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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rosenlew, Matilda; Ljungdahl, Timas;

    Neural networks are regarded as state of the art within many areas of machine learning, however due to their growing complexity and size, a question regarding their trustability and understandability has been raised. Thus, neural networks are often being considered a "black-box". This has lead to the emersion of evaluation methods trying to decipher these complex networks. Two of these methods, layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) and sensitivity analysis (SA), are used to generate heatmaps, which presents pixels in the input image that have an impact on the classification. In this report, the aim is to do a usability-analysis by evaluating and comparing these methods to see how they can be used in order to understand a particular classification. The method used in this report is to iteratively distort image regions that were highlighted as important by the two heatmapping-methods. This lead to the findings that distorting essential features of an image according to the LRP heatmaps lead to a decrease in classification score, while distorting inessential features of an image according to the combination of SA and LRP heatmaps lead to an increase in classification score. The results corresponded well with the theory of the heatmapping-methods and lead to the conclusion that a combination of the two evaluation methods is advocated for, to fully understand a particular classification. Neurala nätverk betraktas som den senaste tekniken i många områden inom maskininlärning, dock har deras pålitlighet och förståelse ifrågasatts på grund av deras växande komplexitet och storlek. Således, blir neurala nätverk ofta sedda som en "svart låda". Detta har lett till utvecklingen av evalueringsmetoder som ämnar att tolka dessa komplexa nätverk. Två av dessa metoder, layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) och sensitivity analysis (SA), används för att generera färgdiagram som visar pixlar i indata-bilden som har en påverkan på klassificeringen. I den här rapporten, är målet att göra en användarbarhets-analys genom att utvärdera och jämföra dessa metoder för att se hur de kan användas för att förstå en specifik klassificering. Metoden som används i denna rapport är att iterativt förvränga bilder genom att följa de två färgdiagrams-metoderna. Detta ledde till insikterna att förvrängning av väsentliga delar av bilden, vilket framgick ur LRP färgdiagrammen, tydligt minskade sannolikheten för klassen. Det framkom även att förvrängning av oväsentliga delar, som framgick genom att kombinera SA och LRP färgdiagrammen, ökade sannolikheten för klassen. Resultaten stämde väl överens med teorin och detta ledde till slutsatsen att en kombination av metoderna rekommenderas för att förstå en specifik klassificering. 

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Augier, Pierre; Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu; Bonamy, Cyrille;

    FluidDyn is a project to foster open-science and open-source in the fluid dynamics community. It is thought of as a research project to channel open-source dynamics, methods and tools to do science. We propose a set of Python packages forming a framework to study fluid dynamics with different methods, in particular laboratory experiments (package fluidlab), simulations (packages fluidfft, fluidsim and fluidfoam) and data processing (package fluidimage). In the present article, we give an overview of the specialized packages of the project and then focus on the base package called fluiddyn, which contains common code used in the specialized packages. Packages fluidfft and fluidsim are described with greater detail in two companion papers [4, 5]. With the project FluidDyn, we demonstrate that specialized scientific code can be written with methods and good practices of the open-source community. The Mercurial repositories are available in Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/fluiddyn/). All codes are documented using Sphinx and Read the Docs, and tested with continuous integration run on Bitbucket Pipelines and Travis. To improve the reuse potential, the codes are as modular as possible, leveraging the simple object-oriented programming model of Python. All codes are also written to be highly efficient, using C++, Cython and Pythran to speedup the performance of critical functions. Funding statement: This project has indirectly benefited from funding from the foundation Simone et Cino Del Duca de l’Institut de France, the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No 647018-WATU and Euhit consortium) and the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet): 2013-5191. We have also been able to use supercomputers of CIMENT/GRICAD, CINES/GENCI (grant 2018-A0040107567) and the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Open Rese...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Open Research Software
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Open Research Software
    Article
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Open Rese...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Open Research Software
      Other literature type . Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Open Research Software
      Article
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake&rsquo s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Fluidsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Fluids
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Fluids
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Fluids
    Article
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Fluidsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Fluids
      Other literature type . Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Fluids
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Fluids
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hay Werner, Tony;

