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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marzocchi, W.; Iturrieta, P.; Falcone, G.;

    The main goal of WP3 is to advance the operational earthquake forecasting capabilities at different spatial scales. This deliverable contains the description of the repository where all promising codes of the OEF models that have been produced in the first 30 months of the project have been uploaded. Since all codes have to be tested in WP7 in the last year of the project, the structure of this deliverable has been agreed with colleagues working at WP7. The repository contains both the codes that will be used in the WP7 testing phase, and a detailed description of each model. In this document we will describe the main features of the repository and the link where codes and descriptions can be found. Then, we will briefly summarize the main features of the models that are contained in the repository. At the time of this deliverable, eight models have been submitted to the repository; however, at the end of the project we expect to have more; in fact, some additional models are almost finished, but not yet ready for the testing phase and so they have not been uploaded yet; very likely, they will be uploaded soon and tested in WP7 in the last year of the project. In this first phase the repository is kept private (available only after a specific request to the WP leader) to leave the time to the modelers to finalize the scientific papers relative to their models. The repository will be then made public through the platform Zenodo at the end of the project.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wasch, L.; Poort, J.; Miloshevska, M.; Dinkelman, D.;

    Risk maps are created with the objective of providing improved operational advice on scaling mitigation. The issue of prevailing uncertainties and variations in fluid and gas data had to be tackled to provide accurate model predictions and risk assessments. The developed risk map workflow is demonstrated for calcite scaling risks of the West-Netherlands Basin.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zorn, Edgar U.; Le Corvec, Nicolas; Varley, Nick R.; Salzer, Jacqueline T.; +5 Authors

    International audience; During eruptive activity of andesitic stratovolcanoes, the extrusion of lava domes, their collapse and intermittent explosions are common volcanic hazards. Many lava domes grow in a preferred direction, in turn affecting the direction of lava flows and pyroclastic density currents. Access to active lava domes is difficult and hazardous, so detailed data characterizing lava dome growth are typically limited, keeping the processes controlling the directionality of extrusions unclear. Here we combine TerraSAR-X satellite radar observations with high-resolution airborne photogrammetry to assess morphological changes, and perform finite element modeling to investigate the impact of loading stress on shallow magma ascent directions associated with lava dome extrusion and crater formation at Volcán de Colima, México. The TerraSAR-X data, acquired in ~1-m resolution spotlight mode, enable us to derive a chronology of the eruptive processes from intensity-based time-lapse observations of the general crater and dome evolution. The satellite images are complemented by close-range airborne photos, processed by the Structure-from-Motion workflow. This allows the derivation of high-resolution digital elevation models, providing insight into detailed loading and unloading features. During the observation period from Jan-2013 to Feb-2016, we identify a dominantly W-directed dome growth and lava flow production until Jan-2015. In Feb-2015, following the removal of the active summit dome, the surface crater widened and elongated along a NE-SW axis. Later in May-2015, a new dome grew toward the SW of the crater while a separate vent developed in the NE of the crater, reflecting a change in the direction of magma ascent and possible conduit bifurcation. Finite element models show a significant stress change in agreement with the observed magma ascent direction changes in response to the changing surface loads, both for loading (dome growth) and unloading (crater forming excavation) cases. These results allow insight into shallow dome growth dynamics and the migration of magma ascent in response to changing volcano summit morphology. They further highlight the importance of detailed volcano summit morphology surveillance, as changes in direction or location of dome extrusion may have major implications regarding the directions of potential volcanic hazards, such as pyroclastic density currents generated by dome collapse.Introduction

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Earth S...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Earth Science
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Boeije, C.; Zitha, P.; Pluymakers, A.;

    This report describes the activities performed within Task 1.3 “Summary of gas solubility and degassing kinetics (type A)” until the end of month 39 of the REFLECT project. Two series of experiments have been carried out that assess the degassing process of type A geothermal fluids respectively in bulk and porous media. This has resulted in an improved understanding of the process and the associated physical phenomena by utilizing experimental equipment and data analysis tools specifically created for this task.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Morabito, L. K.; Jackson, N. J.; Mooney, S.; Sweijen, F.; +70 Authors

