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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
    License: CC 0
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gordon, Brian A.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brier, Matthew; Blazey, Tyler; +10 Authors
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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2016
      License: CC 0
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shimada, Kazutake;

    The term neurosteroids applies to those steroids that are both synthesized in the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol or from steroid hormone precursors, and that accumulate in the nervous system to levels that are at least in part independent of steroidogenic gland secretion rates. Neurosteroids consist of 17- or 20-oxosteroids and accumulate in the brain as unconjugated form and their sulfates, fatty acid esters and sulfolipid conjugates.The separation and characterization of pregennolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their 3-fatty acid esters (stearate, palmitate) in the brain are carried out using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) operating in the positive ion mode. These obtained from rat brains were identified in comparison with their chromatographic behavior with authentic samples during LC/APCI-MS.Pregnenolone 3-sulfate in rat brains was also identified as above.The quantitative determination of pregnenolone in rat brains was done using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was applied to the determination of pregnenolone in rat brains, most of which showed lower amounts than that previously reported. 脳内ステロイドホルモンの化学構造は比較的簡単な17-又は20-オキソステロイドよりなることが知られている.しかし,遊離型のみならず硫酸あるいは脂肪酸抱合型などとしても存在し複雑であるとされているが,詳細については明らかでない.そこで,HPLC,LC/MSを駆使してラット脳を検索したところ,pregnenolone,dehydroepiandrosteroneの3-stearate,-palmitate(計4種)を同定することに成功した.また,脳内におけるpregnenolone,dehydroepiandrostrone,pregnenolone 3-sulfateの存在もLC/MSなどにより改めて確認した.この際,methyloxime誘導体へ導くことが,分子イオンピーク又は関連するピークの検出を容易とし,LC/MSでの同定上極めて有用なことも見出した.一方,定量法の開発は以下のようにして行った.測定法は簡便性を考慮して蛍光検出HPLCを,測定対象は脳内ステロイドホルモン中で最も多くを占めるとされているpregnenoloneを,蛍光誘導体化試薬には1-anthroylcyanideを選択した,確立した分析法を実試料(ラット脳)へ適用したところ,文献記載値(測定法はRIA又はGC/MS)と符合する個体も見られたが,著しい低値を示す個体もあり,大きな疑問を生じるに至った.この原因がサンプル採取上の問題によるのか,あるいは報告されている分析法に問題があるのかは明らかでないが,いずれにしてもその生理作用と共に解決されるべき重要な課題を提起したことになる.このように,本研究は今後の脳内ステロイドホルモンの研究に一つの方向を示唆したものとして評価される. 出典:研究課題「脳内ステロイドホルモン分析法の開発と脳機能解明への応用」課題番号08457594(KAKEN:科学研究費助成事業データベース(国立情報学研究所)) (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/report/KAKENHI-PROJECT-08457594/084575941997kenkyu_seika_hokoku_gaiyo/)を加工して作成 研究課題/領域番号:08457594, 研究期間(年度):1996-1997 金沢大学自然科学研究科薬学系

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ JAIROarrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: De Keyser, Jacques; Steen, Christel; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.;

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by patchy areas of demyelination, inflammation, axonal loss and gliosis, and a diffuse axonal degeneration throughout the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A number of recent studies using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in both relapsing and progressive forms of MS have shown a decreased perfusion of the NAWM, which does not appear to be secondary to axonal loss. The reduced perfusion of the NAWM in MS might be caused by a widespread astrocyte dysfunction, possibly related to a deficiency in astrocytic beta(2)-adrenergic receptors and a reduced formation of cAMP, resulting in a reduced uptake of K+ at the nodes of Ranvier and a reduced release of K+ in the perivascular spaces. Pathologic and imaging studies suggest that ischemic changes might be involved in the development of a subtype of focal demyelinating lesions (type III lesions), and there appears to exist a relationship between decreased white matter perfusion and cognitive dysfunction in patients with MS.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Other ORP type . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Other ORP type . 2008
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vanagas, Tadas;