    Syftet med denna studie är att utforska nyckelintressenters uppfattningar om potentialer och hinder med utökad verklighet (XR) i gymnasieundervisning, speciellt inom matematik- och fysikämnena där det finns flertalet abstrakta moment som elever har svårt för. Ett vidare syfte är att med stöd i studiens resultat utforma riktlinjer som förslag på hur XR kan användas och inte användas i skolan. Denna kvalitativa studie tar sin grund från semistrukturerade intervjuer med nyckelintressenter inom tre olika områden: programmerare med fokus på utveckling av XR, utvecklare av undervisningsmaterial och lärare inom naturvetenskapliga ämnen. Dessa tre grupper av nyckelintressenter har tillsammans en helhetsbild över just det som denna studie ämnar undersöka. Utifrån en kvalitativ ansats utförs en tematisk analys av transkriberade data. Den tematiska analysen har identifierat sju huvudteman från det insamlade materialet. Studiens pedagogiska utgångspunkt är tagen från Dewey (2004) och Lave & Wegner (1991). Dewey menar att praktiskt arbete så som laborationer är essentiellt för barns inlärning. Piaget (2008) menar att när ett barn nekas möjligheten att upptäcka på egen hand har läraren gjort barnet en björntjänst och minskat barnets möjlighet till inlärning. Lave & Wegner (1991) påstår att lärande är situerade, att elever lär sig bättre om de får utföra aktiviteter där kunskapen ska användas i verkligheten. Exempelvis om elever ska lära sig om vattenkraftverk kan det vara lönsamt att besöka ett vattenkraftverk och uppleva det i verkligheten. Resultatet från denna studie visar att XR har stor potential som digitalt hjälpmedel inom skolan. Upplevelsebaserad undervisning är en stor styrka hos XR och detta tillsammans med laborativ verksamhet har stort stöd i tidigare pedagogisk forskning som en bra undervisningsmetod. Dessutom har XR möjlighet att göra abstrakta skolmoment som luftmotstånd eller koordinatsystem mer konkreta, vilket är något som gynnar många elever. Det framkommer dock i studiens resultat att nyckelintressenterna finner en stor begränsning av appar eller program och en för stor prislapp på XR utrustning. Detta har skapat ett moment 22 för införande av XR i skolundervisningen enligt nyckelintressenterna. Enligt nyckelintressenterna kommer inte skolor köpa XR headsets när det inte finns något innehåll. Samtidigt, enligt studiens resultat kommer ingen att skapa något innehåll om det inte finns några användare som vill betala för det. Resultaten visar även att lärare är intresserade av att använda XR i skolan idag men de saknar kunskaper om det. The purpose of this study is to explore key stakeholders' perceptions of potentials and limitations with XR in high school teaching, especially in math and physics subjects where there are several abstract elements that students have a hard time with. A further purpose is to, with support in the results of the study, formulate guidelines as suggestions on how XR can be used and not used in school This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in three different areas: programmers with a focus on the development of augmented reality, teaching material developers and teachers in science subjects. Together, these three groups of key stakeholders have an overall picture of what this study intends to examine. Based on a qualitative approach, a thematic analysis of transcribed data is performed. The thematic analysis identified seven main themes from the collected material. The pedagogical starting point of this study is taken from Dewey (2004) and Lave & Wegner (1991). Dewey claims that practical work such as laboratory work is essential for children's learning. Piaget (2008) believes that when a child is denied the opportunity to discover on his own, the teacher has done the child a disservice and reduced the child's opportunity for learning. Lave & Wegner (1991) claim that learning is situated, student learn better if they are to do activities where the knowledge is to be used in real life. For example, if students are going to learn about hydropower plants, it can be beneficial to visit a hydropower plant and experience it in real life. The results from this study show that augmented reality has great potential as a digital aid in schools. Experience-based teaching is a great strength of augmented reality and this together with laboratory activities have great support in previous pedagogical research as a good teaching method. Furthermore, augmented reality can make abstract school elements such as air resistance or coordinate systems more concrete, which is something that benefits many students. It also appears in the results of the study that the key stakeholders find a large limitation of content and an excessive price tag on XR equipment. this has created a catch 22 for the introduction of augmented reality in school education according to the key stakeholders. According to key stakeholders, schools will not buy XR headsets when there is no content. At the same time, according to the results of the study, no one will create any content if there are no users who want to pay for it. The results also show that teachers are interested in using XR in school today, but they lack knowledge about it.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2022
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2022
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    Authors: Allen, Oden; Skog, Erik;

