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  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Research . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access
    Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Melo da Costa, Eliza; Brandao Malbouisson, Helena; Tomei, Thiago; de Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; de Souza Lemos, Dener; Garcia Fuentes, Francisco Ignacio; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Brom, Jean-Marie; +279 more
    Countries: Italy, Finland, Croatia, Croatia, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, Belgium, Turkey ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730)

    Measurements of the second Fourier harmonic coefficient (v2) of the azimuthal distributions of prompt and nonprompt D0 mesons produced in pp and pPb collisions are presented. Nonprompt D0 mesons come from beauty hadron decays. The data samples are collected by the CMS experiment at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies of 13 and 8.16 TeV, respectively. In high multiplicity pp collisions, v2 signals for prompt charm hadrons are reported for the first time, and are found to be comparable to those for light-flavor hadron species over a transverse momentum (pT) range of 2–6 GeV. Compared at similar event multiplicities, the prompt D0 meson v2 values in pp and pPb collisions are similar in magnitude. The v2 values for open beauty hadrons are extracted for the first time via nonprompt D0 mesons in pPb collisions. For pT in the range of 2–5 GeV, the results suggest that v2 for nonprompt D0 mesons is smaller than that for prompt D0 mesons. These new measurements indicate a positive charm hadron v2 in pp collisions and suggest a mass dependence in v2 between charm and beauty hadrons in the pPb system. These results provide insights into the origin of heavy-flavor quark collectivity in small systems. Individuals have received support from the Marie-Curie program and the European Research Council and Horizon 2020 Grant, contract Nos. 675440, 752730, and 765710 (European Union); CERN; the Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de Maeztu, grant MDM-2015-0509 and the Programa Severo Ochoa del Principado de Asturias. CMS Collaboration: et al. Funded by SCOAP3. Peer reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Other literature type . Research . Report . 2018
    Open Access English
    Ece Aşılar; Marko Dragicevic; A. Escalante Del Valle; Jochen Schieck; Daniel Spitzbart; Claudia-Elisabeth Wulz; E. A. De Wolf; H. Van Haevermaet; N. Van Remortel; Freya Blekman; +429 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Countries: Belgium, United States, United States, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Turkey, India, Spain, Italy ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440)

    A search for charged Higgs boson decaying to a charm and a bottom quark ( $ {\mathrm{H}}^{+}\to \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ ) is performed using 19.7 fb$^{−1}$ of pp collision data at $ \sqrt{s}=8 $ TeV. The production mechanism investigated in this search is $ \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}} $ pair production in which one top quark decays to a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark and the other decays to a charged lepton, a neutrino, and a bottom quark. Charged Higgs boson decays to $ \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ are searched for, resulting in a final state containing at least four jets, a charged lepton (muon or electron), and missing transverse momentum. A kinematic fit is performed to identify the pair of jets least likely to be the bottom quarks originating from direct top quark decays and the invariant mass of this pair is used as the final observable in the search. No evidence for the presence of a charged Higgs boson is observed and upper limits at 95% confidence level of 0.8–0.5% are set on the branching fraction ℬ(t → H$^{+}$b), assuming ℬ(H$^{+}$ → $ \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ ) = 1.0 and ℬ(t → H$^{+}$b) + ℬ(t → Wb) = 1.0, for the charged Higgs boson mass range 90–150 GeV. Journal of high energy physics 1811(11), 115 (2018). doi:10.1007/JHEP11(2018)115 Published by Springer Nature, Cham

  • Publication . Conference object . Research . 2018
    M. Livesu; D. Cabiddu; M. Attene;
    Publisher: The Eurographics Association
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | CAxMan (680448)

    Accurately simulating Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes is useful to predict printing failures and test 3D printing without wasting precious resources, both in terms of time ad material. In AM the object to be fabricated is first cut into a set of slices aligned with the build direction, and then printed, depositing or solidifying material one layer on top of the other. To guarantee accurate simulations, it is therefore necessary to encode the temporal evolution of the shape to be printed within the simulation domain. We introduce slice2mesh, to the best of our knowledge the first software capable of turning a sliced object directly into a volumetric mesh. Our tool inputs a set of slices and produces a tetrahedral mesh that endows each slice in its connectivity. An accurate representation of the simulation domain at any time during the print can therefore be easily obtained by filtering out the slices yet to be processed. slice2mesh also features a flexible mesh generation system for external supports, and allows the user to trade accuracy for simplicity by producing approximate simulation domains obtained by filtering the object in slice space. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation-Line and curve generation Smart Tools and Apps for Graphics - Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference M. Livesu, D. Cabiddu, and M. Attene Manufacturing Objects 23 13

