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  • French
    Authors: 
    Genay, Adélaïde; Lécuyer, Anatole; Hachet, Martin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    En raison de la situation sanitaire actuelle (Covid-19), WACAI est reporté du 02 au 04/06/2021; International audience; L’objectif de cet article est de passer en revue la littérature ayant pour sujet l’incarnation en réalité augmentée et les systèmes permettant de l’expérimenter. Il commence par préciser ce qu’est un “avatar” dans ce contexte et introduit les principaux concepts de la notion d’incarnation. Il décrit ensuite les travaux de recherche qui ont contribué à mieux la comprendre et à la mettre en place au sein d’un environnement réel. Dans cette partie, les connaissances sur les composantes du sentiment d’incarnation et sur les facteurs techniques qui l’affectent sont exposées ainsi que les technologies et modes de visualisation utilisés pour l’étudier. Pour terminer, cet article résume et discute de ces résultats afin d’offrir des perspectives de recherches.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Meddy Escuriet; Mauricette Fournier; Théo Sanson;
    Publisher: Association d’Économie Politique
    Country: France

    International audience; This contribution focuses on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on French support and work assistance establishment (ESAT) based on interviews conducted with managers of institutions located in rural and urban areas of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region (France). In order to situate the ESAT in their national context, a first section is devoted to recalling the genesis and functioning of this system, which was set up to promote the social and occupational integration of workers with disabilities, whose originality lies in the articulation of a medico-social logic with an economical logic. We then try to show how the ESAT have organized themselves to provide medico-social support for workers with disabilities despite the obligation of distancing. Then, analyzed through the prism of territorial anchoring and the concept of proximity associated with it, we will focus on the impact of confinement on the economic balance of these establishments to show that the health crisis has less affected the establishments in predominantly agricultural vocation established in rural areas than those, more oriented towards industrial subcontracting, located in urban areas.; Cette contribution s’intéresse à l’impact de la pandémie de COVID-19 sur les Établissements et Services d’Aide par le Travail (ESAT) français à partir d’entretiens conduits auprès de directeurs d’établissements situés dans le milieu rural et urbain de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes (France). Afin de situer les ESAT dans leur contexte national, un premier temps est consacré à rappeler la genèse et le fonctionnement de ce dispositif, mis en place pour favoriser l’insertion sociale et professionnelle des travailleurs en situation de handicap, dont l’originalité réside dans l’articulation d’une logique médico-sociale à une logique économique. Nous cherchons ensuite à montrer comment les ESAT se sont organisés pour assurer l’accompagnement médico-social de leurs travailleurs malgré l’obligation de distanciation. Puis, analysé au prisme de l’ancrage territorial et de la notion de proximité qui lui est associée, nous nous intéressons à l’impact du confinement sur l’équilibre économique de ces établissements pour montrer que la crise sanitaire a moins affecté les établissements à vocation majoritairement agricole implantés en milieu rural que ceux, plus orientés vers la sous-traitance industrielle, localisés en milieu urbain.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cyrille Mathieu; Matteo Porotto; Tiago N. Figueira; Branka Horvat; Anne Moscona;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: NIH | MOLECULAR BASIS FOR PARAI... (5R29AI031971-03), ANR | Avenir L.S.E. (ANR-11-IDEX-0007), NIH | Engineering protease-resi... (5R01AI114736-04), NIH | Design of CNS-targeted pe... (5R33AI101333-04), ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048)

