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  • 2014-2023
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  • Publikationer från KTH

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jovana eBelic; Jovana eBelic; Jovana eBelic; Aldo A. Faisal; +1 Authors

    The only way we can interact with the world is through movements, and our primary interactions are via the hands, thus any loss of hand function has immediate impact on our quality of life. However, to date it has not been systematically assessed how coordination in the hand's joints affects every day actions. This is important for two fundamental reasons. Firstly, to understand the representations and computations underlying motor control “in-the-wild” situations, and secondly to develop smarter controllers for prosthetic hands that have the same functionality as natural limbs. In this work we exploit the correlation structure of our hand and finger movements in daily-life. The novelty of our idea is that instead of averaging variability out, we take the view that the structure of variability may contain valuable information about the task being performed. We asked seven subjects to interact in 17 daily-life situations, and quantified behavior in a principled manner using CyberGlove body sensor networks that, after accurate calibration, track all major joints of the hand. Our key findings are: (1) We confirmed that hand control in daily-life tasks is very low-dimensional, with four to five dimensions being sufficient to explain 80–90% of the variability in the natural movement data. (2) We established a universally applicable measure of manipulative complexity that allowed us to measure and compare limb movements across tasks. We used Bayesian latent variable models to model the low-dimensional structure of finger joint angles in natural actions. (3) This allowed us to build a naïve classifier that within the first 1000 ms of action initiation (from a flat hand start configuration) predicted which of the 17 actions was going to be executed—enabling us to reliably predict the action intention from very short-time-scale initial data, further revealing the foreseeable nature of hand movements for control of neuroprosthetics and tele operation purposes. (4) Using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm on our latent variable model permitted us to reconstruct with high accuracy (<5–6° MAE) the movement trajectory of missing fingers by simply tracking the remaining fingers. Overall, our results suggest the hypothesis that specific hand actions are orchestrated by the brain in such a way that in the natural tasks of daily-life there is sufficient redundancy and predictability to be directly exploitable for neuroprosthetics. QC 20160413

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    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
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    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: DOAJ
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hersén, Nicklas; Kennedal, Axel;

    Real world scenarios where machine learning based music genre classification could be applied includes; streaming services, music distribution platforms and automatic tagging of music libraries. Music genre classification is inherently a subjective task; there are no exact boundaries that separate different genres. Machine learning based audio classification attempts to classify audio by comparing feature vectors. Which features to extract from which parts of the audio greatly impact the classification accuracy. This paper investigates whether different audio snippet locations and durations impact the classification accuracy. A number of experiments were run across six genres, four kinds of snippet locations and eight durations. The results show that these parameters do in fact have a significant impact on the accuracy. Genre-klassificering baserad på maskininlärning har en mängd användningsområden, exempelvis rekommendationer i streaming- och distributionsplattformar och automatisk taggning av musikbibliotek. På grund av att det inte existerar några exakta objektiva definitioner av specifika genrer är denna typ av automatiskklassificering en subjektiv uppgift. Klassificering med hjälp av maskininlärning försöker att klassificera låtar genom att jämföra så kallade feature vectors. De features som används har en stor påverkan på precisionen av klassificeringen. Denna rapport undersöker om det finns något samband mellan startpositionen och längden av utvalda ljudklipp på precisionen. Flera experiment genomfördes på sex olika musikgenrer, fyra olika startpositioner och åtta längder för ljudklipp. Resultaten visar att startpositionen och längden har en signifikant påverkan på klassificeringsprecisionen.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2018
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2018
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    Authors: Juffer, Elsemieke Jolien;