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Research . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access English
    Valerie Domcke; Marco Drewes; Marco Hufnagel; Michele Lucente;
    Countries: Switzerland, Germany
    Project: EC | NewAve (638528)

    We study the type-I seesaw model with three right-handed neutrinos and Majorana masses below the pion mass. In this mass range, the model parameter space is not only strongly constrained by the requirement to explain the light neutrino masses, but also by experimental searches and cosmological considerations. In the existing literature, three disjoint regions of potentially viable parameter space have been identified. In one of them, all heavy neutrinos decay shortly before big bang nucleosynthesis. In the other two regions, one of the heavy neutrinos either decays between BBN and the CMB decoupling or is quasi-stable. We show that previously unaccounted constraints from photodisintegration of nuclei practically rule out all relevant decays that happen between BBN and the CMB decoupling. Quite remarkably, if all heavy neutrinos decay before BBN, the baryon asymmetry of the universe can be quite generically explained by low-scale leptogenesis, i.e. without further tuning in addition to what is needed to avoid experimental and cosmological constraints. This motivates searches for heavy neutrinos in pion decay experiments. Journal of high energy physics 01(1), 200 (2021). doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2021)200 Published by SISSA, [Trieste]

  • Open Access English
    Penca; Jerneja;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | EL-CSID (693799), EC | EL-CSID (693799)

    Across the policy discourses and academic literature, the popularity of the concept of “science diplomacy” has used the concept in an uncritical manner. This paper aims to understand the concept’s value-added and the implications of its use. It considers the evolution of scientific cooperation and its interaction with foreign policy in the Euro-Mediterranean region. It finds out that many of the goals currently enshrined in “science diplomacy” have already constituted the history of the Euro-Mediterranean relationships since the launch of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. The difference with the past is that the EU now has higher political and economic expectations of genuine scientific cooperation. However, in contrast to widening the objectives, the EU has not substantively broadened the tools it avails of. This leads us to expect that the EU’s actual policy in regional scientific cooperation might nevertheless stay the same. While the rhetoric of science diplomacy is of little use, the paper suggests some meaningful questions in the science-foreign policy nexus to replace it.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Research . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Ayse Polatoz; Vinicius Massami Mikuni; Basile Vermassen; Willard Johns; Sinan Sagir; Jennifer Chu; Soureek Mitra; Mircho Rodozov; Ram Krishna Dewanjee; Daniele Fasanella; +554 more
    Publisher: Springer
    Countries: Belgium, Spain, Germany, Germany, United Kingdom, Serbia, Belgium, Belgium, Spain, Germany ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | INSIGHTS (765710)

    Evidence for Higgs boson decay to a pair of muons is presented. This result combines searches in four exclusive categories targeting the production of the Higgs boson via gluon fusion, via vector boson fusion, in association with a vector boson, and in association with a top quark-antiquark pair. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data at s√ = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb−1, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. An excess of events over the back- ground expectation is observed in data with a significance of 3.0 standard deviations, where the expectation for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson with mass of 125.38 GeV is 2.5. The combination of this result with that from data recorded at s√ = 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 and 19.7 fb−1, respectively, increases both the expected and observed significances by 1%. The measured signal strength, relative to the SM prediction, is 1.19+0.40−0.39(stat)+0.15−0.14(syst). This result constitutes the first evidence for the decay of the Higgs boson to second generation fermions and is the most precise measurement of the Higgs boson coupling to muons reported to date. Individuals have received support from the Marie-Curie programme and the European Research Council and Horizon 2020 Grant, contract Nos. 675440, 752730, and 765710 (European Union); the Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de Maeztu, grant MDM-2015-0509 and the Programa Severo Ochoa del Principado de Asturias. CMS collaboration: et al. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Krotkiewski, Marcin;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | PRACE-5IP (730913), EC | PRACE-5IP (730913)

