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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hartung, Thomas; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.;

    Science changes in waves, the so-called paradigm shifts or scientific revolutions. This concept was prominently elabo­rated by Thomas S. Kuhn more than 50 years ago in what remains one of the most cited science philosophy books of all time. Kuhn described how “normal science” experiences anomalies, which bring it to crisis and revolution from which a new, immature scientific paradigm results, which over time becomes the new normal. Building on an analysis on how this applies to toxicology and its change in approach in 2008, we concluded at the time that toxicology had encountered a number of such anomalies and was moving into crisis. Here, the progress along Kuhn’s trajectory over the last 12 years of a scientific revolution is discussed. We conclude that this decade has shown up even more anomalies, and the perception of crisis has spread and consolidated. Indications of revolutionary paradigm changes are emerging. published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Konstanzer Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Konstanzer Online-Pu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kondis, Basil;

    Preface: Stelios A. Papadimitriou 62 σ.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ I.R. "OLYMPIAS"arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
    Book . 2015
    Data sources: I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ I.R. "OLYMPIAS"arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
      Book . 2015
      Data sources: I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christy Spackman;

    This article examines the politics of smell at the edge of perception. In January 2014, the municipal water supply of Charleston, West Virginia was contaminated by an under-characterized chemical, crude MCHM. Even when instrumental measurements no longer detected the chemical, people continued to smell its licorice-like odor. In a space where nothing was certain, smell became the only indicator of potential harm. Officials responded by commissioning state-funded sensory testing of crude MCHM to determine its sensory threshold. Via the critical passage point of sensory science, some instances of embodied attunement were allowed to enter into the evidentiary regimes of perception, while other, similarly trained moments of attunement were excluded from the process. This, I show, produced knowledge about the spilled chemical that maintained the systems that contributed to the spill in the first place. Drawing on new materialist thought, I riff on biology and ‘transduce’ the ephemeral phenomena of smelling crude MCHM into a new medium: Rather than thinking of smell as a volatile molecular material (an odorant), I show that consideration of smell as a manipulable object that one can imagine as having tangible substance and shape offers a way to experiment with disciplinary forms. I suggest an alternate future, where sensory science acts to record sensory labor that produces facts about collective experience that cannot (easily) travel through current systems, a process that is one possible way of beginning to unravel entrenched systems of toxic harm.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Social Studies of Science
    Article
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Social Studies of Science
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Social Studies of Science
      Article
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Social Studies of Science
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Danielle S. Bassett; Kathleen E. Cullen; Simon B. Eickhoff; Martha J. Farah; +14 Authors

    The first issue of Nature Reviews Neuroscience was published 20 years ago, in 2000. To mark this anniversary, in this Viewpoint article we asked a selection of researchers from across the field who have authored pieces published in the journal in recent years for their thoughts on notable and interesting developments in neuroscience, and particularly in their areas of the field, over the past two decades. They also provide some thoughts on current lines of research and questions that excite them.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nature Reviews Neuro...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    http://www.scopus.com/inward/r...
    Other literature type . 2020
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nature Reviews Neuro...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      http://www.scopus.com/inward/r...
      Other literature type . 2020
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: V. Koukou; N. Martini; K Velissarakos; D Gkremos; +5 Authors

    Microcalcifications are the main indicator for breast cancer. Dual energy imaging can enhance the detectability of calcifications by suppressing the tissue background. Two digital images are obtained using two different spectra, for the low- and high-energy respectively, and a weighted subtracted image is produced. In this study, a dual energy method for the detection of the minimum breast microcalcification thickness was developed. The used integrated prototype system consisted of a modified tungsten anode X-ray tube combined with a high resolution CMOS sensor. The breast equivalent phantom used was an elastically compressible gel of polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL). Hydroxyapatite was used to simulate microcalcifications with thicknesses ranging from 50 to 500 μm. The custom made phantom was irradiated with 40kVp and 70kVp. Tungsten (W) anode spectra filtered with 100μm Cadmium and 1000pm Copper, for the low- and high-energy, respectively. Microcalcifications with thicknesses 300μm or higher can be detected with mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1.62mGy.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics :...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics :...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Physics : Conference Series
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Athena Katsanevaki;