    Cities around the world encounter global challenges, of which climate change is one. Urbanisation is resulting in inflexible land uses that are hard to reverse and cause fragmentation of green areas, which therefore decline in quality and contribute to the cities’ vulnerability to climate change. In recent years the concept of ecosystem services has gained recognition and is used more often in urban planning. However, focus in these discussions has not always been on urban green spaces. There is a lack of tools that in an operative way link green space allocation to provision of ecosystem services in early discussions about urban development. Tools exist that place the focus on the amount of green in urban planning. It is the establishment of a dialogue on how to identify the need for green in an urban area, identifying how the distribution of greenery can be operationalised on different city scales, and how it contributes to mitigating specific problems that are missing. This thesis contributes to the knowledge on the conceptual understanding of the potential and importance of urban green spaces to mitigate water and noise challenges, and contributes to starting semi-large scale discussions on climate change challenges and solutions in urban developments. By visualising the mitigation potentials, with the goal to create better informed decision making and urban planning processes, it contributes to the development of urban planning for sustainable development. Factors that contribute to the identification on where, what and how greenery can be implemented to mitigate the effects of urban sound and water challenges are identified and merged in a discussion tool, Where-Else, that is tested for its applicability. This thesis uses a mixed method approach based on grounded theory, and consists of two phases. Phase one is data collection and analysis in order to develop two discussion tools, applying a literature overview. Two questions are answered: how does greenery contribute to mitigating effects of sound and water challenges, and secondly, what are the most important factors to recognise? Both the effects of noise and water can be mitigated using greenery. Identified and noticeable important mitigation factors by greenery are: size, location and design for noise mitigation; and retention time, infiltration, evaporation and transpiration for water. In the second phase “Where-Else” is tested for its applicability and practical value, using interviews with urban ecosystem services experts, resulting in suggestions for improvements and the acknowledgement that there is a practical value for the developed tool. Städer runt om i världen stöter på globala utmaningar, varav klimatförändringen är en av dem Urbanisering resulterar i oflexibla markanvändningar som är svåra att vända och orsakar fragmentering av grönområden, vilket därför sänker kvaliteten och bidrar till städernas sårbarhet mot klimatförändringar. Under de senaste åren har begreppet ekosystemtjänster fått erkännande och används oftare i stadsplanering. Fokus i dessa diskussioner har dock inte alltid varit på gröna stadsområden. Det saknas verktyg som på ett operativt sätt kopplar samman grön arealfördelning till tillhandahållande av ekosystemtjänster i tidiga diskussioner om stadsutveckling. Det finns verktyg som lägger fokus på mängden gröna områden i stadsplaneringen. Det är upprättandet av en dialog om hur man identifierar behovet av grön i en del av en stad och identifierar hur distributionen av grönområden kan hanteras skötas på olika stadskalor och hur det bidrar till att mildra specifika problem som saknas. Arbete bidrar till kunskapen om den konceptuella förståelsen av de gröna stadsområdenas potential och betydelse för att mildra vatten och bullerutmaningar, samt bidrar till att påbörja diskussioner om klimatförändringar och lösningar inom stadsutveckling. Genom att visualisera mitigationspotentialen, med målet att skapa bättre informerade beslutsfattande- och stadsplaneringsprocesser, bidrar det till att utveckla stadsplanering för en hållbar utveckling. Faktorer som bidrar till identifieringen av var, vad och hur grönområden kan genomföras för att mildra effekterna av urbana ljud- och vattenutmaningar identifieras och slås samman i ett diskussionsverktyg, Where-Else, som testas för dess tillämplighet. Denna arbete använder en blandad metod som baseras på grundad teori och består av två faser. Fas ett är datainsamling och analys för att utveckla två diskussionsverktyg, vilket genomförs med en litteraturundersökning. Två frågor besvaras: Hur bidrar grönska till att mildra effekterna av ljud och vattenutmaningar, och vilka är de viktigaste faktorerna att känna igen? Effekter från både buller och vatten kan mildras med hjälp av grönska. Identifierade och märkbara viktiga begränsningsfaktorer av grönska är: storlek, plats och design för bullerreducering. och retentionstid, infiltrering, avdunstning och transpiration av vatten. I andra fasen testas "Where-Else" för användbarhet och praktiskt värde med intervjuer med experter från stadsekosystemtjänster, vilket resulterar i förslag till förbättringar och bekräftelse på att det finns ett praktiskt värde för det utvecklade verktyget.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
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    Publikationer från KTH
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2018
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    Authors: Kastemaa, Juho;