    Finding strategies for games have been of interest tohumans throughout history. With the advancement of technologyand the way the financial market is compounded, enormous timeand resources are spent on modelling real world problems asgames and searching for strategies modelled to enhance produc-tivity and rule out inefficiencies. This thesis aims to investigate the existence of strategies that would allow players (agents)to complete common objectives when one category of agentsalready have a given strategy. This is done through studyingan example and investigating the application and implicationof the introduction of an abstraction function. The performedstudy concluded that if such a function could be more rigorouslymathematically formulated, it could increase the effectiveness ofstrategy searches and synthesis in the field. Människor har alltid varit intresserade avatt hitta strategier för spel. I och med teknikens utveckling ochfinansmarknadens uppbyggnad läggs enorm tid och resurser påatt modellera verkliga problem som spel och söka efter strategierför att öka produktiviteten och minska ineffektivitet. Syftet medrapporten är att undersöka om det finns strategier som gör detmöjligt för spelarna (agenterna) att uppnå gemensamma mål nären kategori av agenter redan har en given strategi. Detta görsgenom att studera ett exempel och undersöka tillämpningar ochkonsekvenserna av att införa en abstraktionsfunktion. I studiendrogs slutsatsen att om en sådan funktion kunde formulerasstrikt matematiskt skulle den kunna öka effektiviteten i strate-gisökningar inom området. Kandidatexjobb i elektroteknik 2022, KTH, Stockholm

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    Authors: Ait Lahmouch, Nadir;

    Uppgifter för behandling av naturliga språk (NLP) har under de senaste åren visat sig vara särskilt effektiva när man använder förtränade språkmodeller som BERT. Det enorma kravet på datorresurser som krävs för att träna sådana modeller gör det dock svårt att använda dem i verkligheten. För att lösa detta problem har komprimeringsmetoder utvecklats. I det här projektet studeras, genomförs och testas några av dessa metoder för komprimering av neurala nätverk för textbearbetning. I vårt fall var den mest effektiva metoden Knowledge Distillation, som består i att överföra kunskap från ett stort neuralt nätverk, som kallas läraren, till ett litet neuralt nätverk, som kallas eleven. Det finns flera varianter av detta tillvägagångssätt, som skiljer sig åt i komplexitet. Vi kommer att titta på två av dem i det här projektet. Den första gör det möjligt att överföra kunskap mellan ett neuralt nätverk och en mindre dubbelriktad LSTM, genom att endast använda resultatet från den större modellen. Och en andra, mer komplex metod som uppmuntrar elevmodellen att också lära sig av lärarmodellens mellanliggande lager för att utvinna kunskap. Det slutliga målet med detta projekt är att ge företagets datavetare färdiga komprimeringsmetoder för framtida projekt som kräver användning av djupa neurala nätverk för NLP. Natural language processing (NLP) tasks have proven to be particularly effective when using pre-trained language models such as BERT. However, the enormous demand on computational resources required to train such models makes their use in the real world difficult. To overcome this problem, compression methods have emerged in recent years. In this project, some of these neural network compression approaches for text processing are studied, implemented and tested. In our case, the most efficient method was Knowledge Distillation, which consists in transmitting knowledge from a large neural network, called teacher, to a small neural network, called student. There are several variants of this approach, which differ in their complexity. We will see two of them in this project, the first one which allows a knowledge transfer between any neural network and another smaller bidirectional LSTM, using only the output of the larger model. And a second, more complex approach that encourages the student model to also learn from the intermediate layers of the teacher model for incremental knowledge extraction. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide the company’s data scientists with ready-to-use compression methods for their future projects requiring the use of deep neural networks for NLP. 

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    Authors: Fryklund, Fredrik;

