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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nakajo, Akihito;

    This paper aims to clarify the regional characteristics of the development of tourism accompanying economic growth in India and the tourist industry using development in the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand. The state of Uttarakhand is known as a Himalayan hill resort area with various tourism resources, such as hillside summer retreats in regions with beautiful lakeside scenery and views of year-round snow of the Himalayan Mountains, Hindu pilgrimage sites and so on. In particular, the development of hillside summer retreats was facilitated by the forging of roads through steep mountainous regions and the construction of hotels and vacation homes by the English during the colonial period. In recent years tourists from all over India have visited Uttarakhand, and that number is increasing rapidly. While it is obvious that many of the tourists come from the North and South West regions of India, there is a particularly large number who come from the greater Delhi metropolitan area. It is assumed that these visits constitute utilization of leisure time by the middle class. With new development of hill resorts, Naukuchiatal has been one recipient of the ever-increasing number of domestic tourists. Surrounded by tourism resources centered on the lake, Uttarakhand has experienced growing development of lodging accommodations by local residents and hotel capital from inside and outside the state. Hence, a certain ripple effect to the local economy can be observed for both local residents and merchants within the region regarding employment at lodging accommodations, necessary services, and the demand for materials.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ JAIRO; Hiroshima Uni...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matthias Ritter; Martin Odening; Aaron Grau;

    Land market regulations are often justified by the assumption that activities of foreign and nonagricultural investors drive up land prices in countries with low land price levels. However, empirical knowledge about the dynamics of agricultural land prices across borders is sparse. Using the German reunification as a natural experiment, we study the effect of the former inner German border on the dynamics of agricultural land prices in East and West Germany. We apply a land price diffusion model with an error correction specification that estimates to what extent agricultural land markets are spatially integrated. A novel feature of our model is its ability to distinguish price diffusion within states and across state borders. We find that local agricultural land markets in Germany are linked by a long-run equilibrium relationship. Spatial market integration, however, does not hold among all counties in our study area. Regarding our main research question, we provide evidence for a persistent border effect given that the fraction of spatially integrated counties is larger within states than across the former border. Moreover, we observe non-significant error correction terms for many counties along the former border. From a policy perspective, it is striking to realize that even 25 years after German reunification, pronounced land price differences persist. It is quite likely that price diffusion through existing borders within the EU would take even more time given language barriers, different administrative procedures for land acquisitions, different tax systems, and information asymmetries between domestic and foreign market participants.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ edoc-Server. Open-Ac...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Coja-Oghlan, Amin; Goerdt, Andreas; Lanka, André;

    It is a well established fact, that – in the case of classical random graphs like variants of Gn,p or random regular graphs – spectral methods yield efficient algorithms for clustering (e. g. colouring or bisec- tion) problems. The theory of large networks emerging recently provides convincing evidence that such networks, albeit looking random in some sense, cannot sensibly be described by classical random graphs. A vari- ety of new types of random graphs have been introduced. One of these types is characterized by the fact that we have a fixed expected degree sequence, that is for each vertex its expected degree is given. Recent theoretical work confirms that spectral methods can be success- fully applied to clustering problems for such random graphs, too – pro- vided that the expected degrees are not too small, in fact ≥ log6 n. In this case however the degree of each vertex is concentrated about its expectation. We show how to remove this restriction and apply spectral methods when the expected degrees are bounded below just by a suitable constant. Our results rely on the observation that techniques developed for the classical sparse Gn,p random graph (that is p = c/n) can be transferred to the present situation, provided we consider a suitably normalized ad- jacency matrix: We divide each entry of the adjacency matrix by the product of the expected degrees of the incident vertices. Given the host of spectral techniques developed for Gn,p this observation should be of independent interest.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Multimedia ONline AR...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Moreno-Brid, Juan Carlos; Gómez Tovar, Rosa; Sánchez Gómez, Joaquín; Gómez Rodríguez, Lizzeth;