    [abridged] The International LOFAR Telescope is an interferometer with stations spread across Europe. With baselines of up to ~2,000 km, LOFAR has the unique capability of achieving sub-arcsecond resolution at frequencies below 200 MHz, although this is technically and logistically challenging. Here we present a calibration strategy that builds on previous high-resolution work with LOFAR. We give an overview of the calibration strategy and discuss the special challenges inherent to enacting high-resolution imaging with LOFAR, and describe the pipeline, which is publicly available, in detail. We demonstrate the calibration strategy by using the pipeline on P205+55, a typical LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) pointing. We perform in-field delay calibration, solution referencing to other calibrators, self-calibration, and imaging of example directions of interest in the field. For this specific field and these ionospheric conditions, dispersive delay solutions can be transferred between calibrators up to ~1.5 degrees away, while phase solution transferral works well over 1 degree. We demonstrate a check of the astrometry and flux density scale. Imaging in 17 directions, the restoring beam is typically 0.3' x 0.2' although this varies slightly over the entire 5 square degree field of view. We achieve ~80 to 300 $\mu$Jy/bm image rms noise, which is dependent on the distance from the phase centre; typical values are ~90 $\mu$Jy/bm for the 8 hour observation with 48 MHz of bandwidth. Seventy percent of processed sources are detected, and from this we estimate that we should be able to image ~900 sources per LoTSS pointing. This equates to ~3 million sources in the northern sky, which LoTSS will entirely cover in the next several years. Future optimisation of the calibration strategy for efficient post-processing of LoTSS at high resolution (LoTSS-HR) makes this estimate a lower limit. Astronomy and astrophysics 658, A1 (2022). doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202140649 Published by EDP Sciences, Les Ulis

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article
    License: EDP Sciences Copyright and Publication Licensing Policy
    Data sources: Sygma
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article
      License: EDP Sciences Copyright and Publication Licensing Policy
      Data sources: Sygma
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rivalta, E.; Corbi, F.; Passarelli, L.; Acocella, V.; +2 Authors

    When a batch of magma reaches Earth’s surface, it forms a vent from which volcanic products are erupted. At many volcanoes, successive batches may open vents far away from previous ones, resulting in scattered, sometimes seemingly random spatial distributions. This exposes vast areas to volcanic hazards and makes forecasting difficult. Here, we show that magma pathways and thus future vent locations may be forecast by combining the physics of magma transport with a Monte Carlo inversion scheme for the volcano stress history. We validate our approach on a densely populated active volcanic field, Campi Flegrei (Italy), where we forecast future vents on an onshore semiannular belt located between 2.3 and 4.2 km from the caldera center. Our approach offers a mechanical explanation for the vent migration over time at Campi Flegrei and at many calderas worldwide and may be applicable to volcanoes of any type. We forecast where magma will breach Earth’s surface based on how the volcano’s shape and size have evolved.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Science Advancesarrow_drop_down
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    Science Advances
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Science Advances
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Authors: Kyba, Christopher C.M.; Pritchard, Sara B.; Ekirch, A. Roger; Eldridge, Adam; +14 Authors

    International audience; The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, chemical, physical, and social systems on Earth. Moreover, research into social issues such as inequality, demographic changes, and the transition to a sustainable economy will be compromised if the night is not considered. Recent years, however, have seen a surge in research into the night. We argue that “night studies” is on the cusp of coming into its own as an interdisciplinary field, and that when it does, the field will consider questions that disciplinary researchers have not yet thought to ask.; La nuit a été historiquement négligée dans les recherches disciplinaires et interdisciplinaires. Dans une certaine mesure, cela n'est pas surprenant, étant donné le biais diurne des chercheurs humains et la difficulté d'effectuer un travail la nuit. La nuit est cependant un élément critique des systèmes biologiques, chimiques, physiques et sociaux sur Terre. De plus, la recherche sur des questions sociales telles que les inégalités, les changements démographiques et la transition vers une économie durable sera compromise si la nuit n'est pas prise en compte. Ces dernières années, cependant, ont vu une augmentation des recherches sur la nuit. Nous soutenons que les « études nocturnes » sont sur le point de devenir un domaine interdisciplinaire et que, lorsqu'elles le feront, le domaine examinera des questions que les chercheurs disciplinaires n'ont pas encore pensé à poser.