    Tyrimo tikslas. Ištirti itakoninės rūgšties poveikį smegenų audinio energijos apykaitos mechanizmams. Tyrimo uždaviniai. Įvertinti itakoninės rūgšties (IR), 4-oktilitakonato (4-OI) ir dimetilitakonato (DMI) poveikį nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo elektronų pernašos grandinės kompleksų (EPG) priklausomam deguonies suvartojimo greičiui. Įvertinti IR poveikį ROS gamybai. Metodai. Eksperimentams naudojamos pirminės žiurkių smegenėlių granulinio sluoksnio ląstelių kultūros, su kuriomis buvo atliekami respirometrijos tyrimai, t.y. matuojamas deguonies suvartojimo greitis (DSG). Kvėpavimo proceso vykdymui naudota IR – 1 mM, 2 mM ir 5 mM koncentracijomis, 4-OI – 250 μM, 500 μM ir 750 μM koncentracijomis ir ląstelės po 24 valandų inkubacijos su 50 μM DMI ir 100 ng/ml LPS. Tam kad vyktų kvėpavimo procesas buvo naudojami substratai: 6 mM piruvatas + 6 mM malatas, 2 mM ADP, 10.17 μM digitoninas, 10 mM glutamatas, 1 μM CAT, 1 μM CCCP, 10 mM sukcinatas, 0.5 μM rotenonas, 100 mM azidas. Gauti DSG išreikšti pmolO2/s*ml/106/ml ląstelių skaičiui. Eksperimentams su smegenų mitochondrijomis buvo naudojami tie patys substratai, o rezultatai išreikšti pmolO2/s*ml/0.5 mg mitochondrijų baltymo. ROS gamyba buvo registruojama naudojant izoliuotas mitochondrijos su 6 mM piruvato + 6 mM malato + 2 mM ADP arba su 10 mM sukcinato + 5 μM rotenono šulinėlyje su 0,25 mg/ml mitochondrijų baltymo. Rezultatai. IR slopina nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų priklausomą deguonies suvartojimo greitį atitinkamai: 1 mM koncentracija – 29.75% ir 17.03%, 2 mM IR – 25.85% ir 44.42%, 5 mM IR – 53.06% ir 51.78%. Nustatyta priklausomybė nuo IR koncentracijos. Kaip ir IR, taip pat ir 4-OI slopina nuo I – ojo EPG komplekso priklausomą DSG 43.64 ± 1.3% 500-750 μM koncentracijomis. 4-OI slopina nuo II – ojo EPG komplekso priklausomą DSG 58.52 ± 6.27% 250-750 μM koncentracijomis. DMI nekeičia DSG ląstelėse kvėpuojančiose su I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų substratais. Taip pat IR 5 mM koncentracija reikšmingai mažina nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų priklausomą ROS gamybą atitinkamai 41.34% ir 39.14%. Išvados. Itakoninė rūgštis ir 4-oktilitakonatas slopina smegenų ląstelių mitochondrijų nuo I-ojo ir II-ojo elektronų pernašos grandinės kompleksų priklausomą deguonies suvartojimo greitį. Dimetilitakonatas slopinančiu poveikiu nepasižymi. Itakoninė rūgštis taip pat geba sumažinti ROS gamybą smegenų mitochondrijose. Aim. To investigate the effect of IA on the bioenergetic processess in the brain tissue. Objectives. To evaluate the effect of IA, 4-octylitaconate (4-OI) and dimethylitaconate (DMI) on the I and II electron transport chain (ETC) complex dependent oxygen consumption rates. To evaluate the effect of IA for ROS generation. Methods. Primary rat cerebellar granular cell (CGC) cultures were used for respirometry experiments where oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) were evaluated. For the process of respiration we used 1 mM, 2mM and 5 mM of IA; 250 μM, 500 μM and 750 μM of 4-OI and cells after 24 hours incubation with 50 μM DMI and 100 ng/ml LPS. To imitate respiration process the following substrates and inhibitors were used: 6 mM pyruvate + 6 mM malate, 2 mM ADP, 10.17 μM digitonin, 10 mM glutamate, 1 μM CAT, 1 μM CCCP, 10 mM succinate, 0.5 μM rotenone, 100 mM azide. Obtained results with OCRs were expressed as pmolO2/s*ml/106/ml cells. Experiments with isolated brain mitochondria were conducted using the same substrates and inhibitors. OCRs in isolated mitochondria were expressed as pmolO2/s*ml/0.5 mg mitochondrial protein. ROS generation was recorded in isolated mitochondria with 6 mM pyruvate, 6 mM malate and 2 mM ADP or 10 mM succinate + 5 μM rotenone in the well containing 0,25 mg/ml mitochondrial protein. Results. IA inhibits the I and II ETC complexes dependent OCRs respectively: 1 mM IA – 29.75% and 17.03%, 2 mM IA – 25.85% and 44.42%, 5 mM IA – 53.06% and 51.78%. IA inhibits mitochondrial respiration in a dose dependent manner. Similar to IA, 4-OI inhibits the I ETC complex dependent OCR by 43.64 ± 1.3% in 500-750 μM concentrations. 4-OI inhibits the II ETC complex dependent OCR by 58.52 ± 6.27% in 250-750 μM concentrations. DMI did not change OCR in cells respiring with the I and II ETC complexes. Also IA 5 mM concentration significantly decreases the I and II ETC complexes dependent ROS generation respectively by 41.34% and 39.14%. Conclusion. Itaconic acid and 4-octylitaconate reduces the I and II electron transport chain complexes dependent oxygen consumption rates in brain mitochondria. Dimethylitaconate has no such inhibitory efffect. Itaconic acid is also able to reduce ROS generation in brain mitochondria.

