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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Federico Di Traglia; Claudio De Luca; Mariarosaria Manzo; Teresa Nolesini; Nicola Casagli; Riccardo Lanari; Francesco Casu;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    Abstract We present a joint exploitation of space-borne and ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and Multi Temporal (MT) InSAR measurements for investigating the Stromboli volcano (Italy) deformation phenomena. In particular, we focus our analysis on three periods: a) the time interval following the 2014 flank eruption, b) the July–August 2019 eruption and c) the following post-eruptive phase. To do this, we take advantage from an unprecedented set of space-borne and ground-based SAR data collected from April 2015 up to November 2019 along two (one ascending and one descending) Sentinel-1 (S-1) tracks, as well as, in the same period, by two ground-based systems installed along the Sciara del Fuoco northern rim. Such data availability permitted us to first characterize the volcano long-term 3D deformation behavior of the pre-eruptive period (April 2015–June 2019), by jointly inverting the space-borne and ground-based InSAR measurements. Then, the GB-SAR measurements allowed us to investigate the sin-eruptive time span (3rd July 2019 – 30th August 2019) which revealed rapid deformation episodes (e.g. more than 30 mm/h just 2 min before the 3rd July 2019 explosion) associated with the eruptive activity, that cannot be detected with the weekly S-1 temporal sampling. Finally, the S-1 measurements permitted to better constrain the post 2019 eruption deformations (31st August 2019 – 5th November 2019), which are mainly located outside the GB-SAR sensed area. The presented results demonstrate the effectiveness of the joint exploitation of the InSAR measurements obtained through satellite and terrestrial SAR systems, highlighting their strong complementarity to map and interpret the deformation phenomena affecting volcanic areas.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abraham B. Alemayehu; Laura J. McCormick; Kevin J. Gagnon; Sergey M. Borisov; Abhik Ghosh;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society
    Countries: United States, Norway
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229)

    With permission from Alemayehu, A.B., McCormick, L.J.M., Gagnon, K.J., Borisov, S.M. & Ghosh, A. (2018). Stable Platinum(IV) Corroles: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, and Room-Temperature Near-IR Phosphorescence. ACS Omega, 3(8), 9360-9368. Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society. Source at https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01149. A series of stable Pt(IV) corrole complexes with the general formula PtIV[TpXPC](m/p-C6H4CN)(py), where TpXPC3– is the trianion of a tris(p-X-phenyl)corrole and X = CF3, H, and CH3, has been synthesized, affording key physicochemical data on a rare and elusive class of metallocorroles. Single-crystal X-ray structures of two of the complexes revealed very short equatorial Pt–N distances of 1.94–1.97 Å, an axial Pt–C distance of ∼2.03 Å, and an axial Pt–N distance of ∼2.22 Å. The complexes exhibit Soret maxima at ∼430 nm, which are essentially independent of the meso-aryl para substituents, and strong Q bands with the most intense peak at 595–599 nm. The substituent-independent Soret maxima are consistent with an innocent PtIV–corrole3– description for the complexes. The low reduction potentials (−1.45 ± 0.08 V vs saturated calomel reference electrode) also support a highly stable Pt(IV) ground state as opposed to a noninnocent corrole•2– description. The reductions, however, are irreversible, which suggests that they involve concomitant cleavage of the Pt–aryl bond. Unlike Pt(IV) porphyrins, two of the complexes, PtIV[TpXPC](m-C6H4CN)(py) (X = CF3 and CH3), were found to exhibit room-temperature near-IR phosphorescence with emission maxima at 813 and 826 nm, respectively. The quantum yield of ∼0.3% is comparable to those observed for six-coordinate Ir(III) corroles.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Fernando Monterroso (1; 2); Manuela Bonano (2; 3); Claudio de Luca (2); De Novellis Vincenzo (2); Riccardo Lanari (2); Michelle Manunta (2); Mariarosaria Manzo (2); Giovanni Onorato (2); +3 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    During the last decades, the availability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite missions, such as the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ones operating at C-band who have worked since 1992 to 2011, as well as the X-band COSMOSkyMed and TerraSAR-X constellations, up to the brand new Sentinel-1 mission, have strongly contributed to SAR data diffusion and popularity in the generation of different studies at different scales and in different research fields. One of the most popular SAR technique is the one referred to as Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), which allows measuring with centimeter accuracy the Earth's surface deformation entity related to both natural and man-made hazards. Nowadays, with the increasing of SAR data availability provided by Sentinel-1 constellation of Copernicus European Program, which is composed by two twin satellites operating in C-band since 2014 and 2016, with a repeat pass of 6 days and with a global (i.e. worldwide) data acquisition policy, the SAR EO scenario is becoming more and more operational, thus mainly providing support for natural hazards monitoring. This allows, in theory, and disposing of sufficient computing power, the EO community to monitor, for instance, the deformation of every volcano or to obtain co-seismic displacement maps in a short time frame and anywhere in the world. Accordingly, in this work, we present a fully automatic and fast processing service for the generation of co-seismic displacement maps by using Sentinel-1 data. The implemented system is completely unsupervised and is triggered by the all significant (i.e. larger than a defined magnitude) seismic event registered by the online catalog as those provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology of Italy (INGV). The service has been specifically designed to operate for Civil Protection purposes. The generated DInSAR measurements are made available to the geoscience community through the EPOS Research Infrastructure and they will contribute to the creation of a global database of co-seismic displacement maps. Finally, it is worth noting that the developed system relies on widely common IT methods and protocols and is not specifically tied to a defined computing architecture, thus implying its portability, in view also of the European Commission Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) where satellite data (mainly Sentinel) and processing facilities are co-located to reduce the data transfer time during their processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paul Martin; Laurent Remy; Maria Theodoridou; Keith G. Jeffery; Zhiming Zhao;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | ENVRI-FAIR (824068), EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | VRE4EIC (676247), EC | ENVRI PLUS (654182), EC | ENVRI-FAIR (824068), EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | VRE4EIC (676247), EC | ENVRI PLUS (654182)

