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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jorge Alvarez-Solas; Rubén Banderas; Alexander Robinson; Marisa Montoya;

    Abstract. The last glacial period (LGP; ca. 110–10 kyr BP) was marked by the existence of two types of abrupt climatic changes, Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. Although the mechanisms behind these are not fully understood, it is generally accepted that the presence of ice sheets played an important role in their occurrence. While an important effort has been made to investigate the dynamics and evolution of the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) during this period, the Eurasian ice sheet (EIS) has not received much attention, in particular from a modeling perspective. However, meltwater discharge from this and other ice sheets surrounding the Nordic seas is often implied as a potential cause of ocean instabilities that lead to glacial abrupt climate changes. Thus, a better comprehension of the evolution of the EIS during the LGP is important to understand its role in glacial abrupt climate changes. Here we investigate the response of the EIS to millennial-scale climate variability during the LGP. We use a hybrid, three-dimensional, thermomechanical ice-sheet model that includes ice shelves and ice streams. The model is forced off-line via a novel perturbative approach that, as opposed to conventional methods, clearly differentiates between the spatial patterns of millennial-scale and orbital-scale climate variability. Thus, it provides a more realistic treatment of the forcing at millennial timescales. The effect of both atmospheric and oceanic variations are included. Our results show that the EIS responds with enhanced ice discharge in phase with interstadial warming in the North Atlantic when forced with surface ocean temperatures. Conversely, when subsurface ocean temperatures are used, enhanced ice discharge occurs both during stadials and at the beginning of the interstadials. Separating the atmospheric and oceanic effects demonstrates the major role of the ocean in controlling the dynamics of the EIS on millennial timescales. While the atmospheric forcing alone is only able to produce modest iceberg discharges, warming of the ocean leads to higher rates of iceberg discharges as a result of relatively strong basal melting at the margins of the ice sheet. Our results clearly show the capability of the EIS to react to glacial abrupt climate changes, and highlight the need for stronger constraints on the ice sheet's glacial dynamics and climate–ocean interactions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ E-Prints Complutensearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ E-Prints Complutensearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kondis, Basil;

    Preface: Stelios A. Papadimitriou 62 σ.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ I.R. "OLYMPIAS"arrow_drop_down
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    I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
    Book . 2015
    Data sources: I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ I.R. "OLYMPIAS"arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
      Book . 2015
      Data sources: I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: P. Sotiropoulou; V. Koukou; N. Martini; Christos Michail; +4 Authors

    In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log- intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics :...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics :...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Physics : Conference Series
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hartung, Thomas; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.;

    Science changes in waves, the so-called paradigm shifts or scientific revolutions. This concept was prominently elabo­rated by Thomas S. Kuhn more than 50 years ago in what remains one of the most cited science philosophy books of all time. Kuhn described how “normal science” experiences anomalies, which bring it to crisis and revolution from which a new, immature scientific paradigm results, which over time becomes the new normal. Building on an analysis on how this applies to toxicology and its change in approach in 2008, we concluded at the time that toxicology had encountered a number of such anomalies and was moving into crisis. Here, the progress along Kuhn’s trajectory over the last 12 years of a scientific revolution is discussed. We conclude that this decade has shown up even more anomalies, and the perception of crisis has spread and consolidated. Indications of revolutionary paradigm changes are emerging. published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Konstanzer Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Konstanzer Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tataris, G.; Soulakellis, N.; Chaidas, K.;