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    Authors: Wegrzyn, Martin; Aust, Joana; Barnstorf, Larissa; Gippert, Magdalena; +15 Authors

    Condition-wise and block-wise maps from our manuscript "Thought experiment: decoding cognitive processes from the fMRI data of one individual"

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2018
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  • Authors: Stanevičienė, Inga; Naginienė, Rima; Baranauskienė, Dalė; Vieželienė, Dalė;

    Background and aim: Aluminium (Al) causes toxic effects on various body organs and tissues, especially nervous tissue. Studies on animal models demonstrated changes in cognitive functions and morphological features of the central nervous system after consumption of water containing elevated concentrations of aluminium. This study was aimed to evaluate long-term effects of Al on mice body weight and brain mass and to determine concentrations of Al in mice brain and blood. Materials and methods: Experiments were done on 4-6-weeks old Balb C mice. Animals were divided into three groups: control group, low dose Al group (Al 50; 50 mg Al3+/kg bw/day), high dose Al group (Al 100; 100 mg Al3+/kg bw/day). Control mice were given tap water, whereas Al treated mice received AlCl3 in drinking water for 8 weeks. [...].

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Maddox, Christopher Dale;

    There are divergent claims concerning the broad cortical organization of speechrecognition. One model holds that speech perception and comprehension is governed by a left lateralized anterior temporal lobe (ATL) pathway. Another model argues that bilateral superior temporal regions are critically important, and, in fact, represent a lower level of processing that drives ATL activation in a bottom up fashion. These models were tested in a series of auditory fMRI experiments that gradually investigated lower levels of speech analysis. The experiments contrasted listening to clear monosyllabic words, pseudowords, sentences, and word lists with unintelligible spectrally rotated and time-reversed speech. In the first experiment, posterior temporal regions did not respond differentially to sentence versus word list stimuli, consistent with the idea that bilateral regions of the superior temporal plane support speech recognition at a lower (perhaps phonological) level. An area of the ATL centered around the superior temporal sulcus (STS) was activated more for sentences than word lists, indicating that the region may be involved in sentence-level operations. In the second experiment, this same region in the left hemisphere was activated more by monosyllabic words than rotated words. This suggests that the anterior focus is not exclusively attributable to sentence-level operations. In the third experiment, lexical status was found to differentially modulate anterior and posterior STS regions. There was more activation in the aSTS bilaterally for words than pseudowords, but these conditions did not lead to activation differences in the posterior region. It appears that anterior temporal speech-selective regions respond to lexical-semantic aspects of speech, whereas posterior temporal speech-selective areas are coding lower level phonemic information.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Koban, Leonie; Jepma, Marieke; López-Solà, Marina; Wager, Tor D.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2019
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Sandner, Magdalena; Lois, Giannis; Streit, Fabian; Zeier, Peter; +3 Authors

