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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Berntsson, Mathias; Vernersson Krook, Gustaf; Thunberg, Karl-Johan;

    Efterfrågan av energi ökar på grund av den ökande globaliseringen i världen. För att transmittera och distribuera elektrisk effekt används transformatorer. ABB Power Grids AB är världsledande inom produktion av transmissionskomponenter däribland högspänningstransformatorer. Transformatorer är tidskrävande och komplext att tillverka vilket har lett till att all produktion hos ABB Power Grids idag sker manuellt. En av transformatorns mer framstående komponenter är kärnan som bidrar med en effektivare reglering till mindre förluster. Kärnan konstrueras av tusentals tunna elektroplåtar som staplas omlott på varandra och vävs ihop till en sammanhängande struktur, detta enligt ett kärnläggningsmönster. Plåtarna i sig är otympliga att hantera då de är långa, tunna och vassa. Manuell stackning av elektroplåtar har visat sig ge upphov till en del skador då lyften är många och slitsamma, därtill har plåtarna legat till grund för otäcka skärskador. I och med detta har ett intresse för automation väckts i hopp om att reducera arbetsskador. Vid första anblick kan kärnläggningen anses vara perfekt för automation då arbetsmomentet är enkelt och repetitiva. Incitamentet för automation ökar ytterligare i hänseende till arbetsmiljön. Komplikationerna uppstår när arbetet bryts ner. Under ytan är det en utstuderad process där krav på produkt är höga med strikta toleranser. Därtill har arbetet beskrivits som något man behöver en viss känsla för då arbetet anpassas genom hela processen. Detta försvårar automation betydligt då dagens tillverkningsprocess är svår att fullt ut härma med robotar eller portaler. Därför behövs avgränsningar behöver göras för att hitta avvägning mellan slitsamt arbete och finess. Området för automation begränsas därför till stackningsprocessen. Genom att fokusera på stackningen flyttas de slitsamma och farliga lyften från manuell arbetskraft till automation samtidigt som kontroll, justering och slutmontage behålls manuellt. På så sätt kan produktionen av transformatorkärnor göras lämpad för automation då det allra mest tidskrävande momenten inte behöver utföras av människan. Detta är innebär emellertid inte att automation görs utan svårigheter. Kärnornas storlekar samt den precision som krävs vid läggning sätter höga krav på den automationslösning som ska implementeras. För att en automationslösning ska klara av att stacka alla de typer av kärnor som idag tillverkas på ABB Power Grids kommer stora strukturer behöva upprättas för att utföra arbeten med extrem precision. Detta sätter höga noggrannhetskrav på de automationsmodeller som upprättas. Vidare, produktionsområdet där automation idag avses är väl utstakat och anpassat efter manuellt arbete. Detta innebär att automationsmodeller som idag finns på marknaden behöver omarbetas för att passa in i dagens produktion hos ABB Power Grids. Slutligen måste frågan ställas om modifierade lösningar kan göras noggranna nog eller om större ingrepp på produktionsområden behövs göras. I förstudien presenteras olika automationsmodeller som har utvecklats för att integreras hos ABB Power Grids, dessa är Portalmodeller, Länkarmsmodeller och Inmatningsmodeller. Utformningsförslagen har sedan analyserats och jämförts för att ge ABB PG ett utgångsläge för vidareutveckling av automatisering av stackningsmomentet. Resultatet blev fem automationsmodeller, två använder sig av länkarmsrobotar och tre är portaler. Vidare så har två automatiserade inmatningsmodeller upprättats för att ytterligare reducera den manuella hanteringen av elektroplåtar. ABB Power Grids rekommenderas att inledningsvis gå vidare med Robotmodell 1.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från U...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andersson, Ida;

    Differential equations, in particular partial differential equations, are used to mathematically describe many physical phenomenon. The importance of being able to solve these types of equations can therefore not be overstated. This thesis is going to elucidate one method, the method of characteristics, which can in some cases be used to solve partial differential equations. To further the reader’s understanding on the method this paper will provide some important insights on differential equations as well as show examples on how the method of characteristics can be used to solve partial differential equations of various complexity. We will also in this paper present some important geometric complications for linear partial differential equations which one might have to take into consideration when using the method.