    Today many phenomena from science and engineering can be simulated accurately thanks to computational methods. Still, many challenges remain, one of them being close interface interactions when simulating e.g. the dynamics of a substance concentration in multiphase flows at the micro level. The challenge is to maintain high accuracy and efficiency as drops, vesicles, etc. are very close to each other, which many numerical methods struggle with. Also, the drops' geometries undergo changes over time. Thus far there is no standardized method for solving the equation modeling a concentration on time-dependent geometries efficiently and accurately. Boundary integral methods are powerful in handling moving and complex geometries, and maintaining high accuracy throughout the domain, even for close interactions. However, they are only efficient for a limited class of problems, and thus do not apply to our problem at hand. The focus of this dissertation is to expand the class of problems boundary integral methods are applicable to, without sacrificing their most attractive properties, plus presenting how the resulting equations time-dependent geometries can be solved on time-dependent geometries. This is achieved by the development of the algorithm partition of unity extension (PUX). It smoothly extends data from its domain of definition, with compact support, which allows for application of established fast methods. With our PUX method and state-of-the-art computational algorithms new problems could be studied, and to new levels of accuracy. In the process new underlying dynamics that were previously obscured by large errors appeared. These findings spurred a new set of questions, leading to the design of accurate algorithms for a class of problems that appear when applying boundary integral methods in conjunction with discretizing the governing equations first in time. In sum, we are now closer to a complete solver for the evolution of the substance concentration on time-dependent geometries. In this endeavor, methods have been development and studied that have applications outside our scope, and have already been applied successfully in other researchers' work. The work with PUX has thus been fruitful and will be developed and investigated further in the future, with adaptivity as the goal. dag kan många fenomen från forskning och ingenjörskonst simuleras noggrant tack vare beräkningsmetoder. Dock kvarstår flera utmaningar. En av dem är att simulera interaktioner vid närkontakt mellangränssnitt, detta i simulering av dynamiken av en substanskoncentration i ett flerfasflöde på mikronivå. Utmaningen är att upprätthålla högnoggrannhet och effektivitet medan droppar, vesiklar osv. är mycketnära varandra, vilket är en svårighet för många numeriska metoder.Vidare, dropparnas geometri genomgår förändringar över tid. Hittillsfinns det ingen standardiserad metod för att effektivt och noggrantlösa ekvationen som modellerar en koncentration i en tidsberoendegeometri. Randintegralmetoder är kraftfulla i att hantera rörliga ochkomplexa geometrier, och kan upprätthålla hög noggrannhet i hela domänen, även för närkontaktsinteraktioner. Dock är de bara effektiva fören begränsad klass av problem, och applicerar inte på vårt problem.Fokuset för den här avhandlingen är att utöka klassen av problemrandintegralsmetoder kan appliceras på, utan att göra avkall på deras mest attraktiva egenskaper, samt presentera hur de resulterandeekvationerna kan lösas på tidsberoende geometri. Detta har uppnåttsgenom utvecklingen av algoritmen partition of unity extension (PUX).Den utvidgar en funktion slätt från domänen där den är definierad,med kompakt stöd, vilket tillåter appliceringen av etablerade snabbametoder.Med PUX och några av de bästa tillgängliga algoritmerna han nyaproblem kunnat studeras, och till nya nivåer av noggrannhet. I processen framträdde ny underliggande dynamik som tidigare varit skymdav stora fel. Upptäckten väckte ett antal nya frågor, vilket ledde tillutvecklingen av nya noggranna algoritmer. De appliceras när de givnaekvationerna diskretiseras först i tiden, och sedan löses med randintegralmetoder.Sammanfattningsvis, vi är nu närmare en fullständig lösare av utvecklingen av en substanskoncentration på tidsberoende geometri. Idenna strävan har metoder utvecklats och studerats som har användningsområden utanför vårt, och har redan använts framgångsrikt äveni andra forskares arbeten. Arbetet med PUX har alltså varit givande,och kommer att utvecklas och undersökas i framtiden, med adaptivitetsom mål.

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    Authors: Hout, Lay;

    Infrastructure investment and management often incur high capital cost that dictates the decision making during the planning phase. Future operation and maintenance costs have been considered but in different methods. With the pressure of existing aging infrastructure, the need to cut down maintenance cost has been highlighted. Currently, there is a lack of a standardized framework for decision making. Delay in decision making will lead to construction delay and increase in construction cost. This MSc thesis discusses the various frameworks available and proposes the optimal framework. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) provides a methodology to evaluate an object, e.g. a road, through including investment, operation, maintenance, dismantling and landfill or recycling. Higher cost saving will be possible to achieve if LCCA can be applied during the planning phase of the construction. Thus, LCCA is studied and applied on a case study of a section along a 9- km road in south of Sweden. By considering the specific site conditions such as soil profile and road alignment, this thesis evaluates its effect on LCCA. Sensitivity analysis is carried out on the cost output due to uncertainty variable input of the data. The aim of this thesis is to formulate a generic model/tool for decision making based on LCCA methodology on the project level. The rules and regulations provided by Trafikverket (Swedish Transport Administration) and ISO standard for life cycle costing are used as parameters during the analysis. The model described above can be used in different countries if these parameters are redefined by adapting local standards and conditions. This thesis demonstrates the application of the model with a case study to discuss the difference between two different alternatives. The case study compares two alternatives for the same stretch of the road. The first alternative proposes a longer bridge while the second alternative provides a shorter bridge. The result shows that the first alternative has slightly lower LCC compared to the second alternative. Through understanding all the costs connected to the project, cost calculation has been adjusted to ensure accuracy of the data input. Finally, the result from the cost comparison is tested with Monte Carlo Simulation to manage uncertainty risks.