    Identifying individual differences in stress reactivity is of particular interest in the context of stress-related disorders and resilience. Previous studies already identified several factors mediating the individual stress response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). However, the impact of long-term HPA axis activity on acute stress reactivity remains inconclusive. To investigate associations between long-term HPA axis variation and individual acute stress reactivity, we tested 40 healthy volunteers for affective, endocrine, physiological, and neural reactions to a modified, compact version of the established in-MR stress paradigm ScanSTRESS (ScanSTRESS-C). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) served as an integrative marker of long-term HPA axis activity. First, the ScanSTRESS-C version proved to be valid in evoking a subjective, endocrine, physiological, and neural stress response with enhanced self-reported negative affect and cortisol levels, increased heart rate as well as increased activation in the anterior insula and the dorso-anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Second and interestingly, results indicated a lower neuroendocrine stress response in individuals with higher HCC: HCC was negatively correlated with the area under the curve (respect to increase; AUCi) of saliva cortisol and with a stress-related increase in dACC activity. The present study explicitly targeted the relationship between HCC and acute stress reactivity on multiple response levels, i.e. subjective, endocrine and neural stress responses. The lower stress reactivity in individuals with higher HCC levels indicates the need for further research evaluating the role of long-term HPA axis alterations in the context of vulnerability or immunization against acute stress and following stress-related impairments.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Other ORP type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gordon, Brian A.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brier, Matthew; Blazey, Tyler; +10 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2016
      License: CC 0
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shimada, Kazutake;

    The term neurosteroids applies to those steroids that are both synthesized in the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol or from steroid hormone precursors, and that accumulate in the nervous system to levels that are at least in part independent of steroidogenic gland secretion rates. Neurosteroids consist of 17- or 20-oxosteroids and accumulate in the brain as unconjugated form and their sulfates, fatty acid esters and sulfolipid conjugates.The separation and characterization of pregennolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their 3-fatty acid esters (stearate, palmitate) in the brain are carried out using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) operating in the positive ion mode. These obtained from rat brains were identified in comparison with their chromatographic behavior with authentic samples during LC/APCI-MS.Pregnenolone 3-sulfate in rat brains was also identified as above.The quantitative determination of pregnenolone in rat brains was done using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was applied to the determination of pregnenolone in rat brains, most of which showed lower amounts than that previously reported. 脳内ステロイドホルモンの化学構造は比較的簡単な17-又は20-オキソステロイドよりなることが知られている.しかし,遊離型のみならず硫酸あるいは脂肪酸抱合型などとしても存在し複雑であるとされているが,詳細については明らかでない.そこで,HPLC,LC/MSを駆使してラット脳を検索したところ,pregnenolone,dehydroepiandrosteroneの3-stearate,-palmitate(計4種)を同定することに成功した.また,脳内におけるpregnenolone,dehydroepiandrostrone,pregnenolone 3-sulfateの存在もLC/MSなどにより改めて確認した.この際,methyloxime誘導体へ導くことが,分子イオンピーク又は関連するピークの検出を容易とし,LC/MSでの同定上極めて有用なことも見出した.一方,定量法の開発は以下のようにして行った.測定法は簡便性を考慮して蛍光検出HPLCを,測定対象は脳内ステロイドホルモン中で最も多くを占めるとされているpregnenoloneを,蛍光誘導体化試薬には1-anthroylcyanideを選択した,確立した分析法を実試料(ラット脳)へ適用したところ,文献記載値(測定法はRIA又はGC/MS)と符合する個体も見られたが,著しい低値を示す個体もあり,大きな疑問を生じるに至った.この原因がサンプル採取上の問題によるのか,あるいは報告されている分析法に問題があるのかは明らかでないが,いずれにしてもその生理作用と共に解決されるべき重要な課題を提起したことになる.このように,本研究は今後の脳内ステロイドホルモンの研究に一つの方向を示唆したものとして評価される. 出典:研究課題「脳内ステロイドホルモン分析法の開発と脳機能解明への応用」課題番号08457594(KAKEN:科学研究費助成事業データベース(国立情報学研究所)) (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/report/KAKENHI-PROJECT-08457594/084575941997kenkyu_seika_hokoku_gaiyo/)を加工して作成 研究課題/領域番号:08457594, 研究期間(年度):1996-1997 金沢大学自然科学研究科薬学系

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: De Keyser, Jacques; Steen, Christel; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.;

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by patchy areas of demyelination, inflammation, axonal loss and gliosis, and a diffuse axonal degeneration throughout the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A number of recent studies using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in both relapsing and progressive forms of MS have shown a decreased perfusion of the NAWM, which does not appear to be secondary to axonal loss. The reduced perfusion of the NAWM in MS might be caused by a widespread astrocyte dysfunction, possibly related to a deficiency in astrocytic beta(2)-adrenergic receptors and a reduced formation of cAMP, resulting in a reduced uptake of K+ at the nodes of Ranvier and a reduced release of K+ in the perivascular spaces. Pathologic and imaging studies suggest that ischemic changes might be involved in the development of a subtype of focal demyelinating lesions (type III lesions), and there appears to exist a relationship between decreased white matter perfusion and cognitive dysfunction in patients with MS.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Other ORP type . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Other ORP type . 2008
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    Authors: Vanagas, Tadas;