    How is it possible to design virtual characters that can express different emotions such as compound emotions that are a mix of basic emotion expressions? Augmented reality (AR) can create engaging experiences for participants, and in recent years, virtual faces and virtual characters have become increasingly realistic and expressive, for example, when reducing costs using therapeutic applications. The validity of virtual expression has been shown in studies on desktop computers but less so in AR. In this paper, the basic emotions and the compound emotions of virtual characters were studied and the character was designed to work with Microsoft HoloLens in AR. The process of creating basic emotion blends to a human virtual character was created and the animations were modified using Unity3D game engine. The participants (n = 24) experienced the virtual character in a job interview context wearing HoloLens mixed reality glasses. The virtual character made basic and compound facial expressions and the participants were asked to label them. The result show that all participants successfully recognized seven basic emotions and seven compound emotions from a virtual character in AR using HoloLens; however, disgust was confused with sad, and angry was sometimes confused with disgust. Also, the fearfully surprised was often mistaken with awed. The result show that the compound emotions were recognized quite well and the results indicate that the perceived valence changes depending on the facial expressions. The study provides insights into how blended emotive expressions for virtual characters are created and perceived. Hur är det möjligt att designa virtuella karaktärer som kan uttrycka olika känslor, till exempel blandade känslor som är en blandning av grundläggande känslor? Augmented Reality (AR) kan skapa engagerande upplevelser för deltagarna, och de senaste åren har virtuella ansikten och virtuella karaktärer blivit alltmer realistiska och uttrycksfulla, till exempel då kostnaderna minskas med hjälp av terapeutiska tillämpningar. Giltigheten av virtuellt uttryck har visats i studier på stationära datorer, men mindre i AR. I denna rapport studerades de grundläggande känslorna och hur de blandade känslorna av virtuella karaktären kan konstrueras för att fungera med Microsoft HoloLens i AR. Processen att skapa blandade känslor till en mänsklig virtuell karaktär konstruerades och animationerna modifierades med hjälp av Unity3D-spelmotor. Deltagarna (n = 24) upplevde den virtuella karaktären i en jobbintervju med Microsofts HoloLens. Den virtuella karaktären gjorde grundläggande och sammansatta ansiktsuttryck och deltagarna ombads kategorisera dom. Resultatet visar att alla deltagare framgångsrikt erkänt sju grundläggande känslor och sju blandade känslor från en virtuell karaktär i AR med hjälp av HoloLens; disgust var ihopblandad med sad, och angry var ibland ihopblandad med disgust. Fearfully surprised blev också ofta felaktig ihopblandad med awed. Studiens resultat visar att de blandade känslorna var lätta att känna igen och resultaten antyder på att den uppfattade valens förändras beroende på ansiktsuttryck. Studien ger insikter om hur blandade känslouttryck för virtuella karaktärer har konstruerats och uppfattats.

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    Authors: Regina Magalhães; João Pereira; Oleksandr Tarasenko; Sonia Martin-Lopez; +3 Authors

    Nowadays there is an increasing demand for the cost-effective monitoring of potential threats to the integrity of high-voltage networks and electric power infrastructures. Optical fiber sensors are a particularly interesting solution for applications in these environments, due to their low cost and positive intrinsic features, including small size and weight, dielectric properties, and invulnerability to electromagnetic interference (EMI). However, due precisely to their intrinsic EMI-immune nature, the development of a distributed optical fiber sensing solution for the detection of partial discharges and external electrical fields is in principle very challenging. Here, we propose a method to exploit the third-order and second-order nonlinear effects in silica fibers, as a means to achieve highly sensitive distributed measurements of external electrical fields in real time. By monitoring the electric-field-induced variations in the refractive index using a highly sensitive Rayleigh-based CP-&phi OTDR scheme, we demonstrate the distributed detection of Kerr and Pockels electro-optic effects, and how those can assign a new sensing dimension to optical fibers, transducing external electric fields into visible minute disturbances in the guided light. The proposed sensing configuration, electro-optical time domain reflectometry, is validated both theoretically and experimentally, showing experimental second-order and third-order nonlinear coefficients, respectively, of &chi 22 m2/V2 for silica fibers. (2) ~ 0.27 × (3) ~ 2.5 × 12 m/V and &chi 10&minus

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    Authors: Schuppe, Georg Friedrich; Tumova, Jana;

    We propose a decentralized solution to a high-level task-planning problem for a multi-agent system under a set of possibly dependent LTL f specifications. We propose an approach where the problem is turned into a number of individual two and a half player stochastic games with reachability objectives. If almost-surely winning strategies cannot be found for them, we deploy so-called least-limiting advisers to restrict agents' behaviours. A key step is treating safety and liveness separately, by synthesizing necessary safety and fairness assumptions and iteratively exchanging them in the form of advisers between the agents. We avoid the state-space explosion problem by computing advisers locally in each game, independently of the model and specification of other agents. The solution is sound, but conservative. We demonstrate its scalability in a series of simulated scenarios involving cleaning of an office-like environment. Part of proceedings: ISBN 978-1-6654-2926-9, QC 20230118