    Having as a starting point a typical phrase -“all our songs once were laments”- repeated to the researcher during fieldwork, this study aims to explore the multiple ways in which lament practices become part of other musical practices in community life or change their functionalities and how they contribute to music making. Though the meaning of this typical phrase seems to be inexplicable, nonetheless as a general feeling it is shared by most of the people in the field. Starting from the Epirot instrumental ‘moiroloi’, extensive field research reveals that many vocal practices considered by former researchers to be imitations of instrumental musical practices, are in fact, definite lament vocal practices-cries, embodied and reformed in different ways in other musical contexts and serving in this way different social purposes. Furthermore, multiple functionalities of lament practices in social life reveal their transformations into songs and the ways they contribute to music making in oral tradition while at the same time confirming the flexibility of the border between lament and song established by previous researchers.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Musicologist; TÜBİTA...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Musicologist
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Musicologist
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      Musicologist
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      Musicologist
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    Authors: Costas Fotakis; Vassilia Zorba; Emmanuel Stratakis; Athanassia Athanassiou; +9 Authors

    Materials processing by ultrafast lasers offers several distinct possibilities for micro/nano scale applications. This is due to the unique characteristics of the laser-matter interactions involved, when sub-picosecond pulses are employed. Prospects arising will be discussed in the context of surface and in bulk laser induced modifications. In particular, examples of diverse applications including the development and functionalization of laser engineered surfaces, the laser transfer of biomolecules and the functionalization of 3D structures constructed by three-photon stereolithography will be presented. Furthermore, the removal of molecular substrates by ultrafast laser ablation will be discussed with emphasis placed on assessing the photochemical changes induced in the remaining bulk material. The results indicate that in femtosecond laser processing of organic materials, besides the well acknowledged morphological advantages, a second fundamental factor responsible for its success pertains to the selective chemical effects. This is crucial for the laser cleaning of sensitive painted artworks.

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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Physics : Conference Series
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: P. Sotiropoulou; V. Koukou; N. Martini; Christos Michail; +4 Authors

    In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log- intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors.

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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Physics : Conference Series
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Giannoulopoulou, G.;

    The aim of this paper is to discuss topics in contrastive morphology, combining the perspectives of morphological theory and contrastive linguistics. After an overview of the recent literature on contrastive morphology and the relevant 'tertia comparationis' in Section 2, Section 3 focuses on the main differences between compounding in Modern Greek and Italian (e.g. the position of the morphological head, the pattern stem+stem in Modern Greek vs. the pattern word+word in Italian). The diachronic dimension, the inflectional system and the role of syntax are put forward as explanatory factors for the differences between the two languages. Two recent types of compounds, [V+V] V in Modern Greek and [V+N] N in Italian, are therefore examined contrastively. The contrastive analysis of compounding is based on three types of equivalence: 'system equivalence', 'rule equivalence', and 'morphological age equivalence'. The main conclusion is that a contrastive approach to morphology enables us to deepen our understanding of both the fundamental distinction and the fundamental interconnection between morphology and syntax. © John Benjamins Publishing Company.

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    Article . 2015
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    Languages in Contrast
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Languages in Contrast
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lazos Panagiotis;