    Tyrimo tikslas. Ištirti itakoninės rūgšties poveikį smegenų audinio energijos apykaitos mechanizmams. Tyrimo uždaviniai. Įvertinti itakoninės rūgšties (IR), 4-oktilitakonato (4-OI) ir dimetilitakonato (DMI) poveikį nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo elektronų pernašos grandinės kompleksų (EPG) priklausomam deguonies suvartojimo greičiui. Įvertinti IR poveikį ROS gamybai. Metodai. Eksperimentams naudojamos pirminės žiurkių smegenėlių granulinio sluoksnio ląstelių kultūros, su kuriomis buvo atliekami respirometrijos tyrimai, t.y. matuojamas deguonies suvartojimo greitis (DSG). Kvėpavimo proceso vykdymui naudota IR – 1 mM, 2 mM ir 5 mM koncentracijomis, 4-OI – 250 μM, 500 μM ir 750 μM koncentracijomis ir ląstelės po 24 valandų inkubacijos su 50 μM DMI ir 100 ng/ml LPS. Tam kad vyktų kvėpavimo procesas buvo naudojami substratai: 6 mM piruvatas + 6 mM malatas, 2 mM ADP, 10.17 μM digitoninas, 10 mM glutamatas, 1 μM CAT, 1 μM CCCP, 10 mM sukcinatas, 0.5 μM rotenonas, 100 mM azidas. Gauti DSG išreikšti pmolO2/s*ml/106/ml ląstelių skaičiui. Eksperimentams su smegenų mitochondrijomis buvo naudojami tie patys substratai, o rezultatai išreikšti pmolO2/s*ml/0.5 mg mitochondrijų baltymo. ROS gamyba buvo registruojama naudojant izoliuotas mitochondrijos su 6 mM piruvato + 6 mM malato + 2 mM ADP arba su 10 mM sukcinato + 5 μM rotenono šulinėlyje su 0,25 mg/ml mitochondrijų baltymo. Rezultatai. IR slopina nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų priklausomą deguonies suvartojimo greitį atitinkamai: 1 mM koncentracija – 29.75% ir 17.03%, 2 mM IR – 25.85% ir 44.42%, 5 mM IR – 53.06% ir 51.78%. Nustatyta priklausomybė nuo IR koncentracijos. Kaip ir IR, taip pat ir 4-OI slopina nuo I – ojo EPG komplekso priklausomą DSG 43.64 ± 1.3% 500-750 μM koncentracijomis. 4-OI slopina nuo II – ojo EPG komplekso priklausomą DSG 58.52 ± 6.27% 250-750 μM koncentracijomis. DMI nekeičia DSG ląstelėse kvėpuojančiose su I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų substratais. Taip pat IR 5 mM koncentracija reikšmingai mažina nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų priklausomą ROS gamybą atitinkamai 41.34% ir 39.14%. Išvados. Itakoninė rūgštis ir 4-oktilitakonatas slopina smegenų ląstelių mitochondrijų nuo I-ojo ir II-ojo elektronų pernašos grandinės kompleksų priklausomą deguonies suvartojimo greitį. Dimetilitakonatas slopinančiu poveikiu nepasižymi. Itakoninė rūgštis taip pat geba sumažinti ROS gamybą smegenų mitochondrijose. Aim. To investigate the effect of IA on the bioenergetic processess in the brain tissue. Objectives. To evaluate the effect of IA, 4-octylitaconate (4-OI) and dimethylitaconate (DMI) on the I and II electron transport chain (ETC) complex dependent oxygen consumption rates. To evaluate the effect of IA for ROS generation. Methods. Primary rat cerebellar granular cell (CGC) cultures were used for respirometry experiments where oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) were evaluated. For the process of respiration we used 1 mM, 2mM and 5 mM of IA; 250 μM, 500 μM and 750 μM of 4-OI and cells after 24 hours incubation with 50 μM DMI and 100 ng/ml LPS. To imitate respiration process the following substrates and inhibitors were used: 6 mM pyruvate + 6 mM malate, 2 mM ADP, 10.17 μM digitonin, 10 mM glutamate, 1 μM CAT, 1 μM CCCP, 10 mM succinate, 0.5 μM rotenone, 100 mM azide. Obtained results with OCRs were expressed as pmolO2/s*ml/106/ml cells. Experiments with isolated brain mitochondria were conducted using the same substrates and inhibitors. OCRs in isolated mitochondria were expressed as pmolO2/s*ml/0.5 mg mitochondrial protein. ROS generation was recorded in isolated mitochondria with 6 mM pyruvate, 6 mM malate and 2 mM ADP or 10 mM succinate + 5 μM rotenone in the well containing 0,25 mg/ml mitochondrial protein. Results. IA inhibits the I and II ETC complexes dependent OCRs respectively: 1 mM IA – 29.75% and 17.03%, 2 mM IA – 25.85% and 44.42%, 5 mM IA – 53.06% and 51.78%. IA inhibits mitochondrial respiration in a dose dependent manner. Similar to IA, 4-OI inhibits the I ETC complex dependent OCR by 43.64 ± 1.3% in 500-750 μM concentrations. 4-OI inhibits the II ETC complex dependent OCR by 58.52 ± 6.27% in 250-750 μM concentrations. DMI did not change OCR in cells respiring with the I and II ETC complexes. Also IA 5 mM concentration significantly decreases the I and II ETC complexes dependent ROS generation respectively by 41.34% and 39.14%. Conclusion. Itaconic acid and 4-octylitaconate reduces the I and II electron transport chain complexes dependent oxygen consumption rates in brain mitochondria. Dimethylitaconate has no such inhibitory efffect. Itaconic acid is also able to reduce ROS generation in brain mitochondria.