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/mrs508...
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/mrs508...
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    Authors: Cánovas, Rocío; Padrell Sánchez, Sara; Parrilla, Marc; Cuartero, María; +1 Authors

    We present the most complete study to date comprising in vitro cytotoxicity tests of ion-selective membranes (ISMs) in terms of cell viability, proliferation, and adhesion assays with human dermal fibroblasts. ISMs were prepared with different types of plasticizers and ionophores to be tested in combination with assays that focus on the medium-term and long-term leaching of compounds. Furthermore, the ISMs were prepared in different configurations considering (i) inner-filling solution-type electrodes, (ii) all-solid-state electrodes based on a conventional drop-cast of the membrane, (iii) peeling after the preparation of a wearable sensor, and (iv) detachment from a microneedle-based sensor, thus covering a wide range of membrane shapes. One of the aims of this study, other than the demonstration of the biocompatibility of various ISMs and materials tested herein, is to create an awareness in the scientific community surrounding the need to perform biocompatibility assays during the the very first steps of any sensor development with an intended biomedical application. This will foster meeting the requirements for subsequent on-body application of the sensor and avoiding further problems during massive validations toward the final in vivo use and commercialization of such devices. QC 20211129

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    ACS Sensors
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    Authors: Innocenti, M.E.; Goldman, M.; Newman, D.; Markidis, Stefano; +1 Authors

    © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. The long-term evolution of large domain particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection is investigated following observations that show two possible outcomes for collisionless reconnection: toward a Petschek-like configuration or toward multiple X points. In the present simulation, a mixed scenario develops. At earlier time, plasmoids are emitted, disrupting the formation of Petschek-like structures. Later, an almost stationary monster plasmoid forms, preventing the emission of other plasmoids. A situation reminiscent of Petschek's switch-off then ensues. Switch-off is obtained through a slow shock/rotational discontinuity compound structure. Two external slow shocks (SS) located at the separatrices reduce the in-plane tangential component of the magnetic field, but not to zero. Two transitions reminiscent of rotational discontinuities (RD) in the internal part of the exhaust then perform the final switch-off. Both the SS and the RD are characterized through analysis of their Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. A moderate guide field is used to suppress the development of the firehose instability in the exhaust. ispartof: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS vol:810 issue:2 status: published

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    The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    Publikationer från KTH
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      The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    Authors: Bu, Junfu; Jönsson, Pär; Zhao, Zhe;

    A pure and well crystalized yttrium doped hafnium oxide Hf0.69Y0.31O2-δ (YSH) is obtained by using a modified solid state reaction method, where a water-based milling medium and freeze drying are implemented to reduce the agglomeration. The mean sizes of the YSH powder, which is obtained through a traditional alcohol-based milling method, is more than 1 um. However, the powder size can be reduced to 100 nm by using the water-based milling method. In addition, the calcination temperature can be lowered 200 °C to get a pure phase by using the water-based milling method, compared to the alcohol-based milling method. The relative density of YSH ceramic materials can reach to 97.5% by conventional sintering at 1650 °C after during 10 h. QC 20150422

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    Authors: Danho, Sargon; Habte, Yonathan;

