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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Massimo Nespolo; Bernd Souvignier;
    Countries: Netherlands, France

    International audience; Author(s) of this paper may load this reprint on their own web site or institutional repository provided that this cover page is retained. Republication of this article or its storage in electronic databases other than as specified above is not permitted without prior permission in writing from the IUCr. For further information see http://journals.iucr.org/services/authorrights.html Many research topics in condensed matter research, materials science and the life sciences make use of crystallographic methods to study crystalline and non-crystalline matter with neutrons, X-rays and electrons. Articles published in the Journal of Applied Crystallography focus on these methods and their use in identifying structural and diffusion-controlled phase transformations, structure–property relationships, structural changes of defects, interfaces and surfaces, etc. Developments of instrumentation and crystallographic apparatus, theory and interpretation, numerical analysis and other related subjects are also covered. The journal is the primary place where crystallographic computer program information is published.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Abelardo Bento Araújo;
    Publisher: Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa, Pos Graduacao e Inovacao - UFF

    Com base na economia política, este artigo traz uma discussão teórica sobre as especificidades do trabalho educativo, tendo em vista os problemas de compreensão do que seja seu produto. Colocam-se em pauta as consequências do monitoramento da qualidade da educação, quando esse conjunto de políticas pretende tornar avaliável o trabalho educativo por meio de escores de rendimento em testes em larga escala.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hicham Jabraoui; Etienne Paul Hessou; Siwar Chibani; Laurent Cantrel; Sébastien Lebègue; Michael Badawi;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The ability of Ag-exchanged mordenite (Ag-MOR)to capture iodine species such as I2 and CH3I as released for instance during a nuclear accident could be severely limited by the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)that can disrupt their adsorption in the zeolite. Here, using density functional theory (DFT), we investigate in detail the adsorption process of several hydrocarbons (methane, cyclohexane, benzene, and 1,3-dimethylbenzene)and oxygenated compounds (methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol and propanone)and compare it with the adsorption of I2 and CH3I for different values of the Si/Al ratio of the Ag-exchanged mordenite. It is found that the adsorption process of the iodine species becomes favorable as the Si/Al ratio is decreased. Indeed at high Si/Al ratio, some VOCs such as benzene, 1, 3-dimethylbenzene and propan-2-ol exhibit strong inhibiting effects, while at low Si/Al ratio, only the adsorption of CH3I is limited by the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. Also, in addition to the elongation of the I[sbnd]I bond upon the adsorption of the iodine molecule in Ag-MOR with a high silver content, we found that there is a significant electron transfer between the Ag and I atoms. Thus, our results indicate that the I[sbnd]I bond becomes weaker during the adsorption and therefore the formation of AgI precipitates is favored. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anthony F. Jorm; Angela Nicholas; Jane Pirkis; Alyssia Rossetto; Nicola J. Reavley;
    Publisher: BMC

    Background When a person is in severe distress, people in their social network can potentially take action to reduce the person’s suicide risk. The present study used data from a community survey to examine whether people who had received training in how to assist a person at risk of suicide had higher quality intentions and actions to provide support. Methods A national telephone survey was carried out with 3002 Australian adults on attitudes and intentions toward helping someone in severe distress or at risk of suicide as well as actions taken. Participants were asked about their intentions to assist a hypothetical person in a vignette and about any actions they took to assist a family member or friend in distress over the previous 12 months. Participants were also asked whether they had received professional training, Mental Health First Aid training or other training in how to assist a person at risk of suicide. Results Responses covered ten intentions/actions that were recommended in guidelines for the public on how to support a suicidal person and 5 that were recommended against in the guidelines. Scales were created to measure positive and negative intentions to act and positive and negative actions taken. All three types of training were associated with greater positive intentions and actions, and with lesser negative intentions. These associations were largely due to a greater willingness of those trained to talk openly about suicide with a person in distress. Conclusions Training in how to support a person at risk of suicide is associated with better quality of support. Such training merits wider dissemination in the community. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12888-018-1722-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    G. Muñoz; Cristina Óvilo; Jordi Estellé; Luis Silió; Almudena Fernández; Carmen Rodríguez;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: France, Spain