    The study examines the effects of trade liberalization on employment and the labour market in Mexico's manufacturing industry. The analysis places special emphasis on assessing the extent to which the industry's distinct trade performance is accompanied by an improvement in labour conditions with the objective of ensuring decent work. For this purpose, the study applies the framework of decent work indicators developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO), in combination with input-output analysis, to explore selected links between international trade and certain indicators of decent work in two industries of Mexico's manufacturing sector: automotive and textile. We chose these two industries because of the key differences in their organizational structures, their roles in global value chains (GVC) and their dynamism in recent decades. With the policy shift towards trade liberalization in recent decades, the automotive industry has come to be regarded as the jewel of Mexico's export market. The textile industry, in contrast, suffered a severe shock as trade liberalization brought about increased competition in Mexico's domestic market, despite the industry increasing its participation in GVCs. A key contribution of the study was to construct a set of relevant time series indicators of decent work for these two industrial activities in Mexico, based on ILO guidelines and official data. Taking into account this set of indicators, as well as Mexico's labour market regulatory reforms and their links to trade agreements, including the Agreement between the United States of America, the United Mexican States and Canada (USMCA), the study finds important differences in these two industries' advance towards decent work, which can be partly explained by their distinct performances in international trade. Based on these results, the study offers some policy recommendations to help achieve a more robust pace of progress towards decent work.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EconStorarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    EconStor
    Research . 2021
    Data sources: EconStor
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EconStorarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Research . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andrich, Mark A.; Oxburgh, E. Ronald; Imberger, Jorg;

    The Index of Sustainable Functionality (ISF) makes it possible to analyse domains and the sustainability of multiple systems from various perspectives. This paper uses available household wealth and income data to calculate the resource rich state of Western Australia's ISF from different wealth level perspectives. How wealth inequity may affect the stability of major systems including the social, terrestrial, water and mineral industry are discussed as are reasons behind recent changes in wealth distribution. The ISF results show that from the perspective of society's richest 20%, poorest 20%, mean wealth households and the environment, system decline has occurred over the past 20 years, even as the economy reached full functionality. Suggestions to improve functionality and long-term stability are made, with the major suggestion the introduction of a fund modelled on Norway's sovereign wealth fund.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EconStorarrow_drop_down
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    EconStor
    Research . 2009
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Research . 2009
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EconStorarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      EconStor
      Research . 2009
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Research . 2009
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Allison, James E.; Allison, James E.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://hokusei.repo...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Andersson, Patrik; Kalvig, Per;

    In this working paper, we explore these questions based on analysis of a dataset of mining and mineral exploration projects covering all the major commodities or commodity groups in six Arctic countries or territories - Canada, Greenland, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Alaska. We do so through an approach that moves beyond ownership of mines as a measurement of control. Mine ownership in itself has little significance for where the raw materials go to be processed. Industry demand and supply security hinge more on highly processed materials and advanced products than bulk raw materials. Our approach is instead to assess Chinese control over mineral flows from the Arctic using a comprehensive set of 'control parameters'. Compared to an ownership-based approach, we begin one step further upstream in the supply chain - at mineral exploration - and look one step further downstream, by taking into account control via, for example, offtake agreements or monopoly over processing technology. We find that Chinese companies are involved in a very small share of Arctic projects overall, that their activities cover a very wide range of commodities, most of which are focused on exploration, and that they are heavily concentrated in Canada. The scale of Chinese involvement might, however, be more extensive than our data shows because many Western miners view Chinese companies as their natural - and first choice - offtake partners. It is thus likely that many companies expect to sell to China but have not entered into a formal offtake agreement, or that we have just not been able to find evidence of such agreements. Our findings also suggest that while Chinese engagement in the Arctic mineral sector has been limited, the investments that have been made appear to support China's mineral strategy relatively well. This is evident from both the range of commodities that are targeted and from variations in degree of control across commodities that are differently prioritised in China's mineral strategy.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EconStorarrow_drop_down
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    EconStor
    Research . 2022
    Data sources: EconStor
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    EconStor
    Research . 2022
    Data sources: EconStor
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EconStorarrow_drop_down
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      Research . 2022
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Research . 2022
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    Authors: Hirasawa, Mikami; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi;