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    Authors: Auf der Strasse, Rosa; Philipson, Ebba;

    The aim of this study was to examine in what way incels discuss violence, as well as how significant violence is for the incel-culture and their identity. Incels are a relatively new phenomenon, which has been more closely examined following recent attacks perpetrated by incels. The attacks have been aimed at civilians, and according to the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), these attacks have often been preceded by the perpetrator spending time on incel forums (2020). This observation regarding the correlation between incel forums and incel attacks inspired the approach of this study, which aims to shed light on how incels talk about violence, and what role violence plays within the online incel community. The empirical material for this study consisted of 511 posts made on violence related threads from the websites incels.net and incels.is. The study applied qualitative analysis of data to examine the research questions, and the result showed that pro-violence was a common theme within the material. The result also showed that misogyny, feelings of injustice and anti-violence were recurring themes. Agnew’s General strain theory, Connell’s theory of masculinity and Goffman’s theory of stigma was used as a theoretical framework to analyse the material. Using these theories, the study explains the identified themes as coping strategies for strain, attempted staging of masculinity and a reaction to stigma. The results in this study confirm previous research made on the subject, but more research is needed to fully understand the ways incels talk about violence and the significance of violence within the incel community.  Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur incels talar om våld, vilken betydelse våld har för incel-kulturen och incels identitetsskapande. Incels är ett relativt nytt fenomen, som ägnats mer uppmärksamhet i samband med ett antal våldsamma incel-attacker under 2010-talet. Attackerna har riktat sig mot civilsamhället, och har enligt Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI) ofta föregåtts av att gärningsmannen spenderat tid på incel-forum (2020, s. 1). Denna iakttagelse om korrelationen mellan incelforum och incel-attacker föranledde utförandet av den här studien. Studiens material utgörs av 511 inlägg från våldsrelaterade diskussionstrådar på hemsidorna incels.net och incels.is, vilka undersöktes med en kvalitativ analys av meningsinnehåll. Resultatet visade att inlägg av våldsbejakande karaktär var mycket vanligt förekommande. Resultatet visade även att teman som kvinnohat, offerskap och icke-våldsbejakande ofta återkom. Det teoretiska ramverket för studien har varit en triangulering av Agnews teori om General strain, Connells maskulinitetsteori och Goffmans teori om stigma. Utifrån dessa teorier kan våldsbejakande diskurs förstås som en hantering av strain, ett iscensättande av maskulinitet och en reaktion på stigma. Resultatet i den här studien bekräftar till stor del tidigare forskning på incels, men det går att konstatera att ytterligare forskning krävs för att förstå varför incels är våldsbejakande, och vilken betydelse internetforum har för incel-kulturen och incel-attacker.

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    Authors: Rosenlew, Matilda; Ljungdahl, Timas;

    Neural networks are regarded as state of the art within many areas of machine learning, however due to their growing complexity and size, a question regarding their trustability and understandability has been raised. Thus, neural networks are often being considered a "black-box". This has lead to the emersion of evaluation methods trying to decipher these complex networks. Two of these methods, layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) and sensitivity analysis (SA), are used to generate heatmaps, which presents pixels in the input image that have an impact on the classification. In this report, the aim is to do a usability-analysis by evaluating and comparing these methods to see how they can be used in order to understand a particular classification. The method used in this report is to iteratively distort image regions that were highlighted as important by the two heatmapping-methods. This lead to the findings that distorting essential features of an image according to the LRP heatmaps lead to a decrease in classification score, while distorting inessential features of an image according to the combination of SA and LRP heatmaps lead to an increase in classification score. The results corresponded well with the theory of the heatmapping-methods and lead to the conclusion that a combination of the two evaluation methods is advocated for, to fully understand a particular classification. Neurala nätverk betraktas som den senaste tekniken i många områden inom maskininlärning, dock har deras pålitlighet och förståelse ifrågasatts på grund av deras växande komplexitet och storlek. Således, blir neurala nätverk ofta sedda som en "svart låda". Detta har lett till utvecklingen av evalueringsmetoder som ämnar att tolka dessa komplexa nätverk. Två av dessa metoder, layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) och sensitivity analysis (SA), används för att generera färgdiagram som visar pixlar i indata-bilden som har en påverkan på klassificeringen. I den här rapporten, är målet att göra en användarbarhets-analys genom att utvärdera och jämföra dessa metoder för att se hur de kan användas för att förstå en specifik klassificering. Metoden som används i denna rapport är att iterativt förvränga bilder genom att följa de två färgdiagrams-metoderna. Detta ledde till insikterna att förvrängning av väsentliga delar av bilden, vilket framgick ur LRP färgdiagrammen, tydligt minskade sannolikheten för klassen. Det framkom även att förvrängning av oväsentliga delar, som framgick genom att kombinera SA och LRP färgdiagrammen, ökade sannolikheten för klassen. Resultaten stämde väl överens med teorin och detta ledde till slutsatsen att en kombination av metoderna rekommenderas för att förstå en specifik klassificering. 

