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  • 0106 biological sciences
  • Geosciences

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2018
    Open Access English
    Ted Habermann;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    The historic view of metadata as “data about data” is expanding to include data about other items that must be created, used, and understood throughout the data and project life cycles. In this context, metadata might better be defined as the structured and standard part of documentation, and the metadata life cycle can be described as the metadata content that is required for documentation in each phase of the project and data life cycles. This incremental approach to metadata creation is similar to the spiral model used in software development. Each phase also has distinct users and specific questions to which they need answers. In many cases, the metadata life cycle involves hierarchies where latter phases have increased numbers of items. The relationships between metadata in different phases can be captured through structure in the metadata standard, or through conventions for identifiers. Metadata creation and management can be streamlined and simplified by re-using metadata across many records. Many of these ideas have been developed to various degrees in several Geoscience disciplines and are being used in metadata for documenting the integrated life cycle of environmental research in the Arctic, including projects, collection sites, and datasets.

  • Open Access
    S. R. Elliott; Nicole Jeffery; Elizabeth Hunke; Clara Deal; Meibing Jin; Shanlin Wang; Emma A. Elliott Smith; Samantha Oestreicher;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    A mechanism connecting ice algal ecodynamics with the buildup of organic macromolecules in brine channels is tested offline in a reduced model of pack geochemistry. Driver physical quantities are extracted from the global sea ice dynamics code CICE, including snow height, column thickness and internal temperature. The variables are averaged at the regional scale over ten Arctic biogeographic zones and treated as input matrices at four vertical habitat levels. Nutrient-light-salt limited ice algal growth is computed along with the associated grazing plus mortality. Vertical transport is diffusive but responds to pore structure. Simulated bottom layer chlorophyll maxima are reasonable, though delayed by about a month relative to observations. This highlights major uncertainties deriving from snow thickness variability. Upper level biota are generated intermittently through flooding. Macromolecular injections are represented by the compound classes humics, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. The fresh biopolymers behave in a successional manner and are removed by bacteria. In baseline runs, organics are introduced solely through cell disruption, and internal carbon is biased low. Continuous exudation is therefore appended, and agreement with dissolved organic or individual biopolymer measurements is achieved when strong release is coupled to light availability. Detrital carbon then reaches hundreds of micromolar, sufficient to support physical changes to the ice matrix. Through this optimized model version we address the question, are high molecular weight organics added to the brine network over and above background spillage? The mechanism is configured for ready extension to the Antarctic, so that global ice organic chemistry issues can be targeted. Comment: In preparation for submission to Biogeosciences (Copernicus, EGU)

  • Open Access English
    Markus Diesing; Terje Thorsnes;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    Cold-water coral reefs are rich, yet fragile ecosystems found in colder oceanic waters. Knowledge of their spatial distribution on continental shelves, slopes, seamounts and ridge systems is vital for marine spatial planning and conservation. Cold-water corals frequently form conspicuous carbonate mounds of varying sizes, which are identifiable from multibeam echosounder bathymetry and derived geomorphometric attributes. However, the often large number of mounds makes manual interpretation and mapping a tedious process. We present a methodology that combines image segmentation and random forest spatial prediction with the aim to derive maps of carbonate mounds and an associated measure of confidence. We demonstrate our method based on multibeam echosounder data from Iverryggen on the mid-Norwegian shelf. We identified the image-object mean planar curvature as the most important predictor. The presence and absence of carbonate mounds is mapped with high accuracy (overall accuracy = 84.4%, sensitivity = 0.827 and specificity = 0.866). Spatially-explicit confidence in the predictions is derived from the predicted probability and whether the predictions are within or outside the modelled range of values and is generally high. We plan to apply the showcased method to other areas of the Norwegian continental shelf and slope where MBES data have been collected with the aim to provide crucial information for marine spatial planning.

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