    Η Μεγάλη του Γένους Σχολή στην Κωνσταντινούπολη, το ιστορικό εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα της ελληνορθόδοξης ή ρωμαίικης κοινότητας, απέκτησε μία σημαντική συλλογή επιστημονικών οργάνων για τη διδασκαλία της πειραματικής φυσικής κατά το δεύτερο μισό του 19ου αιώνα, ενώ φαίνεται πως διέθετε κάποια -σχεδόν χαμένη πλέον- μικρότερη συλλογή ήδη από τις αρχές του αιώνα. Η δημιουργία της συλλογής σηματοδοτεί μία ίσως διστακτική αλλά σαφή στροφή του προγράμματος σπουδών της Σχολής προς μία περισσότερο πρακτική κατεύθυνση ακολουθώντας τις αλλαγές στην κοινότητα. Τα πολυάριθμα διασωθέντα όργανα της συλλογής, που φιλοξενούνται σε ειδικά διαμορφωμένη αίθουσα γνωστή ως Οργανοθήκη, δεν είχαν μελετηθεί έως τώρα. Η παρούσα διατριβή προσπαθεί να καλύψει αυτό το βιβλιογραφικό κενό μελετώντας κάθε ένα όργανο ξεχωριστά, ώστε να δημιουργηθεί μία κατά το δυνατόν πλήρης εικόνα τόσο της συλλογής όσο και των δυνατοτήτων που αυτή παρείχε στη διδασκαλία της πειραματικής φυσικής στη Σχολή. Σε αυτά τα πλαίσια παρουσιάζεται η ιστορία, τα χαρακτηριστικά, ο τρόπος χρήσης και, όπου είναι γνωστό, ο κατασκευαστής των οργάνων. Ταυτόχρονα, παρουσιάζεται η ιστορία της εξέλιξης της συλλογής, η οποία πραγματοποιήθηκε σε τέσσερεις φάσεις μέσω δωρεών και αγορών από το σχολικό έτος 1865-1866 έως το 1880-1881, οπότε η Σχολή διαθέτει πλέον μία συλλογή υψηλού επιπέδου η οποία μπορεί να συγκριθεί με αντίστοιχες σχολείων της Ευρώπης. Μέσα από τους καταλόγους των προσκτήσεων αυτών, όπως παρατίθενται στις εκθέσεις λειτουργίας των διευθυντών (σχολαρχών) της Σχολής, έχει ολοκληρωθεί τόσο η ακριβής ταυτοποίηση των υπαρχόντων οργάνων όσο και η περιγραφή εκείνων που έχουν απολεστεί. Αρχικά, λοιπόν, πραγματοποιείται μία σύντομη ιστορική ανασκόπηση της πορείας της Σχολής έως τις αρχές του 19ου αιώνα. Στη συνέχεια μελετάται η πορεία της Σχολής κατά την μετακίνησή της στην Ξηροκρήνη (1804-1830 και 1836-1850) και μετά την επιστροφή της στο Φανάρι έως και την απόκτηση της πρώτης σειράς οργάνων. Επίσης, παρουσιάζονται οι σταδιακές αλλαγές, που αφορούν το θέμα μας, (όπως η οριστική και μόνιμη εισαγωγή του μαθήματος της πειραματικής φυσικής, οι αλλαγές στους διδάσκοντες καθηγητές του μαθήματος και η συζήτηση για την αναγκαιότητα δημιουργίας συλλογής). Ιδιαίτερη μνεία γίνεται στη συλλογή επιστημονικών οργάνων που απέκτησε ο Ελληνικός Φιλολογικός Σύλλογος Κωνσταντινούπολης για χρήση στα δημόσια μαθήματα που διοργάνωνε ο Σύλλογος. Αυτό θεωρείται απαραίτητο εξαιτίας της εμπλοκής του Ανδρέα Σπαθάρη, καθηγητή φυσικομαθηματικών και χημείας της Σχολής επί τριάντα έξι χρόνια, στην επιλογή των οργάνων που αποκτήθηκαν, στη χρήση τους σε διαλέξεις που έδωσε ο ίδιος και στη συντήρησή τους από τη θέση του εφόρου της συλλογής. Επιπλέον, υποστηρίζεται πως η πραγματοποίηση δημόσιων εκλαϊκευτικών διαλέξεων με την υποστηρικτική χρήση οργάνων από τον Σύλλογο επηρέασε την ελληνική εκπαιδευτική κοινότητα της Κωνσταντινούπολης. Ακολουθεί παρουσίαση των σπουδών, του βίου και του συγγραφικού έργου του Σπαθάρη, ο οποίος επί 36 χρόνια (1864-1900) ήταν υπεύθυνος για τη δημιουργία, τη χρήση και τη συντήρηση της συλλογής. Στη συνέχεια, παρουσιάζεται η ιστορία της πρώτης σειράς οργάνων που απέκτησε η Σχολή μετά την εποχή της Ξηροκρήνης, εκείνα της δωρεάς του αρχιτέκτονα Χατζή-Στεφανή Γαϊτανάκη. Στο μέτρο που γνωρίζουμε, τα συγκεκριμένα όργανα είναι τα μόνα γνωστά υλικά αντικείμενα που έχουν διασωθεί από το σχολείο που ίδρυσε ο Γαϊτανάκης στον τόπο γέννησής του, τη Μάδυτο. Ακολουθεί η εξιστόρηση τόσο της αγοράς καινούργιων οργάνων κατά το σχολικό έτος 1866-1867 όσο και εκείνης του σχολικού έτους 1878-1879 όταν αγοράστηκαν μεταχειρισμένα όργανα φυσικής και χημείας από το ιδιωτικό σχολείο Ελληνικό Λύκειο στο Πέρα. Η δεύτερη αγορά παρουσιάζει ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον καθώς -και σε αυτή την περίπτωση- τα συγκεκριμένα όργανα αποτελούν πιθανότατα το μόνο υλικό αποτύπωμα του Ελληνικού Λυκείου στην εποχή μας. Ύστερα, μελετάται αναλυτικά η σημαντικότερη αγορά, εκείνη του σχολικού έτους 1880-1881, η οποία πραγματοποιήθηκε λίγο πριν την εγκατάσταση της Σχολής στο νεόδμητο ιδιόκτητο κτήριο. Τέλος, ακολουθώντας μία σύγχρονη τάση στην ιστορία των επιστημών, παρουσιάζεται η βιογραφία του ζεοτρόπιου του Φραγκλίνου. Πρόκειται για ένα επιστημονικό όργανο, το οποίο μετατράπηκε με το πέρασμα του χρόνου από παιχνίδι