    Abstract The objective of this study was to search for polymorphisms in the coding region of the estrogen receptors 1 and 2 (ESR1 and ESR2 )and to analyze the effects of these variants and the well known intronic ESR1 Pvu II polymorphism on litter size in a Chinese-European pig line. We identified five silent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the ESR1 cDNA: c.669T > C (exon 3), c.1227C > T (exon 5), c.1452C > T (exon 7), c.1665T > C and c.1755A > G (exon 8). One pair of these SNP (c.1665T > C and c.1755A > G) co-segregated in the analyzed line, and the SNP c.669T > C showed the same segregation pattern as the Pvu II polymorphism. These polymorphisms were tested in this study, although the c.1452C > T SNP within exon 7 was not analyzed due to its low informativeness. In the ESR2 cDNA, one missense SNP was found within exon 5, which caused an amino acid substitution in the coded protein: "c.949G > A (p.Val317Met)" and was tested on sow litter size. Information on 1622 litter records from 408 genotyped sows was analyzed to determine whether these SNP influenced the total number of piglets born (TNB) or the number of born alive (NBA). The polymorphisms ESR1: [Pvu II; c.669T > C], ESR1: [c.1665T > C; c.1755A > G] and ESR2: c.949G > A showed no statistically significant association with litter size. However, the ESR1: c.1227T allele was significantly associated with TNB. The additive substitution effect was estimated to be 0.40 piglets born per litter (P < 0.03), and no dominance effects were observed. This SNP could be useful in assisted selection for litter size in some pig lines, as a new genetic marker in linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frédéric Jurie;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; We propose an efficient method for tracking 3D modelled objects in cluttered scenes. Rather than tracking objects in the image, our approach relies on the object recognition aspect of tracking. Candidate matches between image and model features define volumes in the space of transformations. The volumes of the pose space satisfying the maximum number of correspondences are those that best align the model with the image. Object motion defines a trajectory in the pose space. We give some results showing that the presented method allows tracking of objects even when they are totally occluded for a short while, without supposing any motion model and with a low computational cost (below 200 ms per frame on a basic workstation). Furthermore, this algorithm can also be used to initialize the tracking.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Johnston, R.; Mahieu, M.; Murgue, Clément; Morardet, Sylvie; Cools, J.; Diallo, M.; Kone, B.; Villa Cox, G.; Namaalwa, S.; Kaggwa, R.; +8 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | WETWIN (212300)

    WETwin is a research project supported by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program. Its overall objective is to enhance the role of wetlands in basin-scale Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), with the aim of improving the community service functions while conserving good ecological status. This report addresses formulation of management responses to the drivers, pressures and impacts on wetlands identified in case study sites. Within the WETwin conceptual framework a range of options are identified from which management solutions can be built up. In principle, each option can be carried out alone, but in practice, combinations of several responses are likely to be combined into comprehensive management solutions. Further this document identifies performance indicators used for the evaluation of the management solutions and describes a set of models and expert assessment tools used for this purpose. An overview of generic responses available for wetland management and rehabilitation is presented. Management responses are separated into groups of similar measures targeting specific wetland components. Such a grouping gives a clearer overview of possible measures, and facilitates transfer of these generic groups to other wetlands. A brief overview of the process of identifying, elaborating and combining management options into implementable packages of management solutions is then provided. Site-specific management options and solutions are presented for seven case studies: Ga-Mampa, Inner Niger Delta, Nabajjuzi, Namatala, Abras de Mantequilla, Lobau and Gemenc wetlands.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Guillaume, Benjamin; Gautheron, C.; Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Martinod, Joseph; Roddaz, Martin; Douville, E.;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The formation and evolution of relief in subduction-related orogens result from a variety of processes acting at different scales of time and space. The interplay between tectonics and erosion (river incision, glacial erosion. . . ) is generally the principal contributor to the relief development. However, Earth's surface topography is also shaped by mantle convection, the latter generally producing a low amplitude, long-wavelength deflection of the surface as a response to the distribution of density anomalies in the mantle. For regions where mantle dynamics may change rapidly, e.g. in subduction zones where slab windows form, the signal of dynamic topography may also be variable in time and space, and exert an important control on landscape evolution, but this issue has been poorly addressed so far. Patagonian is one of the few regions on Earth where a slab window is currently developing. The arrival at trench of the Chile Ridge separating the Nazca and Antarctic plates at the latitude of 54 S ca. 16 Ma ago and the westward motion of South America led to the intermittent migration toward the north of the associated triple junction and the progressive enlargement of the Patagonian slab window, which is clearly identified on tomographic images as a low seismic velocity anomaly in the upper mantle. The contribution of slab-window-related dynamic topography in the topographic evolution of the Patagonian Cordillera has generally not been considered mainly because local flexural and isostatic adjustments due to tectonics and erosion obscure the dynamic topography signal. In particular, glaciations recorded by the oldest glacial till preserved in South America, played an important role in shaping the Andean landscape as early as ca. 5-7.4 Ma. In this study, we combine low-temperature thermochronology apatite (U-Th)/He data and semi-analytical modeling of dynamic topography to investigate the role of slab window and climate on cooling/heating history and relief evolution in the Patagonian Cordillera. In particular, we discuss a new thermochronological dataset consisting in 22 samples divided into four elevation transects. Sampling sites were chosen at the same distance from the trench (250-300 km), on the leeward eastern side of the orogen, for latitudes ranging between 45 S and 48 S to detect a potential northward migration of the thermal signal associated with the northward migration of the slab window. We show that history of heating and cooling for this region of the southern Andes compares well with the time-evolution of slab window and that present-day latitudinal topographic variations cannot be explained by climate alone but require an additional support by dynamic topography.

  • Authors: 
    Céline Poncet-Legrand;
    Country: France

    Pourquoi s’intéresser aux colloïdes et macromolécules en œnologie ?

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2012
    English
    Authors: 
    Patrick Bosc; Olivier Pivert;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    This paper introduces a fuzzy inclusion indicator derived from a connective aimed at modulating a fuzzy criterion according to the satisfaction of another one. The idea is to express that one is all the more demanding as to the degree attached to an element x in a set B as this element has a high degree of membership degree to a set A. The use of this reinforced inclusion indicator is illustrated in the context of database querying.

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