    Virtual Research Environments (VREs), also known as science gateways or virtual laboratories, assist researchers in data science by integrating tools for data discovery, data retrieval, workflow management and researcher collaboration, often coupled with a specific computing infrastructure. Recently, the push for better open data science has led to the creation of a variety of dedicated research infrastructures (RIs) that gather data and provide services to different research communities, all of which can be used independently of any specific VRE. There is therefore a need for generic VREs that can be coupled with the resources of many different RIs simultaneously, easily customised to the needs of specific communities. The resource metadata produced by these RIs rarely all adhere to any one standard or vocabulary however, making it difficult to search and discover resources independently of their providers without some translation into a common framework. Cross-RI search can be expedited by using mapping services that harvest RI-published metadata to build unified resource catalogues, but the development and operation of such services pose a number of challenges. In this paper, we discuss some of these challenges and look specifically at the VRE4EIC Metadata Portal, which uses X3ML mappings to build a single catalogue for describing data products and other resources provided by multiple RIs. The Metadata Portal was built in accordance to the e-VRE Reference Architecture, a microservice-based architecture for generic modular VREs, and uses the CERIF standard to structure its catalogued metadata. We consider the extent to which it addresses the challenges of cross-RI search, particularly in the environmental and earth science domain, and how it can be further augmented, for example to take advantage of linked vocabularies to provide more intelligent semantic search across multiple domains of discourse.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michèle Marti; Florian Haslinger; Peppoloni Silvia; Di Capua Giuseppe; Helen Glaves; Irina Dallo;
    Publisher: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
    Countries: Switzerland, United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121), EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    Novel measurement technologies, additional sensors and increasing data processing capacities offer new opportunities to answer some of the currently most pressing societal and environmental questions. They also contribute to the fact that the available data volume will continue to increase. At the same time, the requirements for those providing such data rise and the needs of users to access it. The EPOS Delivery Framework aims to support this endeavour in the solid Earth domain by providing access to data, products, and services supporting multidisciplinary analyses for a wide range of users. Based on this example, we look at the most pressing issues from when data, products, and services are made accessible, to access principles, ethical issues related to its collection and use as well as with respect to their promotion. Among many peculiarities, we shed light on a common component that affects all fields equally: change. Not only will the amount and type of data, products, and services change, but so will the societal expectations and providers capabilities. Annals of Geophysics, 65 (2) ISSN:1593-5213