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Mannheimer, Hannah;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från U...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Karlsson, Elin; Persson, Lucas;

    Background To be able to push game standards further and further, different graphics techniques have to be implemented by game developers. By utilizing some of those techniques, comes cost in the form of performance issues. Level of detail (LOD) is an optimization technique which uses several different variations of a model and distance from the viewer to determine which model should be rendered. Shadow mapping is, on the contrary from level of detail, a costly technique which aims to create as realistically looking shadows as possible. Objectives The aim of this thesis is to examine whether a novel LOD technique and shadow map technique called LOD-SM can achieve less render time versus using a standard implementation of shadow mapping. This is achieved by using the Unity game engine in which the LOD-SM technique is implemented. With Unity, measurements will be taken to determine if the technique is a viable optimization option in future game development. Methods The methods used to answer the paper’s research question were a pilot user study and a performance study. 20 participants were part of the pilot study, and were asked to rate their perception of shadows shown on a screen in front of them. This yielded results of which shadows the participants noticed differences for. The results were then implemented into Unity and measured with the LOD-SM technique. Results The pilot study showed that user does not notice any differences in 30% decreased polycount-shadows when in a multiple building environment. The gathered results from the performance experiment showed that the LOD-SM technique saved between ∼17% up to ∼70% in render time, compared to a regular implementation of shadow mapping. Conclusions In conclusion, a viable optimization option was found which is to lower a shadow maps appearance based on buildings LODs because as the results has shown, users does not notice the lowering of LODs up to 30% when in a multiple building area. It was discovered that by measuring the LOD-SM technique, clear evidence of optimization was found when using the technique versus using a normal implementation of shadow mapping. Developers would have to consider the size of project and its models before implementing the LOD-SM technique, as it might not be viable for projects with a total polycount of less than 100 000 polygons.

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    Authors: Ahlgren, Per; Kennerberg, Louise; Åkesson Kågedal, Erik;

    Uppsala University Annual Bibliometric Monitoring produces statistics on publication volume, publishing level, citation impact, collaboration (in terms of co-publishing) and open access. The aggregation level is primarily department, which means that it is primarily the departments of Uppsala University that are the units of analysis in the monitoring. Two main data sources are used: the local publication database of Uppsala University, DiVA, and the in-house version of the Web of Science database available at the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University, the Netherlands. The considered publication period is 2011-2019. The results are presented in graphs or in tables, and in the next to last section, the results are briefly summarized. Regarding the domain Humanities and Social Sciences, the indicator proportion of publication fractions at level 2 (in the Norwegian model), the departments Economics and Peace and Conflict Studies have the highest values for the last three considered publication years. The highest values on the citation indicators, with respect to the domain Medicine and Pharmacy and the whole publication period, are observed for the three departments Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Immunology, Genetics and Pathology and Pharmacy. For the domain Science and Technology, the three biology departments, Cell and Molecular Biology, Ecology and Genetics and Organismal Biology, all have high values on the citation indicators with respect to the whole publication period. This work is licensed under CC BY 4.0. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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    Authors: Augier, Pierre; Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu; Bonamy, Cyrille;