    Financial services have historically been offered by central entities which has put financial systems in the control of a number of central parties. Some argue that this centralization has contributed to a more unequal distribution of wealth. However, during more recent time with the emergence of blockchain, traditional perspectives on transparency and democratization have shifted. Increasing financial inclusion has been highlighted as a crucial step in decreasing poverty levels and blockchain has been discussed as a technology with a potential to make a difference in this ambition. This study will focus on sub-Saharan Africa where 550 million individuals lack access to financial services despite having access to mobile phones. As a consequence of this, mobile financial services boomed in sub-Saharan Africa, starting in Kenya. This study will therefore focus on mobile financial services and more precisely on the perceived usefulness of blockchain technology for the mobile financial services. Furthermore, the study aims to explore what role blockchain can play in further increasing financial inclusion in the region. This was done by conducting several interviews with people representing start-ups, government agencies, telco companies during a research trip to South Africa and by participation in the Blockchain Africa Conference 2019 in Cape town. The findings from the research show that blockchain is perceived as useful for mobile financial services, mainly because of its ability to reduce costs by removing intermediaries, to automate processes and to create decentralized trust. However, it was also found that the usefulness is negatively affected today due to the lack of common protocols and definitions, which makes it difficult for blockchain to yet make a real difference in increasing financial inclusion. Finansiella tjänster har historiskt sätt tillhandahållits med hjälp av centraliserad datalagring genom pålitliga intermediärer såsom banker och försäkringsbolag. Detta har satt det finansiella systemet i kontroll av några få centrala aktörer vilket somliga menar har ökat den ekonomisk ojämlikheten. På senare tid, i samband med blockkedjeteknologins framväxt, har synen på demokrati och transparens skiftat. Ökad finansiell inkludering har lyfts fram som avgörande för att minska fattigdomen. Blockkedjeteknologin har framhävts att ha potential att göra skillnad i detta arbete. Denna studie fokuserar på Subsahariska Afrika där 550 miljoner individer saknar tillgång till finansiella tjänster trots att de har tillgång till mobiltelefoner. Att erbjuda mobila finansiella tjänster är viktigt för att möjliggöra finansiell inkludering. Studien ämnar därför att undersöka upplevd användbarhet av blockkedjeteknologi för mobila finansiella tjänster och hur tekniken kan utöka finansiell inkludering i kontinenten. Detta har delvis gjorts genom en forskningsresa till Sydafrika där flertalet intervjuer utfördes med personer som representerar startupbolag, regeringen, telekombranschen och den akademiska världen. Resultaten från studien visar att blockkedjeteknologin upplevs vara användbar för mobila finansiella tjänster, främst på grund av dess förmåga att sänka kostnaderna genom att ta bort mellanhänder, automatisera processer samt skapa säkra decentraliserade system. Däremot måste standardiserade protokoll och definitioner måste utvecklas innan detta kan realiseras. Fram till dess kommer det att vara svårt för blockkedjeteknolgi att göra en verklig skillnad i ökad finansiell inkludering.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jovana eBelic; Jovana eBelic; Jovana eBelic; Aldo A. Faisal; +1 Authors

    The only way we can interact with the world is through movements, and our primary interactions are via the hands, thus any loss of hand function has immediate impact on our quality of life. However, to date it has not been systematically assessed how coordination in the hand's joints affects every day actions. This is important for two fundamental reasons. Firstly, to understand the representations and computations underlying motor control “in-the-wild” situations, and secondly to develop smarter controllers for prosthetic hands that have the same functionality as natural limbs. In this work we exploit the correlation structure of our hand and finger movements in daily-life. The novelty of our idea is that instead of averaging variability out, we take the view that the structure of variability may contain valuable information about the task being performed. We asked seven subjects to interact in 17 daily-life situations, and quantified behavior in a principled manner using CyberGlove body sensor networks that, after accurate calibration, track all major joints of the hand. Our key findings are: (1) We confirmed that hand control in daily-life tasks is very low-dimensional, with four to five dimensions being sufficient to explain 80–90% of the variability in the natural movement data. (2) We established a universally applicable measure of manipulative complexity that allowed us to measure and compare limb movements across tasks. We used Bayesian latent variable models to model the low-dimensional structure of finger joint angles in natural actions. (3) This allowed us to build a naïve classifier that within the first 1000 ms of action initiation (from a flat hand start configuration) predicted which of the 17 actions was going to be executed—enabling us to reliably predict the action intention from very short-time-scale initial data, further revealing the foreseeable nature of hand movements for control of neuroprosthetics and tele operation purposes. (4) Using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm on our latent variable model permitted us to reconstruct with high accuracy (<5–6° MAE) the movement trajectory of missing fingers by simply tracking the remaining fingers. Overall, our results suggest the hypothesis that specific hand actions are orchestrated by the brain in such a way that in the natural tasks of daily-life there is sufficient redundancy and predictability to be directly exploitable for neuroprosthetics. QC 20160413

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    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hersén, Nicklas; Kennedal, Axel;