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    Authors: Kulbay, Mustafa;

    This report is about a novel approach to attenuation of fan noise in aerial vehicles, by way of implementing a ducted fan in the chassis of a four meter blended wing body plane. Three different one meter PVC pipes were used and their performances as silencers were tested by measuring the sound power level and calculating the insulation loss compared to a fan by itself. The ducts were either empty or lined with acoustic absorbents and micro perforated panels. Experiments were carried out in the reverberation room at KTH Marcus Wallenberg laboratory for sound and vibration research using the guidelines in ISO 3741 (2010). The results showed that the empty duct lead to a 15.3 dB(A) insulation loss with no decrease in thrust from the fan. The absorbent and micro perforated panel, however, lead to a 22.7 dB(A) insulation loss while giving a major decrease in thrust of more than one order of magnitude. The results show the failure of implementation of the latter two silencers due to choking, but also the success of the empty duct. This shows that there is room for improvement and perhaps even a future possibility of a successful implementation in a real vehicle.

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    Authors: Kalpakchi, Dmytro; Boye, Johan;

    This paper describes the creation and evaluation of a synthetic dataset of Swedish multiple-choice questions (MCQs) for reading comprehension using GPT-3. Although GPT-3 is trained mostly on English data, with only 0.11% of Swedish texts in its training material, the model still managed to generate MCQs in Swedish. About 44% of the generated MCQs turned out to be of sufficient quality, i.e.\ they were grammatically correct and relevant, with exactly one answer alternative being correct and the others being plausible but wrong. We provide a detailed analysis of the errors and shortcomings of the rejected MCQs, as well an analysis of the level of difficulty of the accepted MCQs. In addition to giving insights into GPT-3, the synthetic dataset could be used for training and evaluation of special-purpose MCQ-generating models. QC 20230602

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    Conference object . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rosenlew, Matilda; Ljungdahl, Timas;

    Neural networks are regarded as state of the art within many areas of machine learning, however due to their growing complexity and size, a question regarding their trustability and understandability has been raised. Thus, neural networks are often being considered a "black-box". This has lead to the emersion of evaluation methods trying to decipher these complex networks. Two of these methods, layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) and sensitivity analysis (SA), are used to generate heatmaps, which presents pixels in the input image that have an impact on the classification. In this report, the aim is to do a usability-analysis by evaluating and comparing these methods to see how they can be used in order to understand a particular classification. The method used in this report is to iteratively distort image regions that were highlighted as important by the two heatmapping-methods. This lead to the findings that distorting essential features of an image according to the LRP heatmaps lead to a decrease in classification score, while distorting inessential features of an image according to the combination of SA and LRP heatmaps lead to an increase in classification score. The results corresponded well with the theory of the heatmapping-methods and lead to the conclusion that a combination of the two evaluation methods is advocated for, to fully understand a particular classification. Neurala nätverk betraktas som den senaste tekniken i många områden inom maskininlärning, dock har deras pålitlighet och förståelse ifrågasatts på grund av deras växande komplexitet och storlek. Således, blir neurala nätverk ofta sedda som en "svart låda". Detta har lett till utvecklingen av evalueringsmetoder som ämnar att tolka dessa komplexa nätverk. Två av dessa metoder, layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) och sensitivity analysis (SA), används för att generera färgdiagram som visar pixlar i indata-bilden som har en påverkan på klassificeringen. I den här rapporten, är målet att göra en användarbarhets-analys genom att utvärdera och jämföra dessa metoder för att se hur de kan användas för att förstå en specifik klassificering. Metoden som används i denna rapport är att iterativt förvränga bilder genom att följa de två färgdiagrams-metoderna. Detta ledde till insikterna att förvrängning av väsentliga delar av bilden, vilket framgick ur LRP färgdiagrammen, tydligt minskade sannolikheten för klassen. Det framkom även att förvrängning av oväsentliga delar, som framgick genom att kombinera SA och LRP färgdiagrammen, ökade sannolikheten för klassen. Resultaten stämde väl överens med teorin och detta ledde till slutsatsen att en kombination av metoderna rekommenderas för att förstå en specifik klassificering. 