    FluidDyn is a project to foster open-science and open-source in the fluid dynamics community. It is thought of as a research project to channel open-source dynamics, methods and tools to do science. We propose a set of Python packages forming a framework to study fluid dynamics with different methods, in particular laboratory experiments (package fluidlab), simulations (packages fluidfft, fluidsim and fluidfoam) and data processing (package fluidimage). In the present article, we give an overview of the specialized packages of the project and then focus on the base package called fluiddyn, which contains common code used in the specialized packages. Packages fluidfft and fluidsim are described with greater detail in two companion papers [4, 5]. With the project FluidDyn, we demonstrate that specialized scientific code can be written with methods and good practices of the open-source community. The Mercurial repositories are available in Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/fluiddyn/). All codes are documented using Sphinx and Read the Docs, and tested with continuous integration run on Bitbucket Pipelines and Travis. To improve the reuse potential, the codes are as modular as possible, leveraging the simple object-oriented programming model of Python. All codes are also written to be highly efficient, using C++, Cython and Pythran to speedup the performance of critical functions. Funding statement: This project has indirectly benefited from funding from the foundation Simone et Cino Del Duca de l’Institut de France, the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No 647018-WATU and Euhit consortium) and the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet): 2013-5191. We have also been able to use supercomputers of CIMENT/GRICAD, CINES/GENCI (grant 2018-A0040107567) and the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC).

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    Journal of Open Research Software
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    Journal of Open Research Software
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    Article . 2019
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      Journal of Open Research Software
      Other literature type . Article . 2019
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    Authors: Larsson, Niklas;

    Denna forskningsrapport fokuserar på gymnasieskolans laborationer i kemi och hur dessa förändrats under de senaste 10-20 åren. Motivet till att studera detta är ambitionen att få ökad didaktisk förståelse för laborationen som viktigt inslag i kemiundervisningen. I ett större perspektiv kan detta vara av intresse för att analysera om förändringar av gymnasieskolans kemilaborationer kan utgöra en delförklaring till att svenska universitet upplever ett minskat söktryck för kemi på högskolenivå och om delförklaring kan finnas för att Sverige som nation inte når samma resultat i naturvetenskap som vissa andra länder i internationella kunskapsmätningar. Sex erfarna lärare från sex olika skolor har intervjuats om sina upplevelser av kemilaborationen och vad som påverkat dess utveckling. Ramfaktorteorin har varit grundläggande för detta arbete och som analysmetod har fenomenografin valts. Resultaten visar på en stor variation i vad lärare anser påverkat kemilaborationens förändring. Ökat medvetande och högre krav från lagar och förordningar inom säkerhetsområdet samt att lärare upplever sig ha mindre tillgänglig tid för laborationerna framstår som de tydligaste orsakerna till gjorda förändringar. Även kompensation för försämrade praktiska färdigheter hos elever som lämnar grundskolan framkommer som en bakomliggande faktor. Den nya läroplanen Gy 2011, kostnadsöverväganden och kemi­lokalernas beskaffenhet framkom som mindre avgörande för kemilaborationens utveckling.

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    Authors: E. Lin; Hans Garmo; Mieke Van Hemelrijck; Jan Adolfsson; +3 Authors

    Abstract Background Prostate cancer (PCa) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prevalent conditions that often occur concomitantly. However, many aspects of the impact of T2DM, particularly the duration of T2DM and antidiabetic medications, on PCa risk are poorly understood. Methods To assess the association of duration of T2DM and antidiabetic medication with PCa risk, we designed a matched case-control study, including 31,415 men with PCa and 154,812 PCa-free men in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) 4.1. Results Overall, a decreased risk of PCa was observed for men with T2DM (odds ratio (OR): 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.84), as compared to men without T2DM. The decreased risk of PCa was consistently showed across duration of T2DM. With respect to use of antidiabetic drugs, this inverse association with duration was also found for all medications types, as compared to men without T2DM, including insulin, metformin and sulphonylurea (SU) (e.g. 3- < 5 yr insulin OR:0.69, 95%CI:0.60–0.80; 3- < 5 yr metformin OR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.74–0.91; 3- < 5 yr SU OR: 0.72, 95%CI: 0.62–0.83). When stratifying by PCa risk categories, this decreased risk was most evident for diagnosis of low and intermediate-risk PCa (low-risk OR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.66–0.70, intermediate-risk OR: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.75–0.85). Conclusions The study showed an inverse association between pre-existing T2DM and PCa across different durations of T2DM and all types of T2DM medication received. This inverse association was most evident for low- and intermediate-risk PCa, suggesting that whilst T2DM and its medication may protect some men from developing PCa, the relationship warrants further study.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    BMC Cancer
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    https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.2....
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    BMC Cancer
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    BMC Cancer
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    https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.2....
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    Authors: Berntsson, Mathias; Vernersson Krook, Gustaf; Thunberg, Karl-Johan;