    Abstract. The recovery phase of an earthquake-affected settlement is a time-consuming and complex process that requires monitoring, which is now possible using UAS. The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology followed and the results obtained by the exploitation of UAS for rapid multitemporal 3D mapping during the recovery phase of Vrisa traditional settlement, Lesvos island, Greece, which was highly damaged by the earthquake (Mw=6.3) on 12th June 2017. More analytically, three (3) flight campaigns covering the period July 2017 – May 2020 took place by means of an UAS for collecting high-resolution images on: i) 19th May 2019, ii) 29th September 2019, iii) 17th May 2020. Structure from Motion (SfM) and Multi Stereo View (MSV) methods have been applied and produced: i) Digital Surface Models – DSMs, ii) 3D Point Clouds – 3DPC and iii) Orthophoto-maps, of Vrisa. In parallel, GIS capabilities has been exploit to calculate building volumes based on: a) DSM produced by UAS image processing, b) DEM produced by 233 RTK measurements and c) building footprints derived by the digitization of the orthophoto-map of 25th July 2017. The methodology developed and implemented achieves extremely reliable results in a relatively easy, fast and economically feasible way, which is confirmed with great precision by field work. By applying the above-described methodology, it was possible to monitoring the recovery phase during July 2017 and May 2020 which 302/340 buildings that had been severely damaged by the earthquake have been demolished. A small number of new buildings have also been rebuilded and small number of buildings that have just begun excavations for their construction. An important parameter for obtaining reliable data and comparable results is the correct selection of flight parameters and their maintenance at all times when it is decided to take data, without affecting the accuracy of the results from taking photos or videos. Automation in the future of the proposed methodology can significantly accelerate the achievement of reliable results without the intermediate interpretation of orthophoto-maps.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ISPRS Annals of the ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ISPRS Annals of the ...arrow_drop_down
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2020
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      Other literature type . 2020
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    Authors: Damasio C. V.; Pan J. Z.; Stoilos G.; Straccia U.;

    The RuleML initiative defines a normalized markup for expressing and exchange rules in the Semantic Web. However, the syntax of the language is still limited and lacks features for representing rule-based languages capable of handling uncertainty. It is desirable to have a general extension of RuleML which accommodates major existing languages proposed in the latest two decades. The main contribution of the paper is to propose such a general extension, showing how to encode many of the existing languages in this extension. We hope this work can also provide some insights on how to cover uncertainty in the RIF framework.

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    Authors: Christy Spackman;

    This article examines the politics of smell at the edge of perception. In January 2014, the municipal water supply of Charleston, West Virginia was contaminated by an under-characterized chemical, crude MCHM. Even when instrumental measurements no longer detected the chemical, people continued to smell its licorice-like odor. In a space where nothing was certain, smell became the only indicator of potential harm. Officials responded by commissioning state-funded sensory testing of crude MCHM to determine its sensory threshold. Via the critical passage point of sensory science, some instances of embodied attunement were allowed to enter into the evidentiary regimes of perception, while other, similarly trained moments of attunement were excluded from the process. This, I show, produced knowledge about the spilled chemical that maintained the systems that contributed to the spill in the first place. Drawing on new materialist thought, I riff on biology and ‘transduce’ the ephemeral phenomena of smelling crude MCHM into a new medium: Rather than thinking of smell as a volatile molecular material (an odorant), I show that consideration of smell as a manipulable object that one can imagine as having tangible substance and shape offers a way to experiment with disciplinary forms. I suggest an alternate future, where sensory science acts to record sensory labor that produces facts about collective experience that cannot (easily) travel through current systems, a process that is one possible way of beginning to unravel entrenched systems of toxic harm.

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    Authors: Spyridon Vossos; Elias Vossos;

