural enemies, but lower evenness index in each intercropping field. It is so concluded that wheat-pea intercropping system can not only reduce the population of S. avenae, but also improve the stability and sustainability of controlling wheat pests.

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  • Authors: Zhang, Zongyu; Zhao, Hongming; Xin, Zhaoxiang; Li, Jie; +1 Authors

    According to the preliminary testand analysis of the heat transferprocess in rotary tube dryer, used the granularmultiphase model to predictmoving of gypsum particles, solid concentration field, velocity field and temperature field in rotary tube dryer. Compared with the experimental results showed that this model was suitable for engineering accuracy, could change the rotary tube dryer engineering design and structure optimization for reference.

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  • Authors: Wu, Ling; Sun, Qin; Guo, YingNan;

    High-strength aluminum alloy is often used in aircraft structure. The corrosion is a big problem for high strenth aluminum alloy. Acid salt spray (fog) test is used here to accelerate the corrosion of 7075 aluminum alloy. The results obtained from the test show that the acid salt spray test could simulate and accelerate the atmospheric corrosion well. The mechanical properties of the corrosion samples have been tested. And it was found that the mechanical properties of the corrosion samples declined obviously with the corrosion time. Based on the test and the knowledge of damage mechanics, a concept of equivalent corrosion damage was proposed for the accelerated corrosion tests.

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  • Authors: Kuang, Enjun;
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  • Authors: Mu Rui,; Liu, Shangwu; Jiang Lili,; Wan Shuming,; +6 Authors

    Potato viruses and viroid disease had seriously affected the production of potato in China. In order to cultivate virus and viroids antiviral new materials of potato. In this study, we utilized the strategy of artificial miRNA (amiRNA) with the silencing suppressor P25 protein and HC-pro protein which encoded by potato viral pathogens potato virus X (PVX) and potato virus Y (PVY) as the target, and we utilized 5'RACE technique to forecast the potential shear hot spots of P25 gene and HC-Pro gene. Then we used overlapping PCR technology, and also using Arabidopsis thaliana miR159a precursor as skeleton to design specific primers, so we could construct amiRNA expression vector which was respectively targeting P25 and HC-Pro genes. We constructed the amiRNA expression vector targeting the endogenous gene Virp1 of potato at the same time. And we could obtain amiRNAs three by seriesing three amiRNA expression vector which were construction completed. And then we transferred into the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 respectively, we used Agrobacterium mediated transformation of potato varieties Kexin13. Detected by PCR, the results showed that the target gene was successfully transferred into potato.

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  • Authors: Kuang, Enjun; Chi, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Jiu-Ming; Xu, Ming-Gang; +4 Authors

    Taking black soil as the research object, the difference in the three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) after returning maize straw to the field at different soil depths (0~2, 3~10, 11~20, 21~30 and 31~40 cm) were analyzed. The change characteristics of humification degree of maize straw return to deep soil were discussed. The results showed that straw return could increase the content of soil DOC. The characteristics of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that there were two kinds of fluorescence components of soil DOC. CK~T4 treatments were humus like components (Ex/Em=250~275/455 nm) and tryptophan like components (Ex/Em=225~237/340~350 nm), while T5 treatment was humus-like components (250~275/455 nm) and tyrosine like components (Ex/Em =225/304 nm), there were small authigenic components at a depth of 31~40 cm, and the humification coefficient was the highest. The fluorescence intensity of soil DOC component C1 increased with the deepening of straw returning depth, while the C2 component showed a fluctuating state, and the fluorescence intensity increased first and then decreased. Soil DOC was affected by both endogenous and exogenous sources (FI>1.4, 0.6

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  • Authors: JIANG Lili,; MU Rui,; Liu, Shangwu; ZHANG Guizhi,; +1 Authors