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    Authors: Wegrzyn, Martin; Aust, Joana; Barnstorf, Larissa; Gippert, Magdalena; +15 Authors

    Condition-wise and block-wise maps from our manuscript "Thought experiment: decoding cognitive processes from the fMRI data of one individual"

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  • Authors: Stanevičienė, Inga; Naginienė, Rima; Baranauskienė, Dalė; Vieželienė, Dalė;

    Background and aim: Aluminium (Al) causes toxic effects on various body organs and tissues, especially nervous tissue. Studies on animal models demonstrated changes in cognitive functions and morphological features of the central nervous system after consumption of water containing elevated concentrations of aluminium. This study was aimed to evaluate long-term effects of Al on mice body weight and brain mass and to determine concentrations of Al in mice brain and blood. Materials and methods: Experiments were done on 4-6-weeks old Balb C mice. Animals were divided into three groups: control group, low dose Al group (Al 50; 50 mg Al3+/kg bw/day), high dose Al group (Al 100; 100 mg Al3+/kg bw/day). Control mice were given tap water, whereas Al treated mice received AlCl3 in drinking water for 8 weeks. [...].

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    Authors: Maddox, Christopher Dale;

    There are divergent claims concerning the broad cortical organization of speechrecognition. One model holds that speech perception and comprehension is governed by a left lateralized anterior temporal lobe (ATL) pathway. Another model argues that bilateral superior temporal regions are critically important, and, in fact, represent a lower level of processing that drives ATL activation in a bottom up fashion. These models were tested in a series of auditory fMRI experiments that gradually investigated lower levels of speech analysis. The experiments contrasted listening to clear monosyllabic words, pseudowords, sentences, and word lists with unintelligible spectrally rotated and time-reversed speech. In the first experiment, posterior temporal regions did not respond differentially to sentence versus word list stimuli, consistent with the idea that bilateral regions of the superior temporal plane support speech recognition at a lower (perhaps phonological) level. An area of the ATL centered around the superior temporal sulcus (STS) was activated more for sentences than word lists, indicating that the region may be involved in sentence-level operations. In the second experiment, this same region in the left hemisphere was activated more by monosyllabic words than rotated words. This suggests that the anterior focus is not exclusively attributable to sentence-level operations. In the third experiment, lexical status was found to differentially modulate anterior and posterior STS regions. There was more activation in the aSTS bilaterally for words than pseudowords, but these conditions did not lead to activation differences in the posterior region. It appears that anterior temporal speech-selective regions respond to lexical-semantic aspects of speech, whereas posterior temporal speech-selective areas are coding lower level phonemic information.

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    Authors: Koban, Leonie; Jepma, Marieke; López-Solà, Marina; Wager, Tor D.;