    Schwarzschild Metric is the first and the most important solution of Einstein vacuum field equations. This is associated with Lorentz metric of flat spacetime and produces the relativistic potential (Φ) and the field strength (g) outside a spherically symmetric mass or a non-rotating black hole. It has many applications such as gravitational red shift, the precession of Mercury's orbit, Shapiro time delay etc. However, it is inefficient to explain the rotation curves in large galaxies and clusters of them, causing the necessity for dark matter. On the other hand, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has already explained these rotation curves in many cases, using suitable interpolating function (μ) in Milgrom's Law. In this presentation, we initially produce a Generalized Schwarzschild potential and the corresponding Metric of spacetime, in order to be in accordance with any isotropic metric of flat spacetime (including Galilean Metric of spacetime which is associated with Galilean Transformation of spacetime). From this Generalized Schwarzschild potential (Φ), we calculate the corresponding field strength (g), which is associated with the interpolating function (μ). In this way, a new relativistic potential is obtained (let us call 2nd Generalized Schwarzschild potential) which describes the gravitational interaction at any distance and for any metric of flat spacetime. Thus, not only the necessity for Dark Matter is eliminated, but also MOND becomes a pure Relativistic Theory of Gravitational Interaction. Then, we pass to the case of flat spacetime with Lorentz metric (Minkowski space), because the experimental data have been extracted using the Relativistic Doppler Shift and the gravitational red shift of Classic Relativity (CR). Thus, we Explain the Rotation Curves in Galaxies (e.g. NGC 3198) and Clusters of them as well as the Solar system, eliminating Dark Matter. This relativistic potential and the corresponding metric of spacetime have been obtained by the light of Euclidean Closed Linear Transformations of Complex Spacetime endowed with the Corresponding Metric. Of course, may also be applied by scientists who prefer the hyperbolic geometry of Classic Relativity (CR).

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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
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    Authors: Dawson Robert A.(); Πετροπουλος Γεωργιος(http://users.isc.tuc.gr/~gpetropoulos1); Petropoulos Georgios(http://users.isc.tuc.gr/~gpetropoulos1); Toulios, Leonidas(http://viaf.org/viaf/7075536); +1 Authors

    Summarization: Archaeological site mapping is important for both understanding the history and protecting the sites from excavation during developmental activities. As archaeological sites are generally spread over a large area, use of high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery is becoming increasingly applicable in the world. The main objective of this study is to map the land cover of the Itanos area of Crete and of its changes, with specific focus on the detection of the landscape’s archaeological features. Six satellite images were acquired from the Pleiades and WorldView-2 satellites over a period of 3 years. In addition, digital imagery of two known archaeological sites was used for validation. An object-based image analysis classification was subsequently developed using the five acquired satellite images. Two rule sets were created, one using the standard four bands which both satellites have and another for the two WorldView-2 images with their four extra bands included. Validation of the thematic maps produced from the classification scenarios confirmed a difference in accuracy amongst the five images. Comparing the results of a 4-band rule set versus the 8-band rule set showed a slight increase in classification accuracy using extra bands. The resultant classifications showed a good level of accuracy exceeding 70%. Yet, separating the archaeological sites from the open spaces with little or no vegetation proved to be challenging. This was mainly due to the high spectral similarity between rocks and the archaeological ruins. The high resolution of the satellite data allowed for the accuracy in defining larger archaeological sites, but still there was difficulty in distinguishing smaller areas of interest. The digital image data provided a very good 3D representation for the archaeological sites, assisting as well as in validating the satellite-derived classification maps. To conclude, our study provides further evidence that use of high resolution imagery may allow for archaeological sites to be located, but only where the archaelogical features are of an adequate size. Παρουσιάστηκε στο: Environment, Development and Sustainability

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    Authors: Lazos Panagiotis;

