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  • Publication . Preprint . Research . Other literature type . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    LHCb collaboration; Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellán; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Aidala, C. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albicocco, P.; Albrecht, J.; +190 more
    Publisher: RWTH Aachen University
    Countries: Germany, France

    An angular analysis of $B^0\to J/\psi K^+\pi^-$ decays is performed, using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3~${\rm fb}^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb detector. The $m(K^+\pi^-)$ spectrum is divided into fine bins. In each $m(K^+\pi^-)$ bin, the hypothesis that the three-dimensional angular distribution can be described by structures induced only by $K^\ast$ resonances is examined, making minimal assumptions about the $K^+\pi^-$ system. The data reject the $K^\ast$-only hypothesis with a large significance, implying the observation of exotic contributions in a model-independent fashion. Inspection of the $m(J/\psi\pi^-)$ versus $m(K^+\pi^-)$ plane suggests structures near $m(J/\psi\pi^-)=4200$~MeV and 4600~MeV. Comment: All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at http://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2018-043.html

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Böhm, Michael J.; Gregory, Terry; Qendrai, Pamela; Siegel, Christian;
    Publisher: Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Country: Germany

    Like many other countries, Germany has experienced rapid population and workforce ageing, yet with substantial variation across regions. In this paper we first use this spatial variation between 1975 and 2014 to estimate quasi- causal supply effects of ageing on regional labour market outcomes, drawing on the identification strategy of Böhm and Siegel (2020). We find in our panel of German labour market regions that workforce mean age has considerable negative effects on the wage returns to age. We also obtain suggestive evidence that relative employment rates of older workers decline when mean age rises. A decomposition of the heterogeneous regional trends using our estimates shows that ageing of rural regions is mainly driven by supply (reflecting local population dynamics) whereas urban ageing is driven by demand (reflecting responses to economic conditions). We discuss the differential implications of these drivers for regional policy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Merino-Peña, Y.; Pittore, M.; Gomez- Zapata, J.;
    Publisher: GFZ Data Services
    Country: Germany

    The dataset contains a set of structural and non-structural attributes collected using the GFZ RRVS (Remote Rapid Visual Screening) methodology. It is composed by 604 randomly distributed buildings in the urban area of Valparaiso and Viña del Mar (Chile). The survey has been carried out between November and December 2018 using a Remote Rapid Visual Screening system developed by GFZ and employing omnidirectional images from Google StreetView (vintage: December 2018) and footprints from OpenStreetMap (OSM). The buildings were inspected by local structural engineers from the Chilean Research Centre for Integrated Disaster Risk Management (CIGIDEN) while collecting their attribute values in terms of the GEM v.2.0 taxonomy

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Other literature type . Research . Report . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ece Aşılar; Marko Dragicevic; A. Escalante Del Valle; Jochen Schieck; Daniel Spitzbart; Claudia-Elisabeth Wulz; E. A. De Wolf; H. Van Haevermaet; N. Van Remortel; Freya Blekman; +429 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Countries: Belgium, United States, United States, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Turkey, India, Spain, Italy ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440)

    A search for charged Higgs boson decaying to a charm and a bottom quark ( $ {\mathrm{H}}^{+}\to \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ ) is performed using 19.7 fb$^{−1}$ of pp collision data at $ \sqrt{s}=8 $ TeV. The production mechanism investigated in this search is $ \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}} $ pair production in which one top quark decays to a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark and the other decays to a charged lepton, a neutrino, and a bottom quark. Charged Higgs boson decays to $ \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ are searched for, resulting in a final state containing at least four jets, a charged lepton (muon or electron), and missing transverse momentum. A kinematic fit is performed to identify the pair of jets least likely to be the bottom quarks originating from direct top quark decays and the invariant mass of this pair is used as the final observable in the search. No evidence for the presence of a charged Higgs boson is observed and upper limits at 95% confidence level of 0.8–0.5% are set on the branching fraction ℬ(t → H$^{+}$b), assuming ℬ(H$^{+}$ → $ \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ ) = 1.0 and ℬ(t → H$^{+}$b) + ℬ(t → Wb) = 1.0, for the charged Higgs boson mass range 90–150 GeV. Journal of high energy physics 1811(11), 115 (2018). doi:10.1007/JHEP11(2018)115 Published by Springer Nature, Cham

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pyka, Andreas; Fagiolo, Giorgio;
    Country: Germany