    In order to obtain potato plants which could be resistant to multiple viruses ( viroid) simultaneous- ly,P25,HC-Pro,and Virp1 gene targeting PVX,PVY,and PSTVd proteins were cloned,respectively. Three types of amiRNAs targeting sequences encoding the silencing suppressor P25,HC-Pro and Virp1 were designed by using Ar- abidopsis thaliana miR159a as backbone. These three amiRNA sequences were connected by Overlapping PCR. The synthetic of P25,HC-Pro and Virp1 gene was inserted into the expression vector pCAMBIA1300-221 to form p1300-221-preamiR-P25-HCPro-Virp1,and the vector was verified by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Pre-a- miR-P25-HCPro-Virp1 was transformed into minituber of potato cultivar Favorita by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in- fection. 15 transformed plants were obtained through regenerating,pressure screening and differentiation. PCR re- sults showed that 10 of them were detected the same size fragment ( 729 bp) as the target gene. Further qRT-PCR t e s t i n g c o n f i r m e d t h a t a m i R - P 2 5 - H C P r o - V i r p 1 g e n e w a s e x p r e s s e d i n 1 0 t r a n s f o r m e d p l a n t s ,a n d t h e r e l a t i v e e x p r e s - sion was between 7. 68 - 21. 37. Inoculated the T0 transgenic plants with the mixture virus of PVX,PVY and PSTVd by friction into the leaves of the plants at the 6 - 8 leaf stage. The plant growth was observed after 20 days and the results showed that the control plants were severely susceptible,with symptoms such as short plants and mottled leaves,while the transformed plants did not show infection symptoms,and growth normally. There was no vi- rus detected by RT-PCR either. This indicated that the transfected amiR-P25-HCPro-Virp could be stably expressed in the transformed plants,and the transformed plants were resistant to PVX,PVY and PVSTd viruses ( viroid) . Transformed plants resistant to PVX,PVY and PVSTd were obtained,and the resistance was significant,which pro- vided new genetic resources for potato virus-resistant breeding.

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  • Authors: Huang, K.; Zheng, Z.; François, Louis; Dongshen, G.; +4 Authors
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  • Authors: Zhang, Wenyan; Lin, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Jidong; Li, Jie; +2 Authors

    The experimental setup for laser—induced breakdown spectroscopy test was designed with pulsed Nd:YAG laser,spectrograph and ICCD and so on.Furthermore the potassium chloride solution spectra signals were detected by this setup.The spectra lines of the trace elements such as natrium (20mg/1),magnesium(1 mg/1),calcium(3 mg/1)are recorded.Experiment results show that delay time is one of the important parameters when qualitative analysis.It is easy for LIBS technology to detect multi—elements simultaneity if delay time is appropriate,and qualitative analysis has demonstrated that the feasibility of detecting trace poisonous metals in waste water using LIBS、

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  • Authors: Zhou, Haibo;

    Study on the ecological regulation of pests was one of the hotspot in the researches of sustainable agriculture in recent years,and the plant volatiles have been shown to exert important influence on behaviors of pests. This paper reviewed the effect and mechanism of plant volatiles to pests in host selection, attraction,antifeeding, repellence, growth inhibition, the prospect and application of plant volatiles to agricultural cultivation was further discussed.

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  • Authors: Zhou, Haibo;

    To study the ecological regulation effects of species diversity in wheat fields on Sitobion avenae, field experiments were carried out in Langfang Experimental Station of Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences from October of 2007 to July of 2008. The intercropping patterns of wheat and pea, by the proportion of planting row of pea and wheat in 2:2, 2:4, 2:6 and 2:8, were plotted, and the field cultivar monoculture of wheat was planted as the control. Population dynamics of apterae and alatae S. avenae, population dynamics, species richness, diversity index and evenness of main natural enemies were investigated systematically and analyzed. The results showed that, compared with monoculture of wheat, the amount of S. avenae apterae per 100 plants (square-root transformed) in aphid peak period were very significantly lower in the intercropping treatments (P 2-2 intercropping (68.62) > 2-4 intercropping (68.51) > 2-8 intercropping (65.19) > 2-6 intercropping (64.94). Although population dynamics of main natural enemies showed a similar trend with time, wheat-pea intercropping could preserve and augment natural enemies more than monoculture of wheat, and there were higher population densities of ladybeetles and aphid parasitoids, and higher species richness and diversity index of natural enemies, but lower evenness index in each intercropping field. It is so concluded that wheat-pea intercropping system can not only reduce the population of S. avenae, but also improve the stability and sustainability of controlling wheat pests.

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  • Authors: Zhang, Zongyu; Zhao, Hongming; Xin, Zhaoxiang; Li, Jie; +1 Authors

    According to the preliminary testand analysis of the heat transferprocess in rotary tube dryer, used the granularmultiphase model to predictmoving of gypsum particles, solid concentration field, velocity field and temperature field in rotary tube dryer. Compared with the experimental results showed that this model was suitable for engineering accuracy, could change the rotary tube dryer engineering design and structure optimization for reference.

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  • Authors: Wu, Ling; Sun, Qin; Guo, YingNan;

    High-strength aluminum alloy is often used in aircraft structure. The corrosion is a big problem for high strenth aluminum alloy. Acid salt spray (fog) test is used here to accelerate the corrosion of 7075 aluminum alloy. The results obtained from the test show that the acid salt spray test could simulate and accelerate the atmospheric corrosion well. The mechanical properties of the corrosion samples have been tested. And it was found that the mechanical properties of the corrosion samples declined obviously with the corrosion time. Based on the test and the knowledge of damage mechanics, a concept of equivalent corrosion damage was proposed for the accelerated corrosion tests.