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    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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    Article . 2020
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    Authors: Jolivet Laurent; Menant Armel; Roche Vincent; Le Pourhiet Laetitia; +6 Authors

    International audience; Slab tearing induces localized deformations in the overriding plates of subduction zones and transfer zones accommodating differential retreat in back-arc regions. Because the space available for retreating slabs is limited in the Mediterranean realm, slab tearing during retreat has been a major ingredient of the evolution of this region since the end of the Eocene. The association of detailed seismic tomographic models and extensive field observations makes the Mediterranean an ideal natural laboratory to study these transfer zones. We review in this paper the various structures in back-arc regions differential retreat from the Alboran Sea to the Aegean-Anatolian region and discuss them with the help of 3D numerical models to better understand the partitioning of deformation between high-angle and low-angle faults, as well as the 3-D kinematics of deformation in the middle and lower crusts. Simple, archetypal, crustal-scale strike-slip faults are in fact rare in these contexts above slab tears. Transfer zones are in general instead wide deformation zones, from several tens to several hundred kilometers. A partitioning of deformation is observed between the upper and the lower crust with low-angle extensional shear zones at depth and complex association of transtensional basins at the surface. In the Western Mediterranean, between the Gulf of Lion and the Valencia basin, transtensional strike-slip faults are associated with syn-rift basins and lower crustal domes elongated in the direction of retreat (a-type domes), associated with massive magmatic intrusions in the lower crust and volcanism at the surface. On the northern side of the Alboran Sea, wide E-W trending strike-slip zones in the brittle field show partitioned thrusting and strike-slip faulting in the external zones of the Betics, and E-W trending metamorphic core complexes in the internal zones, parallel to the main retreat direction with a transition in time from ductile to brittle deformation. On the opposite, the southern margin of the Alboran Sea shows short en-échelon strike-slip faults. Deep structures are not known there. In the Aegean-Anatolian region, two main tear faults with different degrees of maturity are observed. Western Anatolia (Menderes Massif) and the Eastern Aegean Sea evolved above a major left-lateral tear in the Hellenic slab. In the crust, the differential retreat was accommodated mostly by low-angle shear zones with a constant direction of stretching and the formation of a-type high-temperature domes exhumed from the middle and lower crust. These low-angle shear zones evolve through time from ductile to brittle. On the opposite side of the Aegean region, the Corinth and Volos Rift as well as the Kephalonia fault offshore, accommodate the formation of a dextral tear fault. Here, only the brittle crust can be observed, but seismological data suggest low-angle shear zones at depth below the rifts. We discuss the rare occurrence of pure strike-slip faults in these contexts and propose that the high heat flow above the retreating slabs and more especially above slab tears favors a ductile behavior with distributed deformation of the crust and the formation of low-angle shear zones and high-temperature domes. While retreat proceeds, aided by tears, true strike-slip fault system may localize and propagate toward the retreating trench, ultimately leading to the formation of new plate boundary, as shown by the example of the North Anatolian Fault.; Les déchirures des panneaux plongeants dans les zones de subduction induisent des déformations localisées dans les domaines arrière-arcs des plaques chevauchantes sous la forme de zones de transfert qui accommodent les différences latérales de vitesse de retrait des fosses. Parce que l’espace disponible pour ce retrait est limité dans le domaine méditerranéen, les déchirures ont joué un rôle majeur dans l’évolution de cette région depuis la fin de l’Eocène. L’association de modèles tomographiques détaillés et de nombreuses observations de terrain font de la Méditerranée un laboratoire naturel idéal pour étudier ces zones de transfert. Nous proposons ici une revue des diverses structures des domaines arrière-arc accommodant le retrait différentiel depuis la Mer d’Alboran jusqu’à la région égéenne et nous les discutons grâce à des modèles numériques 3-D pour mieux comprendre le partitionnement de la déformation entre les failles à fort et faible pendage et la cinématique 3-D dans la croûte moyenne et la croûte inférieure. Nous montrons que les failles localisées purement décrochantes d’échelle crustale sont rares au-dessus de ces zones de déchirure. Les zones de transfert sont au contraire plutôt des zones de déformation larges de quelques dizaines à quelques centaines de kilomètres. On y observe un partitionnement de la déformation entre la croûte supérieure et la croûte inférieure avec des zones de cisaillement extensives à faible pendage en profondeur et une association complexe de bassins en transtension et de détachements dans la croûte supérieure. En Méditerranée occidentale, entre Golfe du Lion et bassin de Valence, des failles décrochantes transtensives sont associées à des bassins syn-rift et des dômes de croûte inférieure allongés dans la direction du retrait (dômes de type « a »), associés à des intrusions magmatiques massives dans la croûte inférieure et du volcanisme en surface. Sur la marge septentrionale de la Mer d’Alboran, des zones décrochantes E-O larges dans le domaine cassant montrent un partitionnement entre des chevauchements et des décrochements dans les zones externes et des dômes métamorphiques allongés E-O dans les zones internes, parallèlement à la direction principale de retrait, avec une évolution du ductile vers le cassant au cours du temps. La rive sud de la Mer d’Alboran montre à l’opposé des failles décrochantes en échelon courtes et les structures profondes sont mal connues. Dans la région Egée-Anatolie, deux zones larges de degré de maturité différents sont observées. L’ouest de l’Anatolie (massif du Menderes) et l’est de la Mer Egée ont évolué au-dessus d’une déchirure majeure du panneau plongeant hellénique. Dans la croûte, le retrait différentiel est principalement accommodé par des zones de cisaillement extensives à faible pendage avec des directions d’étirement cohérentes régionalement et des dômes métamorphiques de type « a » et de haute température exhumés depuis la croûte moyenne et la croûte inférieure. Ces zones de cisaillement à faible pendage évoluent du ductile au cassant au cours du temps. Du côté opposé du domaine égéen, le rift de Corinthe, le rift de Volos, ainsi que la faille de transfert de Céphalonie accommodent la formation d’une large zone de transfert dextre. Dans cette région, seule la croute supérieure peut être observée, mais les données sismologiques suggèrent l’existence de zones de cisaillement à faible pendage sous les rifts actifs. Nous discutons la rareté des grandes failles de transfert purement décrochantes dans ces contextes et proposons que le flux de chaleur élevé au-dessus des panneaux plongeants en recul et plus encore au-dessus des zones de déchirures favorise un comportement ductile avec déformation distribuée de la croûte et la formation de zones de cisaillement à faible pendage et de dômes de haute température. Pendant le retrait, favorisé par ces déchirures, de véritables failles décrochantes lithosphériques peuvent ensuite se localiser et évoluer en limites de plaques, comme le montre l’exemple de la Faille Nord Anatolienne.