    Η Μεγάλη του Γένους Σχολή στην Κωνσταντινούπολη, το ιστορικό εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα της ελληνορθόδοξης ή ρωμαίικης κοινότητας, απέκτησε μία σημαντική συλλογή επιστημονικών οργάνων για τη διδασκαλία της πειραματικής φυσικής κατά το δεύτερο μισό του 19ου αιώνα, ενώ φαίνεται πως διέθετε κάποια -σχεδόν χαμένη πλέον- μικρότερη συλλογή ήδη από τις αρχές του αιώνα. Η δημιουργία της συλλογής σηματοδοτεί μία ίσως διστακτική αλλά σαφή στροφή του προγράμματος σπουδών της Σχολής προς μία περισσότερο πρακτική κατεύθυνση ακολουθώντας τις αλλαγές στην κοινότητα. Τα πολυάριθμα διασωθέντα όργανα της συλλογής, που φιλοξενούνται σε ειδικά διαμορφωμένη αίθουσα γνωστή ως Οργανοθήκη, δεν είχαν μελετηθεί έως τώρα. Η παρούσα διατριβή προσπαθεί να καλύψει αυτό το βιβλιογραφικό κενό μελετώντας κάθε ένα όργανο ξεχωριστά, ώστε να δημιουργηθεί μία κατά το δυνατόν πλήρης εικόνα τόσο της συλλογής όσο και των δυνατοτήτων που αυτή παρείχε στη διδασκαλία της πειραματικής φυσικής στη Σχολή. Σε αυτά τα πλαίσια παρουσιάζεται η ιστορία, τα χαρακτηριστικά, ο τρόπος χρήσης και, όπου είναι γνωστό, ο κατασκευαστής των οργάνων. Ταυτόχρονα, παρουσιάζεται η ιστορία της εξέλιξης της συλλογής, η οποία πραγματοποιήθηκε σε τέσσερεις φάσεις μέσω δωρεών και αγορών από το σχολικό έτος 1865-1866 έως το 1880-1881, οπότε η Σχολή διαθέτει πλέον μία συλλογή υψηλού επιπέδου η οποία μπορεί να συγκριθεί με αντίστοιχες σχολείων της Ευρώπης. Μέσα από τους καταλόγους των προσκτήσεων αυτών, όπως παρατίθενται στις εκθέσεις λειτουργίας των διευθυντών (σχολαρχών) της Σχολής, έχει ολοκληρωθεί τόσο η ακριβής ταυτοποίηση των υπαρχόντων οργάνων όσο και η περιγραφή εκείνων που έχουν απολεστεί. Αρχικά, λοιπόν, πραγματοποιείται μία σύντομη ιστορική ανασκόπηση της πορείας της Σχολής έως τις αρχές του 19ου αιώνα. Στη συνέχεια μελετάται η πορεία της Σχολής κατά την μετακίνησή της στην Ξηροκρήνη (1804-1830 και 1836-1850) και μετά την επιστροφή της στο Φανάρι έως και την απόκτηση της πρώτης σειράς οργάνων. Επίσης, παρουσιάζονται οι σταδιακές αλλαγές, που αφορούν το θέμα μας, (όπως η οριστική και μόνιμη εισαγωγή του μαθήματος της πειραματικής φυσικής, οι αλλαγές στους διδάσκοντες καθηγητές του μαθήματος και η συζήτηση για την αναγκαιότητα δημιουργίας συλλογής). Ιδιαίτερη μνεία γίνεται στη συλλογή επιστημονικών οργάνων που απέκτησε ο Ελληνικός Φιλολογικός Σύλλογος Κωνσταντινούπολης για χρήση στα δημόσια μαθήματα που διοργάνωνε ο Σύλλογος. Αυτό θεωρείται απαραίτητο εξαιτίας της εμπλοκής του Ανδρέα Σπαθάρη, καθηγητή φυσικομαθηματικών και χημείας της Σχολής επί τριάντα έξι χρόνια, στην επιλογή των οργάνων που αποκτήθηκαν, στη χρήση τους σε διαλέξεις που έδωσε ο ίδιος και στη συντήρησή τους από τη θέση του εφόρου της συλλογής. Επιπλέον, υποστηρίζεται πως η πραγματοποίηση δημόσιων εκλαϊκευτικών διαλέξεων με την υποστηρικτική χρήση οργάνων από τον Σύλλογο επηρέασε την ελληνική εκπαιδευτική κοινότητα της Κωνσταντινούπολης. Ακολουθεί παρουσίαση των σπουδών, του βίου και του συγγραφικού έργου του Σπαθάρη, ο οποίος επί 36 χρόνια (1864-1900) ήταν υπεύθυνος για τη δημιουργία, τη χρήση και τη συντήρηση της συλλογής. Στη συνέχεια, παρουσιάζεται η ιστορία της πρώτης σειράς οργάνων που απέκτησε η Σχολή μετά την εποχή της Ξηροκρήνης, εκείνα της δωρεάς του αρχιτέκτονα Χατζή-Στεφανή Γαϊτανάκη. Στο μέτρο που γνωρίζουμε, τα συγκεκριμένα όργανα είναι τα μόνα γνωστά υλικά αντικείμενα που έχουν διασωθεί από το σχολείο που ίδρυσε ο Γαϊτανάκης στον τόπο γέννησής του, τη Μάδυτο. Ακολουθεί η εξιστόρηση τόσο της αγοράς καινούργιων οργάνων κατά το σχολικό έτος 1866-1867 όσο και εκείνης του σχολικού έτους 1878-1879 όταν αγοράστηκαν μεταχειρισμένα όργανα φυσικής και χημείας από το ιδιωτικό σχολείο Ελληνικό Λύκειο στο Πέρα. Η δεύτερη αγορά παρουσιάζει ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον καθώς -και σε αυτή την περίπτωση- τα συγκεκριμένα όργανα αποτελούν πιθανότατα το μόνο υλικό αποτύπωμα του Ελληνικού Λυκείου στην εποχή μας. Ύστερα, μελετάται αναλυτικά η σημαντικότερη αγορά, εκείνη του σχολικού έτους 1880-1881, η οποία πραγματοποιήθηκε λίγο πριν την εγκατάσταση της Σχολής στο νεόδμητο ιδιόκτητο κτήριο. Τέλος, ακολουθώντας μία σύγχρονη τάση στην ιστορία των επιστημών, παρουσιάζεται η βιογραφία του ζεοτρόπιου του Φραγκλίνου. Πρόκειται για ένα επιστημονικό όργανο, το οποίο μετατράπηκε με το πέρασμα του χρόνου από παιχνίδι