    Efterfrågan av energi ökar på grund av den ökande globaliseringen i världen. För att transmittera och distribuera elektrisk effekt används transformatorer. ABB Power Grids AB är världsledande inom produktion av transmissionskomponenter däribland högspänningstransformatorer. Transformatorer är tidskrävande och komplext att tillverka vilket har lett till att all produktion hos ABB Power Grids idag sker manuellt. En av transformatorns mer framstående komponenter är kärnan som bidrar med en effektivare reglering till mindre förluster. Kärnan konstrueras av tusentals tunna elektroplåtar som staplas omlott på varandra och vävs ihop till en sammanhängande struktur, detta enligt ett kärnläggningsmönster. Plåtarna i sig är otympliga att hantera då de är långa, tunna och vassa. Manuell stackning av elektroplåtar har visat sig ge upphov till en del skador då lyften är många och slitsamma, därtill har plåtarna legat till grund för otäcka skärskador. I och med detta har ett intresse för automation väckts i hopp om att reducera arbetsskador. Vid första anblick kan kärnläggningen anses vara perfekt för automation då arbetsmomentet är enkelt och repetitiva. Incitamentet för automation ökar ytterligare i hänseende till arbetsmiljön. Komplikationerna uppstår när arbetet bryts ner. Under ytan är det en utstuderad process där krav på produkt är höga med strikta toleranser. Därtill har arbetet beskrivits som något man behöver en viss känsla för då arbetet anpassas genom hela processen. Detta försvårar automation betydligt då dagens tillverkningsprocess är svår att fullt ut härma med robotar eller portaler. Därför behövs avgränsningar behöver göras för att hitta avvägning mellan slitsamt arbete och finess. Området för automation begränsas därför till stackningsprocessen. Genom att fokusera på stackningen flyttas de slitsamma och farliga lyften från manuell arbetskraft till automation samtidigt som kontroll, justering och slutmontage behålls manuellt. På så sätt kan produktionen av transformatorkärnor göras lämpad för automation då det allra mest tidskrävande momenten inte behöver utföras av människan. Detta är innebär emellertid inte att automation görs utan svårigheter. Kärnornas storlekar samt den precision som krävs vid läggning sätter höga krav på den automationslösning som ska implementeras. För att en automationslösning ska klara av att stacka alla de typer av kärnor som idag tillverkas på ABB Power Grids kommer stora strukturer behöva upprättas för att utföra arbeten med extrem precision. Detta sätter höga noggrannhetskrav på de automationsmodeller som upprättas. Vidare, produktionsområdet där automation idag avses är väl utstakat och anpassat efter manuellt arbete. Detta innebär att automationsmodeller som idag finns på marknaden behöver omarbetas för att passa in i dagens produktion hos ABB Power Grids. Slutligen måste frågan ställas om modifierade lösningar kan göras noggranna nog eller om större ingrepp på produktionsområden behövs göras. I förstudien presenteras olika automationsmodeller som har utvecklats för att integreras hos ABB Power Grids, dessa är Portalmodeller, Länkarmsmodeller och Inmatningsmodeller. Utformningsförslagen har sedan analyserats och jämförts för att ge ABB PG ett utgångsläge för vidareutveckling av automatisering av stackningsmomentet. Resultatet blev fem automationsmodeller, två använder sig av länkarmsrobotar och tre är portaler. Vidare så har två automatiserade inmatningsmodeller upprättats för att ytterligare reducera den manuella hanteringen av elektroplåtar. ABB Power Grids rekommenderas att inledningsvis gå vidare med Robotmodell 1.