σε επιστημονικό όργανο για να επιστρέψει τελικά στην κατάσταση του παιχνιδιού στον 20ο αιώνα. The Great School of the Nation in Istanbul, the historical educational institution of the Greek community, acquired an important collection of scientific instruments for the teaching of experimental physics during the second half of the 19th century, while it seems that it had some -almost lost now- smaller collection at the beginning of the century. The gradual development of the collection marks a perhaps hesitant but clear shift of the School's curriculum in a more practical direction following the changes in the Greek community. The numerous existing instruments in the collection stored in a specially designed hall had not been studied until now. This thesis tries to fill this gap in the literature by studying each instrument separately, in order to create as complete a picture as possible of both the collection and the possibilities it provided for the teaching of experimental physics at the School. In this context the history, the characteristics, the manner of use and, where known, the maker of the instruments are presented. At the same time, the history of the development of the collection is presented, which took place in four phases through donations and purchases from the school year 1865-1866 to 1880-1881, by which time the School had a collection of a high standard and able to be compared with similar schools of Europe. Through the lists of these acquisitions, as listed in the operational reports of the School’s principals, both the exact identification of the existing instruments and the description of those that have been lost have been completed. First, therefore, a brief historical review of the course of the School until the beginning of the 19th century is carried out. Then the course of the School is studied during its move to Xirokrini (1804-1830 and 1836-1850) and after its return to Fener until the acquisition of the first series of instruments. Also, the gradual changes concerning our subject are presented (such as the permanent introduction of the course of experimental physics, the changes of the professors of the course and the discussion about the necessity of creating a collection). Special mention is made of the collection of scientific instruments acquired by the Greek Philological Association of Constantinople for use in the public courses organized by the Association. This is considered necessary due to the involvement of Andreas Spatharis -professor of physics, mathematics and chemistry at the School for thirty-six years- in the selection of the instruments acquired by the association, their use in lectures he gave, and their maintenance as curator of the collection. In addition, it is argued that the realization of public popularizing lectures with the supportive use of instruments by the Association affected the Greek educational community of the City. This is followed by a presentation of the studies, life and writing of Spatharis, who was responsible for 36 years (1864-1900) for the creation, use and maintenance of the collection. Then, the story of the first set of instruments that the School acquired after the era of Xirokrini, those donated by the architect Hadzi-Stefanis Gaitanakis, is presented. As far as we know, these instruments are the only known material objects that have survived from the school founded by Gaitanakis in his birthplace, Madytos. Subsequently, a detailed account of both the purchase of new instruments during the school year 1866-1867 and of the school year 1878-1879 -when second-hand physics and chemistry instruments were purchased from the private school Hellenic Lyceum in Pera- is given. The second purchase is of particular interest as, also in this case, the specific instruments are probably the only material imprint of the Hellenic Lyceum in our time. Then, the most important purchase, that of the school year 1880-1881, which took place shortly before the installation of the School in the newly built privately owned building, is studied in detail. Finally, following a modern trend in the history of science, the biography of Franklin's palm glass is presented. It is a scientific instrument, which changed over time from a toy to a scientific instrument to finally return to toy status in the 20th century.