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. Chouliaras; Nikolaos S. Melis; George Drakatos; Konstantinos Makropoulos;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229)

    International audience; The seismological network of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) has systematically improved the detection capabilities in the Southeastern Mediterranean, by the continuous expansion and upgrading of the seismic stations and improvements in the operating and reporting procedures. As aresult of these improvements, the number of detected events of smaller magnitudes has increased and today a homogeneous magnitude is determined and disseminated towards the scientific community.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    von der Linden, Jens; Kimblin, Clare; McKenna, Ian; Bagley, Skyler; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Houim, Ryan; Kueny, Christopher S.; Kuhl, Allen; Grote, Dave; Converse, Mark; +4 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | VOLTAIC (705619), EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | VOLTAIC (705619), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    Background This data is camera images and nozzle pressure gauge voltage traces from rapid decompression shots at the LMU shock tube facility. This data is discussed in the "Materials and Methods" section of the paper "Standing Shock Prevents Propagation of Sparks in Supersonic Explosive Flows". Electric sparks and explosive flows have long been associated with each other. Flowing dust particles originate charge through contact and separate based on inertia, resulting in strong electric fields supporting sparks. These sparks can cause explosions in dusty environments, especially those rich in carbon, such as coal mines and grain elevators. Recent observations of explosive events in nature and decompression experiments indicate that supersonic flows of explosions may alter the electrical discharge process. Shocks may suppress parts of the hierarchy of the discharge phenomena, such as leaders. In our decompression experiments, a shock tube ejects a flow of gas and particles into an expansion chamber. We imaged an illuminated plume from the decompression of a mixture of argon and <100 mg of diamond particles and observe sparks occurring below the sharp boundary of a condensation cloud. We also performed hydrodynamics simulations of the decompression event that provide insight into the conditions supporting the observed behavior. Simulation results agree closely with the experimentally observed Mach disk shock shape and height. This represents direct evidence that the sparks are sculpted by the outflow. The spatial and temporal scale of the sparks transmit an impression of the shock tube flow, a connection that could enable novel instrumentation to diagnose currently inaccessible supersonic granular phenomena. Accessing Data The prefixes of the filenames correspond to the shot dates and times listed in table S1 of the paper. The "_camera.zip" files contains tiff images of the camera frames. The ".ixc" file in each zip lists camera settings in plain text. The ".dat" file contains the voltage measurement of the nozzle pressure gauge. Row 1 is the header, row 2 is the time in seconds, and row 3 is the voltage of the pressure gauge in Volts. The peak pressure in the header can be used to relate the voltage to pressure. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Mission Support and Test Services, LLC, under Contract No. DE-NA0003624 with support from the Site-Directed Research and Development program, DOE/NV/03624--0956, and in part by the European Plate Observing Systems Transnational Access program of the European Community HORIZON 2020 research and innovation program under grant N 676564. CC acknowledges the support from the DFG grant CI 25/2-1 and from the European Community HORIZON 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska Curie grant nr. 705619. LLNL-MI-817289. This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, complete- ness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific com- mercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. {"references": ["C. Cimarelli, M. Alatorre-Ibargengoitia, U. Kueppers, B. Scheu, D. Dingwell, Experimen- tal generation of volcanic lightning. Geology 42, 79\u201382 (2014)"]}

