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  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Kozłowska; Beata Orlecka-Sikora; Łukasz Rudziński; Szymon Cielesta; Grzegorz Mutke;
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    A very unusual time-space distribution of seismicity accompanying coal exploitation has been observed in a Polish mine. The earthquakes did not follow the depth of mining but exhibited changing depths from far below to close to the mined seam. One of the deep events which occurred at close epicentral distance to the active mining front was ML3.7 event. This paper presents the study of possible coupling of natural, human-induced and coseismic stresses in a longwall coal mining environment. The full moment tensor solution showed that the strong earthquake occurred on an almost vertical plane consistent with approximate strike of local tectonic structure. The signal correlation analysis revealed some highly correlated pairs within both deep and shallow event groups. To evaluate inducing factor of ongoing and past exploitation, geomechanical modelling of its influence on strain and stress at the target depth has been performed. The results exhibited a changing vertical stress regime, which might have promoted failure on preexisting, almost vertical planes of weakness. The earthquakes' rate variation in time showed no increase in activity right after the occurrence of ML3.7 event. The P-S-wave spectra corner frequency ratio had an average of 1.0, suggesting slow rupture. However, the Coulomb stress change analysis showed that the magnitude of stress changes due to coseismic slip of ML3.7 event at the hypocentral depth is of the same order as the stress changes caused by mining. Thus, the distribution of seismicity at this level could have been driven by both exploitation and coseismic stresses. Moreover, the seismicity which occurred within first few weeks after ML3.7 event, followed positive stress changes. All the obtained results let us prove that the ML3.7 event was a tectonic earthquake triggered by ongoing exploitation and that the distribution of following seismicity was affected by coupled natural, exploitation-induced and coseismic stresses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Federico Di Traglia; Claudio De Luca; Mariarosaria Manzo; Teresa Nolesini; Nicola Casagli; Riccardo Lanari; Francesco Casu;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    Abstract We present a joint exploitation of space-borne and ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and Multi Temporal (MT) InSAR measurements for investigating the Stromboli volcano (Italy) deformation phenomena. In particular, we focus our analysis on three periods: a) the time interval following the 2014 flank eruption, b) the July–August 2019 eruption and c) the following post-eruptive phase. To do this, we take advantage from an unprecedented set of space-borne and ground-based SAR data collected from April 2015 up to November 2019 along two (one ascending and one descending) Sentinel-1 (S-1) tracks, as well as, in the same period, by two ground-based systems installed along the Sciara del Fuoco northern rim. Such data availability permitted us to first characterize the volcano long-term 3D deformation behavior of the pre-eruptive period (April 2015–June 2019), by jointly inverting the space-borne and ground-based InSAR measurements. Then, the GB-SAR measurements allowed us to investigate the sin-eruptive time span (3rd July 2019 – 30th August 2019) which revealed rapid deformation episodes (e.g. more than 30 mm/h just 2 min before the 3rd July 2019 explosion) associated with the eruptive activity, that cannot be detected with the weekly S-1 temporal sampling. Finally, the S-1 measurements permitted to better constrain the post 2019 eruption deformations (31st August 2019 – 5th November 2019), which are mainly located outside the GB-SAR sensed area. The presented results demonstrate the effectiveness of the joint exploitation of the InSAR measurements obtained through satellite and terrestrial SAR systems, highlighting their strong complementarity to map and interpret the deformation phenomena affecting volcanic areas.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Keith G. Jeffery; Anne Asserson; Nikos Houssos; Valérie Brasse; Brigitte Jörg;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway, Norway
    Project: EC | PAASAGE (317715), EC | ENGAGE (283700), EC | EPOS (262229), EC | PAASAGE (317715), EC | ENGAGE (283700), EC | EPOS (262229)

    OGD (Open Government Data) is provided from government departments for transparency and to stimulate a market in ICT services for industry and citizens. Research datasets from publicly funded research commonly are associated with the open scholarly publications movement. However, the former world commonly is derived from the latter with generalisation and summarisation. There is advantage in a user of OGD being able to ‘drill down’ to the underlying research datasets. OGD encourages cross-domain research because the summarized data from different domains is more easily relatable. Bridging across the two worlds requires rich metadata; CERIF (Common European research Information Format) has proved itself to be ideally suited to this requirement. Utilising the research datasets is data-intensive science, a component of e-Research. Data-intensive science also requires access to an e-infrastructure. Virtualisation of this e-infrastructure optimizes this. publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abraham B. Alemayehu; Laura J. McCormick; Kevin J. Gagnon; Sergey M. Borisov; Abhik Ghosh;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society
    Countries: United States, Norway
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229)