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    Authors: Peters, E.; Blöcher, G.; Nair, R.; Geel, K.; +1 Authors

    Radial Jet Drilling (RJD) is a technique to stimulate wells by creating small-diameter laterals from vertical or deviated wells using hydraulic jets. The laterals, also called radials, can be up to 100 m in length. To analyze under which sub-surface conditions the radials improve the well performance most, a step-wise approach is followed in which first the performance of a single stimulated well is analyzed and in a second step, the performance of a doublet system is analyzed. Finally, case studies that are more detailed are simulated. For the single well case, a good first estimate of radial stimulation performance for different reservoir conditions can be obtained from (semi-) analytical solutions. These results show that the anisotropy in the permeability and the thickness of the reservoir influence the relative increase in productivity/injectivity most. The permeability influences in particular the absolute performance of the stimulated well. Many aspects not included in the semi-analytical solution also influence the performance of the radial stimulation: - Since the radials are open hole, stability for friable rocks or deep reservoirs is unlikely. This depends on the in-situ stress conditions. Collapsed radials probably have much lower performance or no effect at all. - The uncertainty in the radial path and diameter decreases the expected benefits from radials significantly depending on the type of reservoir. For example for a layered reservoir, the expected increase may be tens of percent lower. - Due to the small diameter (0.02-0.05 m) and rough surface of the radials and the high rates of geothermal wells, viscous pressure drop due to flow in the radials has to be taken into account for prediction of performance. For example for a radius of 0.04 m and well rate of 3600 m3/d, expected increase in performance is halved when taking into account pressure drop. - Heterogeneity in the permeability has a strong impact on the performance of the radials. Performance of individual radials depends in first approximation on the local permeability. However, this is difficult to capture in general terms. - Near well bore damage (positive skin) and prior stimulation (negative skin) have a large impact on the expected increase due to stimulation. In case the radials can be used to by-pass near well damage, performance can be much higher than predicted using the analytical equations. - Heterogeneity due to fault and/or fractures, voids, sharp transitions or layering all make potential success more uncertain and predictability lower due to potential issues with jetting. Whether increased performance for a single well can be translated to similar increased performance of a doublet depends on the doublet settings and subsurface conditions. For a fixed doublet distance or field size, an increase in rate due to improved performance of the wells will result in a reduced field life. The increased well performance can also be used to lower pumping cost at a fixed rate and thus improve performance of the doublet. It was found, that for most subsurface systems, the impact of the radials on production temperature was minor (for constant rate). Only for some fractured systems, short-circuiting can be increased due to radials. Overall, the ideal candidate for radial stimulation is a reservoir which is not too deep, in homogeneous, competent rock with a well with near well bore damage or in a not too deep anisotropic reservoir in which the main well is not drilled beneficially compared to the main direction of permeability.