    International audience; Background. The emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe respiratory and neurological disease inhumans, with high fatality rates. Nipah virus can be transmitted via person-to-person contact, posing a high risk for epidemic outbreaks. However, a broadly applicable approach for human NiV outbreaks in field settings is lacking.Methods. We engineered new antiviral lipopeptides and analyzed in vitro fusion inhibition to identify an optimal candidate forprophylaxis of NiV infection in the lower respiratory tract, and we assessed antiviral efficiency in 2 different animal models.Results. We show that lethal NiV infection can be prevented with lipopeptides delivered via the respiratory route in both hamsters and nonhuman primates. By targeting retention of peptides for NiV prophylaxis in the respiratory tract, we avoid its systemicdelivery in individuals who need only prevention, and thus we increase the safety of treatment and enhance utility of the intervention.Conclusions. The experiments provide a proof of concept for the use of antifusion lipopeptides for prophylaxis of lethal NiV.These results advance the goal of rational development of potent lipopeptide inhibitors with desirable pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties and a safe effective delivery method to target NiV and other pathogenic viruses.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ali Moussaoui; Pierre Auger;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Algeria was reported on 25 February 2020. Since then, it has progressed rapidly and the number of cases grow exponentially each day. In this article, we utilize SEIR modelling to forecast COVID-19 outbreak in Algeria under two scenarios by using the real-time data from March 01 to April 10, 2020. In the first scenario: no control measures are put into place, we estimate that the basic reproduction number for the epidemic in Algeria is 2.1, the number of new cases in Algeria will peak from around late May to early June and up to 82% of the Algerian population will likely contract the coronavirus. In the second scenario, at a certain date T, drastic control measures are taken, people are being advised to self-isolate or to quarantine and will be able to leave their homes only if necessary. We use SEIR model with fast change between fully protected and risky states. We prove that the final size of the epidemic depends strongly on the cumulative number of cases at the date when we implement intervention and on the fraction of the population in confinement. Our analysis shows that the longer we wait, the worse the situation will be and this very quickly produces.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Caroline Diard; Virginie Hachard; Dimitri Laroutis;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Le 17 mars 2020, la totalite de la population francaise se retrouve confinee afin de faire face a l’epidemie de Covid-19. Dans le cadre de plans de continuite, les entreprises organisent une forme de teletravail contraint, a temps plein pour les collaborateurs eligibles. Cette situation inedite est une forme de teletravail peu structuree qui questionne l’influence des outils, pratiques et processus d’information mis en place par les services RH sur l’evolution de la relation manageriale des teletravailleurs en periode de confinement. La partie empirique repose sur une etude quantitative realisee pendant le confinement entre le 15 avril et le 11 mai 2020 aupres de 169 repondants. Les resultats revelent qu’un manque d’outils, de pratiques et de processus d’information pourrait modifier durablement la relation manageriale. Le deploiement plus generalise d’une information adaptee par les services RH contribuerait a developper la confiance des collaborateurs et la perception positive du teletravail et de la relation manageriale. L’information devrait etre egalement ciblee en fonction du degre de maturite du salarie face au teletravail.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Megan Arnot; Eva Brandl; O L K Campbell; Yuan Chen; Juan Du; Mark Dyble; Emily H Emmott; Erhao Ge; Luke D W Kretschmer; Ruth Mace; +5 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has brought science into the public eye and to the attention of governments more than ever before. Much of this attention is on work in epidemiology, virology and public health, with most behavioural advice in public health focusing squarely on ‘proximate’ determinants of behaviour. While epidemiological models are powerful tools to predict the spread of disease when human behaviour is stable, most do not incorporate behavioural change. The evolutionary basis of our preferences and the cultural evolutionary dynamics of our beliefs drive behavioural change, so understanding these evolutionary processes can help inform individual and government decision-making in the face of a pandemic. Lay summary: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought behavioural sciences into the public eye: Without vaccinations, stopping the spread of the virus must rely on behaviour change by limiting contact between people. On the face of it, “stop seeing people” sounds simple. In practice, this is hard. Here we outline how an evolutionary perspective on behaviour change can provide additional insights. Evolutionary theory postulates that our psychology and behaviour did not evolve to maximize our health or that of others. Instead, individuals are expected to act to maximise their inclusive fitness (i.e, spreading our genes) – which can lead to a conflict between behaviours that are in the best interests for the individual, and behaviours that stop the spread of the virus. By examining the ultimate explanations of behaviour related to pandemic-management (such as behavioural compliance and social distancing), we conclude that “good of the group” arguments and “one size fits all” policies are unlikely to encourage behaviour change over the long-term. Sustained behaviour change to keep pandemics at bay is much more likely to emerge from environmental change, so governments and policy makers may need to facilitate significant social change – such as improving life experiences for disadvantaged groups.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christian Calvo-Henriquez; Byron Maldonado-Alvarado; Carlos M. Chiesa-Estomba; Irene Rivero-Fernández; Marta Sanz-Rodriguez; Ithzel Maria Villarreal; Miguel Rodriguez-Iglesias; Franklin Mariño-Sánchez; Alejandro Rivero-de-Aguilar; Jerome R. Lechien; +18 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Objective: COVID-19 patients may present mild symptoms. The identification of paucisymptomatic patients is paramount in order to interrupt the transmission chain of the virus. Olfactory loss could be one of those early symptoms which might help in the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a fast, inexpensive, reliable and easy-to-perform olfactory test for the screening of suspected COVID-19 patients. Study design: Phase I was a case–control study and Phase II a transversal descriptive study. Subjects and methods: Olfaction was assessed with the ethyl alcohol threshold test and symptoms with visual analogue scales. The study was designed in two phases: In Phase I, we compared confirmed COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. In Phase II, patients with suspected COVID-19 infection referred for testing were studied. Results: 275 participants were included in Phase I, 135 in Phase II. The ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.749 in Phase I, 0.737 in Phase II. The cutoff value which offered the highest amount of correctly classified patients was ≥ 2 (10% alcohol) for all age intervals. The odds ratio was 8.19 in Phase I, 6.56 in Phase II with a 75% sensitivity. When cases report normal sense of smell (VAS < 4), it misdiagnoses 57.89% of patients detected by the alcohol threshold test. Conclusion: The olfactory loss assessed with the alcohol threshold test has shown high sensitivity and odds ratio in both patients with confirmed COVID-19 illness and participants with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moritz U. G. Kraemer; Chia-Hung Yang; Bernardo Gutierrez; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Brennan Klein; David M. Pigott; Louis du Plessis; Nuno R. Faria; Ruoran Li; William P. Hanage; +7 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, France, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | MIDAS Center for Communic... (1U54GM088558-01), NIH | MIDAS Center for Communic... (1U54GM088558-01)