σε επιστημονικό όργανο για να επιστρέψει τελικά στην κατάσταση του παιχνιδιού στον 20ο αιώνα. The Great School of the Nation in Istanbul, the historical educational institution of the Greek community, acquired an important collection of scientific instruments for the teaching of experimental physics during the second half of the 19th century, while it seems that it had some -almost lost now- smaller collection at the beginning of the century. The gradual development of the collection marks a perhaps hesitant but clear shift of the School's curriculum in a more practical direction following the changes in the Greek community. The numerous existing instruments in the collection stored in a specially designed hall had not been studied until now. This thesis tries to fill this gap in the literature by studying each instrument separately, in order to create as complete a picture as possible of both the collection and the possibilities it provided for the teaching of experimental physics at the School. In this context the history, the characteristics, the manner of use and, where known, the maker of the instruments are presented. At the same time, the history of the development of the collection is presented, which took place in four phases through donations and purchases from the school year 1865-1866 to 1880-1881, by which time the School had a collection of a high standard and able to be compared with similar schools of Europe. Through the lists of these acquisitions, as listed in the operational reports of the School’s principals, both the exact identification of the existing instruments and the description of those that have been lost have been completed. First, therefore, a brief historical review of the course of the School until the beginning of the 19th century is carried out. Then the course of the School is studied during its move to Xirokrini (1804-1830 and 1836-1850) and after its return to Fener until the acquisition of the first series of instruments. Also, the gradual changes concerning our subject are presented (such as the permanent introduction of the course of experimental physics, the changes of the professors of the course and the discussion about the necessity of creating a collection). Special mention is made of the collection of scientific instruments acquired by the Greek Philological Association of Constantinople for use in the public courses organized by the Association. This is considered necessary due to the involvement of Andreas Spatharis -professor of physics, mathematics and chemistry at the School for thirty-six years- in the selection of the instruments acquired by the association, their use in lectures he gave, and their maintenance as curator of the collection. In addition, it is argued that the realization of public popularizing lectures with the supportive use of instruments by the Association affected the Greek educational community of the City. This is followed by a presentation of the studies, life and writing of Spatharis, who was responsible for 36 years (1864-1900) for the creation, use and maintenance of the collection. Then, the story of the first set of instruments that the School acquired after the era of Xirokrini, those donated by the architect Hadzi-Stefanis Gaitanakis, is presented. As far as we know, these instruments are the only known material objects that have survived from the school founded by Gaitanakis in his birthplace, Madytos. Subsequently, a detailed account of both the purchase of new instruments during the school year 1866-1867 and of the school year 1878-1879 -when second-hand physics and chemistry instruments were purchased from the private school Hellenic Lyceum in Pera- is given. The second purchase is of particular interest as, also in this case, the specific instruments are probably the only material imprint of the Hellenic Lyceum in our time. Then, the most important purchase, that of the school year 1880-1881, which took place shortly before the installation of the School in the newly built privately owned building, is studied in detail. Finally, following a modern trend in the history of science, the biography of Franklin's palm glass is presented. It is a scientific instrument, which changed over time from a toy to a scientific instrument to finally return to toy status in the 20th century.