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    Authors: Riekeles, Max; Schirmack, Janosch; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk;

    (1) Background: Future missions to potentially habitable places in the Solar System require biochemistry-independent methods for detecting potential alien life forms. The technology was not advanced enough for onboard machine analysis of microscopic observations to be performed in past missions, but recent increases in computational power make the use of automated in-situ analyses feasible. (2) Methods: Here, we present a semi-automated experimental setup, capable of distinguishing the movement of abiotic particles due to Brownian motion from the motility behavior of the bacteria Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, Planococcus halocryophilus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. Supervised machine learning algorithms were also used to specifically identify these species based on their characteristic motility behavior. (3) Results: While we were able to distinguish microbial motility from the abiotic movements due to Brownian motion with an accuracy exceeding 99%, the accuracy of the automated identification rates for the selected species does not exceed 82%. (4) Conclusions: Motility is an excellent biosignature, which can be used as a tool for upcoming life-detection missions. This study serves as the basis for the further development of a microscopic life recognition system for upcoming missions to Mars or the ocean worlds of the outer Solar System.

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    Life
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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Life
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      Life
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      DepositOnce
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: DepositOnce
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Life
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      https://doi.org/10.14279/depos...
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marzocchi, W.; Iturrieta, P.; Falcone, G.;

    The main goal of WP3 is to advance the operational earthquake forecasting capabilities at different spatial scales. This deliverable contains the description of the repository where all promising codes of the OEF models that have been produced in the first 30 months of the project have been uploaded. Since all codes have to be tested in WP7 in the last year of the project, the structure of this deliverable has been agreed with colleagues working at WP7. The repository contains both the codes that will be used in the WP7 testing phase, and a detailed description of each model. In this document we will describe the main features of the repository and the link where codes and descriptions can be found. Then, we will briefly summarize the main features of the models that are contained in the repository. At the time of this deliverable, eight models have been submitted to the repository; however, at the end of the project we expect to have more; in fact, some additional models are almost finished, but not yet ready for the testing phase and so they have not been uploaded yet; very likely, they will be uploaded soon and tested in WP7 in the last year of the project. In this first phase the repository is kept private (available only after a specific request to the WP leader) to leave the time to the modelers to finalize the scientific papers relative to their models. The repository will be then made public through the platform Zenodo at the end of the project.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wasch, L.; Poort, J.; Miloshevska, M.; Dinkelman, D.;

    Risk maps are created with the objective of providing improved operational advice on scaling mitigation. The issue of prevailing uncertainties and variations in fluid and gas data had to be tackled to provide accurate model predictions and risk assessments. The developed risk map workflow is demonstrated for calcite scaling risks of the West-Netherlands Basin.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zorn, Edgar U.; Le Corvec, Nicolas; Varley, Nick R.; Salzer, Jacqueline T.; +5 Authors