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  • Authors: Kuang, Enjun;
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  • Authors: Mu Rui,; Liu, Shangwu; Jiang Lili,; Wan Shuming,; +6 Authors

    Potato viruses and viroid disease had seriously affected the production of potato in China. In order to cultivate virus and viroids antiviral new materials of potato. In this study, we utilized the strategy of artificial miRNA (amiRNA) with the silencing suppressor P25 protein and HC-pro protein which encoded by potato viral pathogens potato virus X (PVX) and potato virus Y (PVY) as the target, and we utilized 5'RACE technique to forecast the potential shear hot spots of P25 gene and HC-Pro gene. Then we used overlapping PCR technology, and also using Arabidopsis thaliana miR159a precursor as skeleton to design specific primers, so we could construct amiRNA expression vector which was respectively targeting P25 and HC-Pro genes. We constructed the amiRNA expression vector targeting the endogenous gene Virp1 of potato at the same time. And we could obtain amiRNAs three by seriesing three amiRNA expression vector which were construction completed. And then we transferred into the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 respectively, we used Agrobacterium mediated transformation of potato varieties Kexin13. Detected by PCR, the results showed that the target gene was successfully transferred into potato.

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  • Authors: Kuang, Enjun; Chi, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Jiu-Ming; Xu, Ming-Gang; +4 Authors

    Taking black soil as the research object, the difference in the three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) after returning maize straw to the field at different soil depths (0~2, 3~10, 11~20, 21~30 and 31~40 cm) were analyzed. The change characteristics of humification degree of maize straw return to deep soil were discussed. The results showed that straw return could increase the content of soil DOC. The characteristics of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that there were two kinds of fluorescence components of soil DOC. CK~T4 treatments were humus like components (Ex/Em=250~275/455 nm) and tryptophan like components (Ex/Em=225~237/340~350 nm), while T5 treatment was humus-like components (250~275/455 nm) and tyrosine like components (Ex/Em =225/304 nm), there were small authigenic components at a depth of 31~40 cm, and the humification coefficient was the highest. The fluorescence intensity of soil DOC component C1 increased with the deepening of straw returning depth, while the C2 component showed a fluctuating state, and the fluorescence intensity increased first and then decreased. Soil DOC was affected by both endogenous and exogenous sources (FI>1.4, 0.6

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  • Authors: JIANG Lili,; MU Rui,; Liu, Shangwu; ZHANG Guizhi,; +1 Authors

    In order to obtain potato plants which could be resistant to multiple viruses ( viroid) simultaneous- ly,P25,HC-Pro,and Virp1 gene targeting PVX,PVY,and PSTVd proteins were cloned,respectively. Three types of amiRNAs targeting sequences encoding the silencing suppressor P25,HC-Pro and Virp1 were designed by using Ar- abidopsis thaliana miR159a as backbone. These three amiRNA sequences were connected by Overlapping PCR. The synthetic of P25,HC-Pro and Virp1 gene was inserted into the expression vector pCAMBIA1300-221 to form p1300-221-preamiR-P25-HCPro-Virp1,and the vector was verified by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. Pre-a- miR-P25-HCPro-Virp1 was transformed into minituber of potato cultivar Favorita by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in- fection. 15 transformed plants were obtained through regenerating,pressure screening and differentiation. PCR re- sults showed that 10 of them were detected the same size fragment ( 729 bp) as the target gene. Further qRT-PCR t e s t i n g c o n f i r m e d t h a t a m i R - P 2 5 - H C P r o - V i r p 1 g e n e w a s e x p r e s s e d i n 1 0 t r a n s f o r m e d p l a n t s ,a n d t h e r e l a t i v e e x p r e s - sion was between 7. 68 - 21. 37. Inoculated the T0 transgenic plants with the mixture virus of PVX,PVY and PSTVd by friction into the leaves of the plants at the 6 - 8 leaf stage. The plant growth was observed after 20 days and the results showed that the control plants were severely susceptible,with symptoms such as short plants and mottled leaves,while the transformed plants did not show infection symptoms,and growth normally. There was no vi- rus detected by RT-PCR either. This indicated that the transfected amiR-P25-HCPro-Virp could be stably expressed in the transformed plants,and the transformed plants were resistant to PVX,PVY and PVSTd viruses ( viroid) . Transformed plants resistant to PVX,PVY and PVSTd were obtained,and the resistance was significant,which pro- vided new genetic resources for potato virus-resistant breeding.