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    Authors: Augier, Pierre; Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu; Bonamy, Cyrille;

    FluidDyn is a project to foster open-science and open-source in the fluid dynamics community. It is thought of as a research project to channel open-source dynamics, methods and tools to do science. We propose a set of Python packages forming a framework to study fluid dynamics with different methods, in particular laboratory experiments (package fluidlab), simulations (packages fluidfft, fluidsim and fluidfoam) and data processing (package fluidimage). In the present article, we give an overview of the specialized packages of the project and then focus on the base package called fluiddyn, which contains common code used in the specialized packages. Packages fluidfft and fluidsim are described with greater detail in two companion papers [4, 5]. With the project FluidDyn, we demonstrate that specialized scientific code can be written with methods and good practices of the open-source community. The Mercurial repositories are available in Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/fluiddyn/). All codes are documented using Sphinx and Read the Docs, and tested with continuous integration run on Bitbucket Pipelines and Travis. To improve the reuse potential, the codes are as modular as possible, leveraging the simple object-oriented programming model of Python. All codes are also written to be highly efficient, using C++, Cython and Pythran to speedup the performance of critical functions. Funding statement: This project has indirectly benefited from funding from the foundation Simone et Cino Del Duca de l’Institut de France, the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No 647018-WATU and Euhit consortium) and the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet): 2013-5191. We have also been able to use supercomputers of CIMENT/GRICAD, CINES/GENCI (grant 2018-A0040107567) and the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC).

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    Journal of Open Research Software
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    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake&rsquo s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent.

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    Authors: Hay Werner, Tony;

    Syftet med denna studie är att utforska nyckelintressenters uppfattningar om potentialer och hinder med utökad verklighet (XR) i gymnasieundervisning, speciellt inom matematik- och fysikämnena där det finns flertalet abstrakta moment som elever har svårt för. Ett vidare syfte är att med stöd i studiens resultat utforma riktlinjer som förslag på hur XR kan användas och inte användas i skolan. Denna kvalitativa studie tar sin grund från semistrukturerade intervjuer med nyckelintressenter inom tre olika områden: programmerare med fokus på utveckling av XR, utvecklare av undervisningsmaterial och lärare inom naturvetenskapliga ämnen. Dessa tre grupper av nyckelintressenter har tillsammans en helhetsbild över just det som denna studie ämnar undersöka. Utifrån en kvalitativ ansats utförs en tematisk analys av transkriberade data. Den tematiska analysen har identifierat sju huvudteman från det insamlade materialet. Studiens pedagogiska utgångspunkt är tagen från Dewey (2004) och Lave & Wegner (1991). Dewey menar att praktiskt arbete så som laborationer är essentiellt för barns inlärning. Piaget (2008) menar att när ett barn nekas möjligheten att upptäcka på egen hand har läraren gjort barnet en björntjänst och minskat barnets möjlighet till inlärning. Lave & Wegner (1991) påstår att lärande är situerade, att elever lär sig bättre om de får utföra aktiviteter där kunskapen ska användas i verkligheten. Exempelvis om elever ska lära sig om vattenkraftverk kan det vara lönsamt att besöka ett vattenkraftverk och uppleva det i verkligheten. Resultatet från denna studie visar att XR har stor potential som digitalt hjälpmedel inom skolan. Upplevelsebaserad undervisning är en stor styrka hos XR och detta tillsammans med laborativ verksamhet har stort stöd i tidigare pedagogisk forskning som en bra undervisningsmetod. Dessutom har XR möjlighet att göra abstrakta skolmoment som luftmotstånd eller koordinatsystem mer konkreta, vilket är något som gynnar många elever. Det framkommer dock i studiens resultat att nyckelintressenterna finner en stor begränsning av appar eller program och en för stor prislapp på XR utrustning. Detta har skapat ett moment 22 för införande av XR i skolundervisningen enligt nyckelintressenterna. Enligt nyckelintressenterna kommer inte skolor köpa XR headsets när det inte finns något innehåll. Samtidigt, enligt studiens resultat kommer ingen att skapa något innehåll om det inte finns några användare som vill betala för det. Resultaten visar även att lärare är intresserade av att använda XR i skolan idag men de saknar kunskaper om det. The purpose of this study is to explore key stakeholders' perceptions of potentials and limitations with XR in high school teaching, especially in math and physics subjects where there are several abstract elements that students have a hard time with. A further purpose is to, with support in the results of the study, formulate guidelines as suggestions on how XR can be used and not used in school This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in three different areas: programmers with a focus on the development of augmented reality, teaching material developers and teachers in science subjects. Together, these three groups of key stakeholders have an overall picture of what this study intends to examine. Based on a qualitative approach, a thematic analysis of transcribed data is performed. The thematic analysis identified seven main themes from the collected material. The pedagogical starting point of this study is taken from Dewey (2004) and Lave & Wegner (1991). Dewey claims that practical work such as laboratory work is essential for children's learning. Piaget (2008) believes that when a child is denied the opportunity to discover on his own, the teacher has done the child a disservice and reduced the child's opportunity for learning. Lave & Wegner (1991) claim that learning is situated, student learn better if they are to do activities where the knowledge is to be used in real life. For example, if students are going to learn about hydropower plants, it can be beneficial to visit a hydropower plant and experience it in real life. The results from this study show that augmented reality has great potential as a digital aid in schools. Experience-based teaching is a great strength of augmented reality and this together with laboratory activities have great support in previous pedagogical research as a good teaching method. Furthermore, augmented reality can make abstract school elements such as air resistance or coordinate systems more concrete, which is something that benefits many students. It also appears in the results of the study that the key stakeholders find a large limitation of content and an excessive price tag on XR equipment. this has created a catch 22 for the introduction of augmented reality in school education according to the key stakeholders. According to key stakeholders, schools will not buy XR headsets when there is no content. At the same time, according to the results of the study, no one will create any content if there are no users who want to pay for it. The results also show that teachers are interested in using XR in school today, but they lack knowledge about it.