    Modellers have had to wrestle with an unavoidable trade-off between the demand of a general theoretical approach and the descriptive accuracy required to model a particular phenomenon. A new class of simulation models has shown to be well adapted to this challenge, basically by shifting outwards this trade- off: So-called agent-based models (ABMs henceforth) are increasingly used for the modelling of socio-economic developments. Our paper deals with the new requirements for modelling entailed by the necessity to focus on qualitative developments, pattern formation, etc. which is generally highlighted within Neo-Schumpeterian Economics and the possibilities given by ABMs.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . Research . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arne Raasakka; Salla Ruskamo; Julia Kowal; Huijong Han; Anne Baumann; Matti Myllykoski; A. Fasano; Rocco Rossano; Paolo Riccio; Jochen Bürck; +3 more
    Publisher: Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    Countries: Switzerland, Norway, Finland, Germany, Germany, Switzerland

    Compact myelin forms the basis of nerve insulation essential for higher vertebrates. Dozens of myelin membrane bilayers undergo tight stacking, and in the peripheral nervous system, this is partially enabled by myelin protein zero (P0). Consisting of an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like extracellular domain, a single transmembrane helix, and a cytoplasmic extension (P0ct), P0 harbours an important task in ensuring the integrity of compact myelin in the extracellular compartment, referred to as the intraperiod line. Several disease mutations resulting in peripheral neuropathies have been identified for P0, reflecting its physiological importance, but the arrangement of P0 within the myelin ultrastructure remains obscure. We performed a biophysical characterization of recombinant P0ct. P0ct contributes to the binding affinity between apposed cytoplasmic myelin membrane leaflets, which not only results in changes of the bilayer properties, but also potentially involves the arrangement of the Ig-like domains in a manner that stabilizes the intraperiod line. Transmission electron cryomicroscopy of native full-length P0 showed that P0 stacks lipid membranes by forming antiparallel dimers between the extracellular Ig-like domains. The zipper-like arrangement of the P0 extracellular domains between two membranes explains the double structure of the myelin intraperiod line. Our results contribute to the understanding of PNS myelin, the role of P0 therein, and the underlying molecular foundation of compact myelin stability in health and disease. Scientific Reports, 9 ISSN:2045-2322

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    De Santis, Roberto A.; Zaghini, Andrea;
    Publisher: Frankfurt a. M.: European Central Bank (ECB)
    Country: Germany

    We assess the effect and the timing of the corporate arm of the ECB quantitative easing (CSPP) on corporate bond issuance. Because of several contemporaneous mea- sures, to isolate the programme effects we rely on one key eligibility feature: the euro denomination of newly issued bonds. We find that the significant increase in bonds issuance by eligible firms is due to the CSPP and that this effect took at least six months to unfold. This result holds even when comparing firms with similar ratings, thus providing evidence that unconventional monetary policy can foster a financing diversification regardless of firms' risk profile. We also highlight the impact of the programme on the real economic activity. The evidence suggests that while all firms increased investment in capital expenditures and intangible assets, the CSPP induced eligible firms to invest in marketable and equity securities, to repurchase their own stocks, to hold cash and to carry out short-term investment.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Research . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valerie Domcke; Marco Drewes; Marco Hufnagel; Michele Lucente;
    Countries: Switzerland, Germany
    Project: EC | NewAve (638528)

    We study the type-I seesaw model with three right-handed neutrinos and Majorana masses below the pion mass. In this mass range, the model parameter space is not only strongly constrained by the requirement to explain the light neutrino masses, but also by experimental searches and cosmological considerations. In the existing literature, three disjoint regions of potentially viable parameter space have been identified. In one of them, all heavy neutrinos decay shortly before big bang nucleosynthesis. In the other two regions, one of the heavy neutrinos either decays between BBN and the CMB decoupling or is quasi-stable. We show that previously unaccounted constraints from photodisintegration of nuclei practically rule out all relevant decays that happen between BBN and the CMB decoupling. Quite remarkably, if all heavy neutrinos decay before BBN, the baryon asymmetry of the universe can be quite generically explained by low-scale leptogenesis, i.e. without further tuning in addition to what is needed to avoid experimental and cosmological constraints. This motivates searches for heavy neutrinos in pion decay experiments. Journal of high energy physics 01(1), 200 (2021). doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2021)200 Published by SISSA, [Trieste]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;
    Publisher: GFZ Data Service
    Country: Germany

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guber, Raphael; Kocher, Martin G.; Winter, Joachim;
    Country: Germany

    Recent research in contract theory on the effects of behavioral biases implicitly assumes that they are stable, in the sense of not being affected by the contracts themselves. In this paper, we provide evidence that this is not necessarily the case. We show that in an insurance context, being insured against losses that may be incurred in a real-effort task changes subjects\' self-confidence. Our novel experimental design allows us to disentangle selection into insurance from the effects of being insured by randomly assigning coverage after subjects revealed whether they want to be insured or not. We find that uninsured subjects are underconfident while those that obtain insurance have well-calibrated beliefs. Our results suggest that there might be another mechanism through which insurance affects behavior than just moral hazard.

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