    With permission from Alemayehu, A.B., McCormick, L.J.M., Gagnon, K.J., Borisov, S.M. & Ghosh, A. (2018). Stable Platinum(IV) Corroles: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, and Room-Temperature Near-IR Phosphorescence. ACS Omega, 3(8), 9360-9368. Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society. Source at https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01149. A series of stable Pt(IV) corrole complexes with the general formula PtIV[TpXPC](m/p-C6H4CN)(py), where TpXPC3– is the trianion of a tris(p-X-phenyl)corrole and X = CF3, H, and CH3, has been synthesized, affording key physicochemical data on a rare and elusive class of metallocorroles. Single-crystal X-ray structures of two of the complexes revealed very short equatorial Pt–N distances of 1.94–1.97 Å, an axial Pt–C distance of ∼2.03 Å, and an axial Pt–N distance of ∼2.22 Å. The complexes exhibit Soret maxima at ∼430 nm, which are essentially independent of the meso-aryl para substituents, and strong Q bands with the most intense peak at 595–599 nm. The substituent-independent Soret maxima are consistent with an innocent PtIV–corrole3– description for the complexes. The low reduction potentials (−1.45 ± 0.08 V vs saturated calomel reference electrode) also support a highly stable Pt(IV) ground state as opposed to a noninnocent corrole•2– description. The reductions, however, are irreversible, which suggests that they involve concomitant cleavage of the Pt–aryl bond. Unlike Pt(IV) porphyrins, two of the complexes, PtIV[TpXPC](m-C6H4CN)(py) (X = CF3 and CH3), were found to exhibit room-temperature near-IR phosphorescence with emission maxima at 813 and 826 nm, respectively. The quantum yield of ∼0.3% is comparable to those observed for six-coordinate Ir(III) corroles.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Fernando Monterroso (1; 2); Manuela Bonano (2; 3); Claudio de Luca (2); De Novellis Vincenzo (2); Riccardo Lanari (2); Michelle Manunta (2); Mariarosaria Manzo (2); Giovanni Onorato (2); +3 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    During the last decades, the availability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite missions, such as the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ones operating at C-band who have worked since 1992 to 2011, as well as the X-band COSMOSkyMed and TerraSAR-X constellations, up to the brand new Sentinel-1 mission, have strongly contributed to SAR data diffusion and popularity in the generation of different studies at different scales and in different research fields. One of the most popular SAR technique is the one referred to as Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), which allows measuring with centimeter accuracy the Earth's surface deformation entity related to both natural and man-made hazards. Nowadays, with the increasing of SAR data availability provided by Sentinel-1 constellation of Copernicus European Program, which is composed by two twin satellites operating in C-band since 2014 and 2016, with a repeat pass of 6 days and with a global (i.e. worldwide) data acquisition policy, the SAR EO scenario is becoming more and more operational, thus mainly providing support for natural hazards monitoring. This allows, in theory, and disposing of sufficient computing power, the EO community to monitor, for instance, the deformation of every volcano or to obtain co-seismic displacement maps in a short time frame and anywhere in the world. Accordingly, in this work, we present a fully automatic and fast processing service for the generation of co-seismic displacement maps by using Sentinel-1 data. The implemented system is completely unsupervised and is triggered by the all significant (i.e. larger than a defined magnitude) seismic event registered by the online catalog as those provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology of Italy (INGV). The service has been specifically designed to operate for Civil Protection purposes. The generated DInSAR measurements are made available to the geoscience community through the EPOS Research Infrastructure and they will contribute to the creation of a global database of co-seismic displacement maps. Finally, it is worth noting that the developed system relies on widely common IT methods and protocols and is not specifically tied to a defined computing architecture, thus implying its portability, in view also of the European Commission Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) where satellite data (mainly Sentinel) and processing facilities are co-located to reduce the data transfer time during their processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paul Martin; Laurent Remy; Maria Theodoridou; Keith G. Jeffery; Zhiming Zhao;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | ENVRI-FAIR (824068), EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | VRE4EIC (676247), EC | ENVRI PLUS (654182), EC | ENVRI-FAIR (824068), EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | VRE4EIC (676247), EC | ENVRI PLUS (654182)