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    Authors: Allen, Oden; Skog, Erik;

    Finding strategies for games have been of interest tohumans throughout history. With the advancement of technologyand the way the financial market is compounded, enormous timeand resources are spent on modelling real world problems asgames and searching for strategies modelled to enhance produc-tivity and rule out inefficiencies. This thesis aims to investigate the existence of strategies that would allow players (agents)to complete common objectives when one category of agentsalready have a given strategy. This is done through studyingan example and investigating the application and implicationof the introduction of an abstraction function. The performedstudy concluded that if such a function could be more rigorouslymathematically formulated, it could increase the effectiveness ofstrategy searches and synthesis in the field. Människor har alltid varit intresserade avatt hitta strategier för spel. I och med teknikens utveckling ochfinansmarknadens uppbyggnad läggs enorm tid och resurser påatt modellera verkliga problem som spel och söka efter strategierför att öka produktiviteten och minska ineffektivitet. Syftet medrapporten är att undersöka om det finns strategier som gör detmöjligt för spelarna (agenterna) att uppnå gemensamma mål nären kategori av agenter redan har en given strategi. Detta görsgenom att studera ett exempel och undersöka tillämpningar ochkonsekvenserna av att införa en abstraktionsfunktion. I studiendrogs slutsatsen att om en sådan funktion kunde formulerasstrikt matematiskt skulle den kunna öka effektiviteten i strate-gisökningar inom området. Kandidatexjobb i elektroteknik 2022, KTH, Stockholm

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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2022
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    Authors: Ait Lahmouch, Nadir;

    Uppgifter för behandling av naturliga språk (NLP) har under de senaste åren visat sig vara särskilt effektiva när man använder förtränade språkmodeller som BERT. Det enorma kravet på datorresurser som krävs för att träna sådana modeller gör det dock svårt att använda dem i verkligheten. För att lösa detta problem har komprimeringsmetoder utvecklats. I det här projektet studeras, genomförs och testas några av dessa metoder för komprimering av neurala nätverk för textbearbetning. I vårt fall var den mest effektiva metoden Knowledge Distillation, som består i att överföra kunskap från ett stort neuralt nätverk, som kallas läraren, till ett litet neuralt nätverk, som kallas eleven. Det finns flera varianter av detta tillvägagångssätt, som skiljer sig åt i komplexitet. Vi kommer att titta på två av dem i det här projektet. Den första gör det möjligt att överföra kunskap mellan ett neuralt nätverk och en mindre dubbelriktad LSTM, genom att endast använda resultatet från den större modellen. Och en andra, mer komplex metod som uppmuntrar elevmodellen att också lära sig av lärarmodellens mellanliggande lager för att utvinna kunskap. Det slutliga målet med detta projekt är att ge företagets datavetare färdiga komprimeringsmetoder för framtida projekt som kräver användning av djupa neurala nätverk för NLP. Natural language processing (NLP) tasks have proven to be particularly effective when using pre-trained language models such as BERT. However, the enormous demand on computational resources required to train such models makes their use in the real world difficult. To overcome this problem, compression methods have emerged in recent years. In this project, some of these neural network compression approaches for text processing are studied, implemented and tested. In our case, the most efficient method was Knowledge Distillation, which consists in transmitting knowledge from a large neural network, called teacher, to a small neural network, called student. There are several variants of this approach, which differ in their complexity. We will see two of them in this project, the first one which allows a knowledge transfer between any neural network and another smaller bidirectional LSTM, using only the output of the larger model. And a second, more complex approach that encourages the student model to also learn from the intermediate layers of the teacher model for incremental knowledge extraction. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide the company’s data scientists with ready-to-use compression methods for their future projects requiring the use of deep neural networks for NLP. 