    Various optimizations of the ART software package for the solution of the radiative transfer equation in three dimensions are discussed in this white paper. All critical path functions of the code have been optimized and vectorized using OpenMP directives. Several techniques have been used, amongst others the rearrangement of input data and internal data structures to facilitate usage of CPU vector units, vectorization of calls to the math library, explicit loop unrolling to allow vectorization of iterative loops with a convergence criterion, vectorization of data-dependent if-statements through enforced computations on all SIMD lanes and filtering of the final result. Several technical challenges had to be overcome to achieve the best performance. The OpenMPI stack needed to be compiled with a custom (non-native) Glibc library. In some cases, individual vectorized clones generated automatically by the compilers needed to be substituted with custom functions implemented manually using compiler intrinsics. Performance tests have shown that on the Broadwell architecture the optimized code works from 2.5x faster (RT solver) to 13x faster (EOS solver) on a single core. MPI implementation of the code scales with 95% efficiency on 2048 cores. Throughout the project, several GCC bugs related to automatic OpenMP vectorization have been reported, which shows that the support for the relatively new OpenMP vectorization features is still not mature. For some of those bugs effective workarounds have been developed. We also point to some shortcomings in the OpenMP simd vectorization framework and develop several new optimization techniques, which improve effectiveness of automatic code vectorization. Finally, some generally useful tutorials have been delivered.

  • Open Access English
    Martins-Neto, Antonio; Mathew, Nanditha; Mohnen, Pierre; Treibich, Tania;
    Publisher: UNU-MERIT working papers
    Project: EC | GROWINPRO (822781)

    This paper analyses the evidence of job polarization in developing countries. We carry out an extensive review of the existing empirical literature and examine the primary data sources and measures of routine intensity. The synthesis of results suggests that job polarization in emerging economies is only incipient compared to other advanced economies. We then examine the possible moderating aspects preventing job polar- ization, discussing the main theoretical channels and the existing empirical literature. Overall, the literature relates the lack of polarization as a natural consequence of lim- ited technology adoption and the offshoring of routine, middle-earning jobs to some host developing economies. In turn, the limited technology adoption results from sub- optimal capabilities in those economies, including the insufficient supply of educated workers. Finally, we present the main gaps in the literature in developing economies and point to the need for more micro-level studies focusing on the impacts of tech- nology adoption on workers’ careers and studies exploring the adoption and use of technologies at the firm level.

  • Open Access English
    Georges Aad; Brad Abbott; A. Abed Abud; Kira Abeling; Syed Haider Abidi; Halina Abramowicz; Baida Achkar; Lennart Adam; C. Adam Bourdarios; Leszek Adamczyk; +1,425 more
    Publisher: SpringerOpen
    Countries: Italy, Italy, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Netherlands, Argentina ...
    Project: EC | LightAtLHC (864950), EC | LightAtLHC (864950)