    In 1989, D. Gabai and U. Oertel [8] introduced the concept of the essential lamination, which is a hybrid object lying between incompressible surfaces and taut foliations, and generalizing both. We say that a 3-manifold is laminar if it contains an essential lamination. An important result of [8] is that the universal covers of laminar manifolds are homeomorphic to R. This fact furnishes a strong method for studying the manifolds obtained by Dehn surgery along knots, especially concerning Property P Conjecture (nontrivial Dehn surgery on a nontrivial knot in 3 never yields a simply-connected manifold) and Cabling Conjecture (Dehn surgery on a non-cable knot cannot yield a reducible manifold). For example, see [4] for non-torus alternating knots, [3], [12] for 2-bridge knots, [17] for most algebraic knots and [9] for knots with some kind of essential tangle decompositions. We note that by [8] a 3-manifold is laminar if and only if it contains an essential branched surface (for the definition see §2), and the above authors who followed [8] obtained their results by constructing essential branched surfaces. We note that sutured manifold theory was used in [14] and [18]. One of their approaches is to construct a closed essential branched surface in the exterior ( ) of a knot and show that remains essential after any nontrivial Dehn filling along ∂ ( ) (we call such persistently essential). Then we see, by [8], that has Property P in a strong form and that the cabling conjecture is true for . (We say that a knot has strong Property P if every manifold obtained by a nontrivial Dehn surgery along has universal cover R.) It is, however, an open question whether or not every knot with strong Property P admits a persistently essential lamination in its complement. In [1], [2], M. Brittenham had a paradigm shift in proving strong Property P for knots. Instead of constructing a branched surface in the complement of a given knot, he first constructed a branched surface and then embedded a knot in its complement. More precisely, he first constructed a closed branched surface in 3 from any in-

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    Project Euclid
    Other literature type . 2001
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      Project Euclid
      Other literature type . 2001
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    Authors: Marzena Rochoń; T. A. Hall;

    The present volume consists of eight studies dealing with various aspects of Prosodic Phonology (see Booij 1983, Nespor & Vogel 1986 and much current work). The languages dealt with below include English, German, Italian, Luganda, Ndebele, Persian, Polish, Spanish, and Tamil.

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    ZAS Papers in Linguistics
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    ZAS Papers in Linguistics
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      ZAS Papers in Linguistics
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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      ZAS Papers in Linguistics
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    Authors: Pié Dols, Laia; Llop Llop, Maria;

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of the Catalan economy (2001) with the use of a National Accounting Matrix with environmental accounts (NAMEA) for the Catalan economy with 2001 data. We will focus on the analysis of the emission multipliers and we will also analyse the impact of a 10% reduction in greenhouse emissions on emission multipliers. This emission-reduction percentage would bring the Catalan economy into compliance with the maximum emissions level allowed by the Kyoto Protocol. We consider three possible scenarios that would allow this goal to be met. First, we will simulate a 10% reduction in regional emissions and a 5% drop in the endogenous income of the multipliers' model (production, factorial and private income). Second, we will simulate a 10% reduction in emissions and a 10% increase in endogenous income. Finally, we will simulate a 10% reduction in emissions and a 5% increase in endogenous income. Additionally, we will analyse the decomposition of the emission multipliers into own effects, open effects and circular effects to capture the different channels of the emission generation process. Keywords: NAMEA, emission multipliers, Kyoto Protocol.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nakajo, Akihito;

    This paper aims to clarify the regional characteristics of the development of tourism accompanying economic growth in India and the tourist industry using development in the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand. The state of Uttarakhand is known as a Himalayan hill resort area with various tourism resources, such as hillside summer retreats in regions with beautiful lakeside scenery and views of year-round snow of the Himalayan Mountains, Hindu pilgrimage sites and so on. In particular, the development of hillside summer retreats was facilitated by the forging of roads through steep mountainous regions and the construction of hotels and vacation homes by the English during the colonial period. In recent years tourists from all over India have visited Uttarakhand, and that number is increasing rapidly. While it is obvious that many of the tourists come from the North and South West regions of India, there is a particularly large number who come from the greater Delhi metropolitan area. It is assumed that these visits constitute utilization of leisure time by the middle class. With new development of hill resorts, Naukuchiatal has been one recipient of the ever-increasing number of domestic tourists. Surrounded by tourism resources centered on the lake, Uttarakhand has experienced growing development of lodging accommodations by local residents and hotel capital from inside and outside the state. Hence, a certain ripple effect to the local economy can be observed for both local residents and merchants within the region regarding employment at lodging accommodations, necessary services, and the demand for materials.