    The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions are underway currently to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel restrictions, have affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was well explained by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases are still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China have substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19. One sentence summary: The spread of COVID-19 in China was driven by human mobility early on and mitigated substantially by drastic control measures implemented since the end of January.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mahdi Ftouh; Nesrine Kalboussi; Nabil Abid; Souad Sfar; Nathalie Mignet; Badr Bahloul;
    Publisher: Hindawi Limited
    Country: France

    International audience; According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the coronavirus disease 2019, a respiratory viral illness linked to significant morbidity, mortality, production loss, and severe economic depression, was the third-largest cause of death in 2020. Respiratory viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-CoV-2, and adenovirus, are among the most common causes of respiratory illness in humans, spreading as pandemics or epidemics throughout all continents. Nanotechnologies are particles in the nanometer range made from various compositions. They can be lipid-based, polymer-based, protein-based, or inorganic in nature, but they are all bioinspired and virus-like. In this review, we aimed to present a short review of the different nanoparticles currently studied, in particular those which led to publications in the field of respiratory viruses. We evaluated those which could be beneficial for respiratory disease-based viruses; those which already have contributed, such as lipid nanoparticles in the context of COVID-19; and those which will contribute in the future either as vaccines or antiviral drug delivery systems. We present a short assessment based on a critical selection of evidence indicating nanotechnology’s promise in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Debacq, Marie;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; La halle SayFood (AgroParisTech-INRAE) rassemble 50 pilotes, représentant les appareils utilisés dans l'industrie agroalimentaire. Ces pilotes sont utilisés par des chercheurs, enseignants, personnels techniques, étudiants, doctorants et stagiaires. Chaque pilote peut regrouper plusieurs équipements ; avec les équipements périphériques, ce sont donc 200 appareils, pour lesquels il devenait impératif de réaliser une documentation technique centralisée. Dokiel s'est imposé comme le choix idéal pour cette création collaborative. La crise sanitaire a été le catalyseur de cette démarche, permettant d'accélérer l'adhésion des enseignants-chercheurs à l'usage d'une chaîne éditoriale, ponctuellement détournée pour contribuer à la mise en place de TP à distance.

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