    Real world scenarios where machine learning based music genre classification could be applied includes; streaming services, music distribution platforms and automatic tagging of music libraries. Music genre classification is inherently a subjective task; there are no exact boundaries that separate different genres. Machine learning based audio classification attempts to classify audio by comparing feature vectors. Which features to extract from which parts of the audio greatly impact the classification accuracy. This paper investigates whether different audio snippet locations and durations impact the classification accuracy. A number of experiments were run across six genres, four kinds of snippet locations and eight durations. The results show that these parameters do in fact have a significant impact on the accuracy. Genre-klassificering baserad på maskininlärning har en mängd användningsområden, exempelvis rekommendationer i streaming- och distributionsplattformar och automatisk taggning av musikbibliotek. På grund av att det inte existerar några exakta objektiva definitioner av specifika genrer är denna typ av automatiskklassificering en subjektiv uppgift. Klassificering med hjälp av maskininlärning försöker att klassificera låtar genom att jämföra så kallade feature vectors. De features som används har en stor påverkan på precisionen av klassificeringen. Denna rapport undersöker om det finns något samband mellan startpositionen och längden av utvalda ljudklipp på precisionen. Flera experiment genomfördes på sex olika musikgenrer, fyra olika startpositioner och åtta längder för ljudklipp. Resultaten visar att startpositionen och längden har en signifikant påverkan på klassificeringsprecisionen.

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      Bachelor thesis . 2018
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    Authors: Juffer, Elsemieke Jolien;

    Cities around the world encounter global challenges, of which climate change is one. Urbanisation is resulting in inflexible land uses that are hard to reverse and cause fragmentation of green areas, which therefore decline in quality and contribute to the cities’ vulnerability to climate change. In recent years the concept of ecosystem services has gained recognition and is used more often in urban planning. However, focus in these discussions has not always been on urban green spaces. There is a lack of tools that in an operative way link green space allocation to provision of ecosystem services in early discussions about urban development. Tools exist that place the focus on the amount of green in urban planning. It is the establishment of a dialogue on how to identify the need for green in an urban area, identifying how the distribution of greenery can be operationalised on different city scales, and how it contributes to mitigating specific problems that are missing. This thesis contributes to the knowledge on the conceptual understanding of the potential and importance of urban green spaces to mitigate water and noise challenges, and contributes to starting semi-large scale discussions on climate change challenges and solutions in urban developments. By visualising the mitigation potentials, with the goal to create better informed decision making and urban planning processes, it contributes to the development of urban planning for sustainable development. Factors that contribute to the identification on where, what and how greenery can be implemented to mitigate the effects of urban sound and water challenges are identified and merged in a discussion tool, Where-Else, that is tested for its applicability. This thesis uses a mixed method approach based on grounded theory, and consists of two phases. Phase one is data collection and analysis in order to develop two discussion tools, applying a literature overview. Two questions are answered: how does greenery contribute to mitigating effects of sound and water challenges, and secondly, what are the most important factors to recognise? Both the effects of noise and water can be mitigated using greenery. Identified and noticeable important mitigation factors by greenery are: size, location and design for noise mitigation; and retention time, infiltration, evaporation and transpiration for water. In the second phase “Where-Else” is tested for its applicability and practical value, using interviews with urban ecosystem services experts, resulting in suggestions for improvements and the acknowledgement that there is a practical value for the developed tool. Städer runt om i världen stöter på globala utmaningar, varav klimatförändringen är en av dem Urbanisering resulterar i oflexibla markanvändningar som är svåra att vända och orsakar fragmentering av grönområden, vilket därför sänker kvaliteten och bidrar till städernas sårbarhet mot klimatförändringar. Under de senaste åren har begreppet ekosystemtjänster fått erkännande och används oftare i stadsplanering. Fokus i dessa diskussioner har dock inte alltid varit på gröna stadsområden. Det saknas verktyg som på ett operativt sätt kopplar samman grön arealfördelning till tillhandahållande av ekosystemtjänster i tidiga diskussioner om stadsutveckling. Det finns verktyg som lägger fokus på mängden gröna områden i stadsplaneringen. Det är upprättandet av en dialog om hur man identifierar behovet av grön i en del av en stad och identifierar hur distributionen av grönområden kan hanteras skötas på olika stadskalor och hur det bidrar till att mildra specifika problem som saknas. Arbete bidrar till kunskapen om den konceptuella förståelsen av de gröna stadsområdenas potential och betydelse för att mildra vatten och bullerutmaningar, samt bidrar till att påbörja diskussioner om klimatförändringar och lösningar inom stadsutveckling. Genom att visualisera mitigationspotentialen, med målet att skapa bättre informerade beslutsfattande- och stadsplaneringsprocesser, bidrar det till att utveckla stadsplanering för en hållbar utveckling. Faktorer som bidrar till identifieringen av var, vad och hur grönområden kan genomföras för att mildra effekterna av urbana ljud- och vattenutmaningar identifieras och slås samman i ett diskussionsverktyg, Where-Else, som testas för dess tillämplighet. Denna arbete använder en blandad metod som baseras på grundad teori och består av två faser. Fas ett är datainsamling och analys för att utveckla två diskussionsverktyg, vilket genomförs med en litteraturundersökning. Två frågor besvaras: Hur bidrar grönska till att mildra effekterna av ljud och vattenutmaningar, och vilka är de viktigaste faktorerna att känna igen? Effekter från både buller och vatten kan mildras med hjälp av grönska. Identifierade och märkbara viktiga begränsningsfaktorer av grönska är: storlek, plats och design för bullerreducering. och retentionstid, infiltrering, avdunstning och transpiration av vatten. I andra fasen testas "Where-Else" för användbarhet och praktiskt värde med intervjuer med experter från stadsekosystemtjänster, vilket resulterar i förslag till förbättringar och bekräftelse på att det finns ett praktiskt värde för det utvecklade verktyget.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2018
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2018
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kastemaa, Juho;