    Virtual Research Environments (VREs), also known as science gateways or virtual laboratories, assist researchers in data science by integrating tools for data discovery, data retrieval, workflow management and researcher collaboration, often coupled with a specific computing infrastructure. Recently, the push for better open data science has led to the creation of a variety of dedicated research infrastructures (RIs) that gather data and provide services to different research communities, all of which can be used independently of any specific VRE. There is therefore a need for generic VREs that can be coupled with the resources of many different RIs simultaneously, easily customised to the needs of specific communities. The resource metadata produced by these RIs rarely all adhere to any one standard or vocabulary however, making it difficult to search and discover resources independently of their providers without some translation into a common framework. Cross-RI search can be expedited by using mapping services that harvest RI-published metadata to build unified resource catalogues, but the development and operation of such services pose a number of challenges. In this paper, we discuss some of these challenges and look specifically at the VRE4EIC Metadata Portal, which uses X3ML mappings to build a single catalogue for describing data products and other resources provided by multiple RIs. The Metadata Portal was built in accordance to the e-VRE Reference Architecture, a microservice-based architecture for generic modular VREs, and uses the CERIF standard to structure its catalogued metadata. We consider the extent to which it addresses the challenges of cross-RI search, particularly in the environmental and earth science domain, and how it can be further augmented, for example to take advantage of linked vocabularies to provide more intelligent semantic search across multiple domains of discourse.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michèle Marti; Florian Haslinger; Peppoloni Silvia; Di Capua Giuseppe; Helen Glaves; Irina Dallo;
    Publisher: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
    Countries: Switzerland, United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121), EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    Novel measurement technologies, additional sensors and increasing data processing capacities offer new opportunities to answer some of the currently most pressing societal and environmental questions. They also contribute to the fact that the available data volume will continue to increase. At the same time, the requirements for those providing such data rise and the needs of users to access it. The EPOS Delivery Framework aims to support this endeavour in the solid Earth domain by providing access to data, products, and services supporting multidisciplinary analyses for a wide range of users. Based on this example, we look at the most pressing issues from when data, products, and services are made accessible, to access principles, ethical issues related to its collection and use as well as with respect to their promotion. Among many peculiarities, we shed light on a common component that affects all fields equally: change. Not only will the amount and type of data, products, and services change, but so will the societal expectations and providers capabilities. Annals of Geophysics, 65 (2) ISSN:1593-5213

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. Chouliaras; Nikolaos S. Melis; George Drakatos; Konstantinos Makropoulos;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229)

    International audience; The seismological network of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) has systematically improved the detection capabilities in the Southeastern Mediterranean, by the continuous expansion and upgrading of the seismic stations and improvements in the operating and reporting procedures. As aresult of these improvements, the number of detected events of smaller magnitudes has increased and today a homogeneous magnitude is determined and disseminated towards the scientific community.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Peter Evans; Angelo Strollo; Adam Clark; Tim Ahern; Robert Newman; John Clinton; Helle Pedersen; Catherine Pequegnat;
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    In a move to give credit where it's due, the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks will link digital object identifiers to data from seismic networks and project deployments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    von der Linden, Jens; Kimblin, Clare; McKenna, Ian; Bagley, Skyler; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Houim, Ryan; Kueny, Christopher S.; Kuhl, Allen; Grote, Dave; Converse, Mark; +4 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | VOLTAIC (705619), EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | VOLTAIC (705619), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    Background This data is camera images and nozzle pressure gauge voltage traces from rapid decompression shots at the LMU shock tube facility. This data is discussed in the "Materials and Methods" section of the paper "Standing Shock Prevents Propagation of Sparks in Supersonic Explosive Flows". Electric sparks and explosive flows have long been associated with each other. Flowing dust particles originate charge through contact and separate based on inertia, resulting in strong electric fields supporting sparks. These sparks can cause explosions in dusty environments, especially those rich in carbon, such as coal mines and grain elevators. Recent observations of explosive events in nature and decompression experiments indicate that supersonic flows of explosions may alter the electrical discharge process. Shocks may suppress parts of the hierarchy of the discharge phenomena, such as leaders. In our decompression experiments, a shock tube ejects a flow of gas and particles into an expansion chamber. We imaged an illuminated plume from the decompression of a mixture of argon and <100 mg of diamond particles and observe sparks occurring below the sharp boundary of a condensation cloud. We also performed hydrodynamics simulations of the decompression event that provide insight into the conditions supporting the observed behavior. Simulation results agree closely with the experimentally observed Mach disk shock shape and height. This represents direct evidence that the sparks are sculpted by the outflow. The spatial and temporal scale of the sparks transmit an impression of the shock tube flow, a connection that could enable novel instrumentation to diagnose currently inaccessible supersonic granular phenomena. Accessing Data The prefixes of the filenames correspond to the shot dates and times listed in table S1 of the paper. The "_camera.zip" files contains tiff images of the camera frames. The ".ixc" file in each zip lists camera settings in plain text. The ".dat" file contains the voltage measurement of the nozzle pressure gauge. Row 1 is the header, row 2 is the time in seconds, and row 3 is the voltage of the pressure gauge in Volts. The peak pressure in the header can be used to relate the voltage to pressure. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Mission Support and Test Services, LLC, under Contract No. DE-NA0003624 with support from the Site-Directed Research and Development program, DOE/NV/03624--0956, and in part by the European Plate Observing Systems Transnational Access program of the European Community HORIZON 2020 research and innovation program under grant N 676564. CC acknowledges the support from the DFG grant CI 25/2-1 and from the European Community HORIZON 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska Curie grant nr. 705619. LLNL-MI-817289. This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, complete- ness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific com- mercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. {"references": ["C. Cimarelli, M. Alatorre-Ibargengoitia, U. Kueppers, B. Scheu, D. Dingwell, Experimen- tal generation of volcanic lightning. Geology 42, 79\u201382 (2014)"]}

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