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    Authors: Hartung, Thomas; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.;

    Science changes in waves, the so-called paradigm shifts or scientific revolutions. This concept was prominently elabo­rated by Thomas S. Kuhn more than 50 years ago in what remains one of the most cited science philosophy books of all time. Kuhn described how “normal science” experiences anomalies, which bring it to crisis and revolution from which a new, immature scientific paradigm results, which over time becomes the new normal. Building on an analysis on how this applies to toxicology and its change in approach in 2008, we concluded at the time that toxicology had encountered a number of such anomalies and was moving into crisis. Here, the progress along Kuhn’s trajectory over the last 12 years of a scientific revolution is discussed. We conclude that this decade has shown up even more anomalies, and the perception of crisis has spread and consolidated. Indications of revolutionary paradigm changes are emerging. published

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    ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kondis, Basil;

    Preface: Stelios A. Papadimitriou 62 σ.

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    I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
    Book . 2015
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      I.R. "OLYMPIAS"
      Book . 2015
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    Authors: Christy Spackman;

    This article examines the politics of smell at the edge of perception. In January 2014, the municipal water supply of Charleston, West Virginia was contaminated by an under-characterized chemical, crude MCHM. Even when instrumental measurements no longer detected the chemical, people continued to smell its licorice-like odor. In a space where nothing was certain, smell became the only indicator of potential harm. Officials responded by commissioning state-funded sensory testing of crude MCHM to determine its sensory threshold. Via the critical passage point of sensory science, some instances of embodied attunement were allowed to enter into the evidentiary regimes of perception, while other, similarly trained moments of attunement were excluded from the process. This, I show, produced knowledge about the spilled chemical that maintained the systems that contributed to the spill in the first place. Drawing on new materialist thought, I riff on biology and ‘transduce’ the ephemeral phenomena of smelling crude MCHM into a new medium: Rather than thinking of smell as a volatile molecular material (an odorant), I show that consideration of smell as a manipulable object that one can imagine as having tangible substance and shape offers a way to experiment with disciplinary forms. I suggest an alternate future, where sensory science acts to record sensory labor that produces facts about collective experience that cannot (easily) travel through current systems, a process that is one possible way of beginning to unravel entrenched systems of toxic harm.

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    Social Studies of Science
    Article
    License: CC BY NC
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    Social Studies of Science
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Danielle S. Bassett; Kathleen E. Cullen; Simon B. Eickhoff; Martha J. Farah; +14 Authors

    The first issue of Nature Reviews Neuroscience was published 20 years ago, in 2000. To mark this anniversary, in this Viewpoint article we asked a selection of researchers from across the field who have authored pieces published in the journal in recent years for their thoughts on notable and interesting developments in neuroscience, and particularly in their areas of the field, over the past two decades. They also provide some thoughts on current lines of research and questions that excite them.

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    http://www.scopus.com/inward/r...
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Juelich Shared Electronic Resources
    Article . 2020
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