    How is it possible to design virtual characters that can express different emotions such as compound emotions that are a mix of basic emotion expressions? Augmented reality (AR) can create engaging experiences for participants, and in recent years, virtual faces and virtual characters have become increasingly realistic and expressive, for example, when reducing costs using therapeutic applications. The validity of virtual expression has been shown in studies on desktop computers but less so in AR. In this paper, the basic emotions and the compound emotions of virtual characters were studied and the character was designed to work with Microsoft HoloLens in AR. The process of creating basic emotion blends to a human virtual character was created and the animations were modified using Unity3D game engine. The participants (n = 24) experienced the virtual character in a job interview context wearing HoloLens mixed reality glasses. The virtual character made basic and compound facial expressions and the participants were asked to label them. The result show that all participants successfully recognized seven basic emotions and seven compound emotions from a virtual character in AR using HoloLens; however, disgust was confused with sad, and angry was sometimes confused with disgust. Also, the fearfully surprised was often mistaken with awed. The result show that the compound emotions were recognized quite well and the results indicate that the perceived valence changes depending on the facial expressions. The study provides insights into how blended emotive expressions for virtual characters are created and perceived. Hur är det möjligt att designa virtuella karaktärer som kan uttrycka olika känslor, till exempel blandade känslor som är en blandning av grundläggande känslor? Augmented Reality (AR) kan skapa engagerande upplevelser för deltagarna, och de senaste åren har virtuella ansikten och virtuella karaktärer blivit alltmer realistiska och uttrycksfulla, till exempel då kostnaderna minskas med hjälp av terapeutiska tillämpningar. Giltigheten av virtuellt uttryck har visats i studier på stationära datorer, men mindre i AR. I denna rapport studerades de grundläggande känslorna och hur de blandade känslorna av virtuella karaktären kan konstrueras för att fungera med Microsoft HoloLens i AR. Processen att skapa blandade känslor till en mänsklig virtuell karaktär konstruerades och animationerna modifierades med hjälp av Unity3D-spelmotor. Deltagarna (n = 24) upplevde den virtuella karaktären i en jobbintervju med Microsofts HoloLens. Den virtuella karaktären gjorde grundläggande och sammansatta ansiktsuttryck och deltagarna ombads kategorisera dom. Resultatet visar att alla deltagare framgångsrikt erkänt sju grundläggande känslor och sju blandade känslor från en virtuell karaktär i AR med hjälp av HoloLens; disgust var ihopblandad med sad, och angry var ibland ihopblandad med disgust. Fearfully surprised blev också ofta felaktig ihopblandad med awed. Studiens resultat visar att de blandade känslorna var lätta att känna igen och resultaten antyder på att den uppfattade valens förändras beroende på ansiktsuttryck. Studien ger insikter om hur blandade känslouttryck för virtuella karaktärer har konstruerats och uppfattats.

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