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    Authors: Jorge Alvarez-Solas; Rubén Banderas; Alexander Robinson; Marisa Montoya;

    Abstract. The last glacial period (LGP; ca. 110–10 kyr BP) was marked by the existence of two types of abrupt climatic changes, Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. Although the mechanisms behind these are not fully understood, it is generally accepted that the presence of ice sheets played an important role in their occurrence. While an important effort has been made to investigate the dynamics and evolution of the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) during this period, the Eurasian ice sheet (EIS) has not received much attention, in particular from a modeling perspective. However, meltwater discharge from this and other ice sheets surrounding the Nordic seas is often implied as a potential cause of ocean instabilities that lead to glacial abrupt climate changes. Thus, a better comprehension of the evolution of the EIS during the LGP is important to understand its role in glacial abrupt climate changes. Here we investigate the response of the EIS to millennial-scale climate variability during the LGP. We use a hybrid, three-dimensional, thermomechanical ice-sheet model that includes ice shelves and ice streams. The model is forced off-line via a novel perturbative approach that, as opposed to conventional methods, clearly differentiates between the spatial patterns of millennial-scale and orbital-scale climate variability. Thus, it provides a more realistic treatment of the forcing at millennial timescales. The effect of both atmospheric and oceanic variations are included. Our results show that the EIS responds with enhanced ice discharge in phase with interstadial warming in the North Atlantic when forced with surface ocean temperatures. Conversely, when subsurface ocean temperatures are used, enhanced ice discharge occurs both during stadials and at the beginning of the interstadials. Separating the atmospheric and oceanic effects demonstrates the major role of the ocean in controlling the dynamics of the EIS on millennial timescales. While the atmospheric forcing alone is only able to produce modest iceberg discharges, warming of the ocean leads to higher rates of iceberg discharges as a result of relatively strong basal melting at the margins of the ice sheet. Our results clearly show the capability of the EIS to react to glacial abrupt climate changes, and highlight the need for stronger constraints on the ice sheet's glacial dynamics and climate–ocean interactions.

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    Climate of the Past
    Article . 2019
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2019
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      Climate of the Past
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Kondis, Basil;

    Preface: Stelios A. Papadimitriou 62 σ.

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    I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
    Book . 2015
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      I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
      Book . 2015
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    Authors: P. Sotiropoulou; V. Koukou; N. Martini; Christos Michail; +4 Authors

    In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log- intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors.

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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Physics : Conference Series
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hartung, Thomas; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.;

    Science changes in waves, the so-called paradigm shifts or scientific revolutions. This concept was prominently elabo­rated by Thomas S. Kuhn more than 50 years ago in what remains one of the most cited science philosophy books of all time. Kuhn described how “normal science” experiences anomalies, which bring it to crisis and revolution from which a new, immature scientific paradigm results, which over time becomes the new normal. Building on an analysis on how this applies to toxicology and its change in approach in 2008, we concluded at the time that toxicology had encountered a number of such anomalies and was moving into crisis. Here, the progress along Kuhn’s trajectory over the last 12 years of a scientific revolution is discussed. We conclude that this decade has shown up even more anomalies, and the perception of crisis has spread and consolidated. Indications of revolutionary paradigm changes are emerging. published

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    ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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