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    Authors: Matthias Ritter; Martin Odening; Aaron Grau;

    Land market regulations are often justified by the assumption that activities of foreign and nonagricultural investors drive up land prices in countries with low land price levels. However, empirical knowledge about the dynamics of agricultural land prices across borders is sparse. Using the German reunification as a natural experiment, we study the effect of the former inner German border on the dynamics of agricultural land prices in East and West Germany. We apply a land price diffusion model with an error correction specification that estimates to what extent agricultural land markets are spatially integrated. A novel feature of our model is its ability to distinguish price diffusion within states and across state borders. We find that local agricultural land markets in Germany are linked by a long-run equilibrium relationship. Spatial market integration, however, does not hold among all counties in our study area. Regarding our main research question, we provide evidence for a persistent border effect given that the fraction of spatially integrated counties is larger within states than across the former border. Moreover, we observe non-significant error correction terms for many counties along the former border. From a policy perspective, it is striking to realize that even 25 years after German reunification, pronounced land price differences persist. It is quite likely that price diffusion through existing borders within the EU would take even more time given language barriers, different administrative procedures for land acquisitions, different tax systems, and information asymmetries between domestic and foreign market participants.

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    Authors: Coja-Oghlan, Amin; Goerdt, Andreas; Lanka, André;

    It is a well established fact, that – in the case of classical random graphs like variants of Gn,p or random regular graphs – spectral methods yield efficient algorithms for clustering (e. g. colouring or bisec- tion) problems. The theory of large networks emerging recently provides convincing evidence that such networks, albeit looking random in some sense, cannot sensibly be described by classical random graphs. A vari- ety of new types of random graphs have been introduced. One of these types is characterized by the fact that we have a fixed expected degree sequence, that is for each vertex its expected degree is given. Recent theoretical work confirms that spectral methods can be success- fully applied to clustering problems for such random graphs, too – pro- vided that the expected degrees are not too small, in fact ≥ log6 n. In this case however the degree of each vertex is concentrated about its expectation. We show how to remove this restriction and apply spectral methods when the expected degrees are bounded below just by a suitable constant. Our results rely on the observation that techniques developed for the classical sparse Gn,p random graph (that is p = c/n) can be transferred to the present situation, provided we consider a suitably normalized ad- jacency matrix: We divide each entry of the adjacency matrix by the product of the expected degrees of the incident vertices. Given the host of spectral techniques developed for Gn,p this observation should be of independent interest.

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    Authors: Moreno-Brid, Juan Carlos; Gómez Tovar, Rosa; Sánchez Gómez, Joaquín; Gómez Rodríguez, Lizzeth;

    The study examines the effects of trade liberalization on employment and the labour market in Mexico's manufacturing industry. The analysis places special emphasis on assessing the extent to which the industry's distinct trade performance is accompanied by an improvement in labour conditions with the objective of ensuring decent work. For this purpose, the study applies the framework of decent work indicators developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO), in combination with input-output analysis, to explore selected links between international trade and certain indicators of decent work in two industries of Mexico's manufacturing sector: automotive and textile. We chose these two industries because of the key differences in their organizational structures, their roles in global value chains (GVC) and their dynamism in recent decades. With the policy shift towards trade liberalization in recent decades, the automotive industry has come to be regarded as the jewel of Mexico's export market. The textile industry, in contrast, suffered a severe shock as trade liberalization brought about increased competition in Mexico's domestic market, despite the industry increasing its participation in GVCs. A key contribution of the study was to construct a set of relevant time series indicators of decent work for these two industrial activities in Mexico, based on ILO guidelines and official data. Taking into account this set of indicators, as well as Mexico's labour market regulatory reforms and their links to trade agreements, including the Agreement between the United States of America, the United Mexican States and Canada (USMCA), the study finds important differences in these two industries' advance towards decent work, which can be partly explained by their distinct performances in international trade. Based on these results, the study offers some policy recommendations to help achieve a more robust pace of progress towards decent work.

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    Research . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ EconStorarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      EconStor
      Research . 2021
      Data sources: EconStor
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    Authors: Andrich, Mark A.; Oxburgh, E. Ronald; Imberger, Jorg;

    The Index of Sustainable Functionality (ISF) makes it possible to analyse domains and the sustainability of multiple systems from various perspectives. This paper uses available household wealth and income data to calculate the resource rich state of Western Australia's ISF from different wealth level perspectives. How wealth inequity may affect the stability of major systems including the social, terrestrial, water and mineral industry are discussed as are reasons behind recent changes in wealth distribution. The ISF results show that from the perspective of society's richest 20%, poorest 20%, mean wealth households and the environment, system decline has occurred over the past 20 years, even as the economy reached full functionality. Suggestions to improve functionality and long-term stability are made, with the major suggestion the introduction of a fund modelled on Norway's sovereign wealth fund.

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    Research . 2009
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    EconStor
    Research . 2009
    Data sources: EconStor
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