    International audience; During eruptive activity of andesitic stratovolcanoes, the extrusion of lava domes, their collapse and intermittent explosions are common volcanic hazards. Many lava domes grow in a preferred direction, in turn affecting the direction of lava flows and pyroclastic density currents. Access to active lava domes is difficult and hazardous, so detailed data characterizing lava dome growth are typically limited, keeping the processes controlling the directionality of extrusions unclear. Here we combine TerraSAR-X satellite radar observations with high-resolution airborne photogrammetry to assess morphological changes, and perform finite element modeling to investigate the impact of loading stress on shallow magma ascent directions associated with lava dome extrusion and crater formation at Volcán de Colima, México. The TerraSAR-X data, acquired in ~1-m resolution spotlight mode, enable us to derive a chronology of the eruptive processes from intensity-based time-lapse observations of the general crater and dome evolution. The satellite images are complemented by close-range airborne photos, processed by the Structure-from-Motion workflow. This allows the derivation of high-resolution digital elevation models, providing insight into detailed loading and unloading features. During the observation period from Jan-2013 to Feb-2016, we identify a dominantly W-directed dome growth and lava flow production until Jan-2015. In Feb-2015, following the removal of the active summit dome, the surface crater widened and elongated along a NE-SW axis. Later in May-2015, a new dome grew toward the SW of the crater while a separate vent developed in the NE of the crater, reflecting a change in the direction of magma ascent and possible conduit bifurcation. Finite element models show a significant stress change in agreement with the observed magma ascent direction changes in response to the changing surface loads, both for loading (dome growth) and unloading (crater forming excavation) cases. These results allow insight into shallow dome growth dynamics and the migration of magma ascent in response to changing volcano summit morphology. They further highlight the importance of detailed volcano summit morphology surveillance, as changes in direction or location of dome extrusion may have major implications regarding the directions of potential volcanic hazards, such as pyroclastic density currents generated by dome collapse.Introduction

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Earth S...arrow_drop_down
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    Frontiers in Earth Science
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Boeije, C.; Zitha, P.; Pluymakers, A.;

    This report describes the activities performed within Task 1.3 “Summary of gas solubility and degassing kinetics (type A)” until the end of month 39 of the REFLECT project. Two series of experiments have been carried out that assess the degassing process of type A geothermal fluids respectively in bulk and porous media. This has resulted in an improved understanding of the process and the associated physical phenomena by utilizing experimental equipment and data analysis tools specifically created for this task.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Morabito, L. K.; Jackson, N. J.; Mooney, S.; Sweijen, F.; +70 Authors

    [abridged] The International LOFAR Telescope is an interferometer with stations spread across Europe. With baselines of up to ~2,000 km, LOFAR has the unique capability of achieving sub-arcsecond resolution at frequencies below 200 MHz, although this is technically and logistically challenging. Here we present a calibration strategy that builds on previous high-resolution work with LOFAR. We give an overview of the calibration strategy and discuss the special challenges inherent to enacting high-resolution imaging with LOFAR, and describe the pipeline, which is publicly available, in detail. We demonstrate the calibration strategy by using the pipeline on P205+55, a typical LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) pointing. We perform in-field delay calibration, solution referencing to other calibrators, self-calibration, and imaging of example directions of interest in the field. For this specific field and these ionospheric conditions, dispersive delay solutions can be transferred between calibrators up to ~1.5 degrees away, while phase solution transferral works well over 1 degree. We demonstrate a check of the astrometry and flux density scale. Imaging in 17 directions, the restoring beam is typically 0.3' x 0.2' although this varies slightly over the entire 5 square degree field of view. We achieve ~80 to 300 $\mu$Jy/bm image rms noise, which is dependent on the distance from the phase centre; typical values are ~90 $\mu$Jy/bm for the 8 hour observation with 48 MHz of bandwidth. Seventy percent of processed sources are detected, and from this we estimate that we should be able to image ~900 sources per LoTSS pointing. This equates to ~3 million sources in the northern sky, which LoTSS will entirely cover in the next several years. Future optimisation of the calibration strategy for efficient post-processing of LoTSS at high resolution (LoTSS-HR) makes this estimate a lower limit. Astronomy and astrophysics 658, A1 (2022). doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202140649 Published by EDP Sciences, Les Ulis

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article
    License: EDP Sciences Copyright and Publication Licensing Policy
    Data sources: Sygma
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