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Carracedo, J. C.; Rejas, M.; Lobo Aleu, Agustín; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J. I.; Esteban, G.; +2 more
    Publisher: DIGITAL.CSIC
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    This dataset compiles SEM images, modelled isopach map and topographic profiles, and data of radiocarbon ages, parameters of Tephra2 and AshCalc codes of Holocene volcanic ashes of of Southern Puna and neighbouring areas (NW Argentina). SEM images detail differences among the Bolsón de Fiambalá, Cerro Blanco and Cueros de Purulla fallout ash deposits. Tephra2 code was used to simulate the ash fallout, and the AshCalc code to compare different methods for ash volume estimates associated with the 4.2 ka cal BP eruption of the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex. Topographic profiles are used to explain the secondary thickening of fallout ash deposits. Material suplementario (Figuras S1-S4 y Tablas S1-S4 del artículo Fernandez-Turiel, J.-L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Carracedo, J. C., Rejas, M.; Lobo, A.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J. I.; Esteban, G.; Gallardo, J.; Ratto, N. (2019). The large eruption 4.2 ka cal BP in Cerro Blanco, Central Volcanic Zone, Andes: Insights to the Holocene eruptive deposits in the southern Puna and adjacent regions. Estudios Geológicos 75(1): e088. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.43438.515 MINECO, CGL2011-23307, Proyecto QUECA Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Louis De Barros; Frédéric Cappa; Yves Guglielmi; Laure Duboeuf; Jean-Robert Grasso;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United States, France
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564), ANR | HYDROSEIS (ANR-13-JS06-0004), EC | SERA (730900)

    International audience; The ability to predict the magnitude of an earthquake caused by deep fluid injections is an important factor for assessing the safety of the reservoir storage and the seismic hazard. Here, we propose a new approach to evaluate the seismic energy released during fluid injection by integrating injection parameters, induced aseismic deformation, and the distance of earthquake sources from injection. We use data from ten injection experiments performed at a decameter scale into fault zones in limestone and shale formations. We observe that the seismic energy and the hydraulic energy similarly depend on the injected fluid volume (V), as they both scale as V3/2. They show, however, a large discrepancy, partly related to a large aseismic deformation. Therefore, to accurately predict the released seismic energy, aseismic deformation should be considered in the budget through the residual deformation measured at the injection. Alternatively, the minimal hypocentral distance from injection points and the critical fluid pressure for fault reactivation can be used for a better prediction of the seismic moment in the total compilation of earthquakes observed during these experiments. Complementary to the prediction based only on the injected fluid volume, our approach opens the possibility of using alternative monitoring parameters to improve traffic-light protocols for induced earthquakes and the regulation of operational injection activities.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Florian Haslinger; Roberto Basili; Rémy Bossu; Carlo Cauzzi; Fabrice Cotton; Helen Crowley; Susana Custodio; Laurentiu Danciu; Mario Locati; Alberto Michelini; +3 more
    Publisher: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
    Countries: Portugal, Portugal, Switzerland, Switzerland, Germany
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121), EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    In this article we describe EPOS Seismology, the Thematic Core Service consortium for the seismology domain within the European Plate Observing System infrastructure. EPOS Seismology was developed alongside the build-up of EPOS during the last decade, in close collaboration between the existing pan-European seismological initiatives ORFEUS (Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology), EMSC (Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Center) and EFEHR (European Facilities for Earthquake Hazard and Risk) and their respective communities. It provides on one hand a governance framework that allows a well-coordinated interaction of the seismological community services with EPOS and its bodies, and on the other hand it strengthens the coordination among the already existing seismological initiatives with regard to data, products and service provisioning and further development. Within the EPOS Delivery Framework, ORFEUS, EMSC and EFEHR provide a wide range of services that allow open access to a vast amount of seismological data and products, following and implementing the FAIR principles and supporting open science. Services include access to raw seismic waveforms of thousands of stations together with relevant station and data quality information, parametric earthquake information of recent and historical earthquakes together with advanced event-specific products like moment tensors or source models and further ancillary services, and comprehensive seismic hazard and risk information, covering latest European scale models and their underlying data. The services continue to be available on the well-established domain-specific platforms and websites, and are also consecutively integrated with the interoperable central EPOS data infrastructure. EPOS Seismology and its participating organizations provide a consistent framework for the future development of these services and their operation as EPOS services, closely coordinated also with other international seismological initiatives, and is well set to represent the European seismological research infrastructures and their stakeholders within EPOS. Annals of Geophysics, 65 (2) ISSN:1593-5213

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