    We thank CERN for the very successful operation of the LHC, as well as the support staff from our institutions without whom ATLAS could not be operated efficiently. We acknowledge the support of ANPCyT, Argentina; YerPhI, Armenia; ARC, Australia; BMWFW and FWF, Austria; ANAS, Azerbaijan; SSTC, Belarus; CNPq and FAPESP, Brazil; NSERC, NRC and CFI, Canada; CERN; ANID, Chile; CAS, MOST and NSFC, China; COLCIENCIAS, Colombia; MSMT CR, MPO CR and VSC CR, Czech Republic; DNRF and DNSRC, Denmark; IN2P3-CNRS and CEA-DRF/IRFU, France; SRNSFG, Georgia; BMBF, HGF and MPG, Germany; GSRT, Greece; RGC and Hong Kong SAR, China; ISF and Benoziyo Center, Israel; INFN, Italy; MEXT and JSPS, Japan; CNRST, Morocco; NWO, Netherlands; RCN, Norway; MNiSW and NCN, Poland; FCT, Portugal; MNE/IFA, Romania; JINR; MES of Russia and NRC KI, Russian Federation; MESTD, Serbia; MSSR, Slovakia; ARRS and MIZŠ, Slovenia; DST/NRF, South Africa; MICINN, Spain; SRC and Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden; SERI, SNSF and Cantons of Bern and Geneva, Switzerland; MOST, Taiwan; TAEK, Turkey; STFC, United Kingdom; DOE and NSF, United States of America. In addition, individual groups and members have received support from BCKDF, CANARIE, Compute Canada, CRC and IVADO, Canada; Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission, China; COST, ERC, ERDF, Horizon 2020 and Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, European Union; Investissements d’Avenir Labex, Investissements d’Avenir Idex and ANR, France; DFG and AvH Foundation, Germany; Herakleitos, Thales and Aristeia programmes co-financed by EU-ESF and the Greek NSRF, Greece; BSF-NSF and GIF, Israel; La Caixa Banking Foundation, CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya and PROMETEO and GenT Programmes Generalitat Valenciana, Spain; Göran Gustafssons Stiftelse, Sweden; The Royal Society and Leverhulme Trust, United Kingdom. The crucial computing support from all WLCG partners is acknowledged gratefully, in particular from CERN, the ATLAS Tier-1 facilities at TRIUMF (Canada), NDGF (Denmark, Norway, Sweden), CC-IN2P3 (France), KIT/GridKA (Germany), INFN-CNAF (Italy), NL-T1 (Netherlands), PIC (Spain), ASGC (Taiwan), RAL (U.K.) and BNL (U.S.A.), the Tier-2 facilities worldwide and large non-WLCG resource providers. Major contributors of computing resources are listed in ref. This paper describes a measurement of light-by-light scattering based on Pb+Pb collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment during Run 2 of the LHC. The study uses 2.2 nb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected in 2015 and 2018 at root sNN = 5.02TeV. Light-by-light scattering candidates are selected in events with two photons produced exclusively, each with transverse energy E-T(gamma) > 2.5 GeV, pseudorapidity vertical bar eta(gamma)vertical bar 5 GeV, and with small diphoton transverse momentum and diphoton acoplanarity. The integrated and differential fiducial cross sections are measured and compared with theoretical predictions. The diphoton invariant mass distribution is used to set limits on the production of axion-like particles. This result provides the most stringent limits to date on axion-like particle production for masses in the range 6-100 GeV. Cross sections above 2 to 70 nb are excluded at the 95% CL in that mass interval. Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) Canton of Bern, Switzerland Canton of Geneva, Switzerland Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic Czech Republic Government Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Netherlands Government Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion Colciencias National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland NCN, Poland National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology PROMETEO Programme Generalitat Valenciana, Spain Ministry of Energy & Natural Resources - Turkey CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions, European Union Russian Federation NRC KI, Russian Federation Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) GenT Programme Generalitat Valenciana, Spain Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan Japan Society for the Promotion of Science SRC, Sweden Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden Ministry of Science and Technology, China United States Department of Energy (DOE) Danish Natural Science Research Council Herakleitos programme - EU-ESF, Greece French National Research Agency (ANR) Slovenian Research Agency - Slovenia Aristeia programme - EU-ESF, Greece Goran Gustafssons Stiftelse, Sweden Greek Ministry of Development-GSRT La Caixa Banking Foundation, Spain National Science Foundation (NSF) Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Thales programme - EU-ESF, Greece German Research Foundation (DFG) Canada Foundation for Innovation European Research Council (ERC) UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Horizon 2020, European Union Australian Research Council Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Chinese Academy of Sciences Israel Science Foundation CRC, Canada IVADO, Canada Royal Society of London Benoziyo Center, Israel Compute Canada, Canada DST/NRF, South Africa ERDF, European Union Hong Kong SAR, China COST, European Union CEA-DRF/IRFU, France European Commission Greek NSRF, Greece Max Planck Society Spanish Government SERI, Switzerland Leverhulme Trust MNE/IFA, Romania SRNSFG, Georgia BSF-NSF, Israel CANARIE, Canada YerPhI, Armenia MSSR, Slovakia BMWFW, Austria CNRST, Morocco MIZS, Slovenia BCKDF, Canada DNRF, Denmark MESTD, Serbia SSTC, Belarus HGF, Germany RCN, Norway NRC, Canada ANID, Chile RGC, China ANPCyT CERN JINR

  • Open Access
    Hofmann, Herwig C. H.;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ADEMU (649396)

    In the context of the developing European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), questions of political and judicial means of control of the bodies central to shaping this policy are of great relevance. This paper looks at how responsibility towards political and judicial means of control can be ensured in reality and what the case law of the CJEU can teach about the accountability standards of a structurally independent executive body such as the ECB. In the inverse, it also looks at the more general lessons the CJEU’s Gauweiler case has for today’s understanding of the EMU as central part of EU public law. The ADEMU Working Paper Series is being supported by the European Commission Horizon 2020 European Union funding for Research & Innovation, grant agreement No 649396.

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