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    Authors: Fryklund, Fredrik;

    Today many phenomena from science and engineering can be simulated accurately thanks to computational methods. Still, many challenges remain, one of them being close interface interactions when simulating e.g. the dynamics of a substance concentration in multiphase flows at the micro level. The challenge is to maintain high accuracy and efficiency as drops, vesicles, etc. are very close to each other, which many numerical methods struggle with. Also, the drops' geometries undergo changes over time. Thus far there is no standardized method for solving the equation modeling a concentration on time-dependent geometries efficiently and accurately. Boundary integral methods are powerful in handling moving and complex geometries, and maintaining high accuracy throughout the domain, even for close interactions. However, they are only efficient for a limited class of problems, and thus do not apply to our problem at hand. The focus of this dissertation is to expand the class of problems boundary integral methods are applicable to, without sacrificing their most attractive properties, plus presenting how the resulting equations time-dependent geometries can be solved on time-dependent geometries. This is achieved by the development of the algorithm partition of unity extension (PUX). It smoothly extends data from its domain of definition, with compact support, which allows for application of established fast methods. With our PUX method and state-of-the-art computational algorithms new problems could be studied, and to new levels of accuracy. In the process new underlying dynamics that were previously obscured by large errors appeared. These findings spurred a new set of questions, leading to the design of accurate algorithms for a class of problems that appear when applying boundary integral methods in conjunction with discretizing the governing equations first in time. In sum, we are now closer to a complete solver for the evolution of the substance concentration on time-dependent geometries. In this endeavor, methods have been development and studied that have applications outside our scope, and have already been applied successfully in other researchers' work. The work with PUX has thus been fruitful and will be developed and investigated further in the future, with adaptivity as the goal. dag kan många fenomen från forskning och ingenjörskonst simuleras noggrant tack vare beräkningsmetoder. Dock kvarstår flera utmaningar. En av dem är att simulera interaktioner vid närkontakt mellangränssnitt, detta i simulering av dynamiken av en substanskoncentration i ett flerfasflöde på mikronivå. Utmaningen är att upprätthålla högnoggrannhet och effektivitet medan droppar, vesiklar osv. är mycketnära varandra, vilket är en svårighet för många numeriska metoder.Vidare, dropparnas geometri genomgår förändringar över tid. Hittillsfinns det ingen standardiserad metod för att effektivt och noggrantlösa ekvationen som modellerar en koncentration i en tidsberoendegeometri. Randintegralmetoder är kraftfulla i att hantera rörliga ochkomplexa geometrier, och kan upprätthålla hög noggrannhet i hela domänen, även för närkontaktsinteraktioner. Dock är de bara effektiva fören begränsad klass av problem, och applicerar inte på vårt problem.Fokuset för den här avhandlingen är att utöka klassen av problemrandintegralsmetoder kan appliceras på, utan att göra avkall på deras mest attraktiva egenskaper, samt presentera hur de resulterandeekvationerna kan lösas på tidsberoende geometri. Detta har uppnåttsgenom utvecklingen av algoritmen partition of unity extension (PUX).Den utvidgar en funktion slätt från domänen där den är definierad,med kompakt stöd, vilket tillåter appliceringen av etablerade snabbametoder.Med PUX och några av de bästa tillgängliga algoritmerna han nyaproblem kunnat studeras, och till nya nivåer av noggrannhet. I processen framträdde ny underliggande dynamik som tidigare varit skymdav stora fel. Upptäckten väckte ett antal nya frågor, vilket ledde tillutvecklingen av nya noggranna algoritmer. De appliceras när de givnaekvationerna diskretiseras först i tiden, och sedan löses med randintegralmetoder.Sammanfattningsvis, vi är nu närmare en fullständig lösare av utvecklingen av en substanskoncentration på tidsberoende geometri. Idenna strävan har metoder utvecklats och studerats som har användningsområden utanför vårt, och har redan använts framgångsrikt äveni andra forskares arbeten. Arbetet med PUX har alltså varit givande,och kommer att utvecklas och undersökas i framtiden, med adaptivitetsom mål.

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