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    Authors: Andersson, Ida;

    Differential equations, in particular partial differential equations, are used to mathematically describe many physical phenomenon. The importance of being able to solve these types of equations can therefore not be overstated. This thesis is going to elucidate one method, the method of characteristics, which can in some cases be used to solve partial differential equations. To further the reader’s understanding on the method this paper will provide some important insights on differential equations as well as show examples on how the method of characteristics can be used to solve partial differential equations of various complexity. We will also in this paper present some important geometric complications for linear partial differential equations which one might have to take into consideration when using the method.

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    Authors: Auf der Strasse, Rosa; Philipson, Ebba;

    The aim of this study was to examine in what way incels discuss violence, as well as how significant violence is for the incel-culture and their identity. Incels are a relatively new phenomenon, which has been more closely examined following recent attacks perpetrated by incels. The attacks have been aimed at civilians, and according to the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), these attacks have often been preceded by the perpetrator spending time on incel forums (2020). This observation regarding the correlation between incel forums and incel attacks inspired the approach of this study, which aims to shed light on how incels talk about violence, and what role violence plays within the online incel community. The empirical material for this study consisted of 511 posts made on violence related threads from the websites incels.net and incels.is. The study applied qualitative analysis of data to examine the research questions, and the result showed that pro-violence was a common theme within the material. The result also showed that misogyny, feelings of injustice and anti-violence were recurring themes. Agnew’s General strain theory, Connell’s theory of masculinity and Goffman’s theory of stigma was used as a theoretical framework to analyse the material. Using these theories, the study explains the identified themes as coping strategies for strain, attempted staging of masculinity and a reaction to stigma. The results in this study confirm previous research made on the subject, but more research is needed to fully understand the ways incels talk about violence and the significance of violence within the incel community.  Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur incels talar om våld, vilken betydelse våld har för incel-kulturen och incels identitetsskapande. Incels är ett relativt nytt fenomen, som ägnats mer uppmärksamhet i samband med ett antal våldsamma incel-attacker under 2010-talet. Attackerna har riktat sig mot civilsamhället, och har enligt Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut (FOI) ofta föregåtts av att gärningsmannen spenderat tid på incel-forum (2020, s. 1). Denna iakttagelse om korrelationen mellan incelforum och incel-attacker föranledde utförandet av den här studien. Studiens material utgörs av 511 inlägg från våldsrelaterade diskussionstrådar på hemsidorna incels.net och incels.is, vilka undersöktes med en kvalitativ analys av meningsinnehåll. Resultatet visade att inlägg av våldsbejakande karaktär var mycket vanligt förekommande. Resultatet visade även att teman som kvinnohat, offerskap och icke-våldsbejakande ofta återkom. Det teoretiska ramverket för studien har varit en triangulering av Agnews teori om General strain, Connells maskulinitetsteori och Goffmans teori om stigma. Utifrån dessa teorier kan våldsbejakande diskurs förstås som en hantering av strain, ett iscensättande av maskulinitet och en reaktion på stigma. Resultatet i den här studien bekräftar till stor del tidigare forskning på incels, men det går att konstatera att ytterligare forskning krävs för att förstå varför incels är våldsbejakande, och vilken betydelse internetforum har för incel-kulturen och incel-attacker.

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    Authors: Rosenlew, Matilda; Ljungdahl, Timas;

    Neural networks are regarded as state of the art within many areas of machine learning, however due to their growing complexity and size, a question regarding their trustability and understandability has been raised. Thus, neural networks are often being considered a "black-box". This has lead to the emersion of evaluation methods trying to decipher these complex networks. Two of these methods, layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) and sensitivity analysis (SA), are used to generate heatmaps, which presents pixels in the input image that have an impact on the classification. In this report, the aim is to do a usability-analysis by evaluating and comparing these methods to see how they can be used in order to understand a particular classification. The method used in this report is to iteratively distort image regions that were highlighted as important by the two heatmapping-methods. This lead to the findings that distorting essential features of an image according to the LRP heatmaps lead to a decrease in classification score, while distorting inessential features of an image according to the combination of SA and LRP heatmaps lead to an increase in classification score. The results corresponded well with the theory of the heatmapping-methods and lead to the conclusion that a combination of the two evaluation methods is advocated for, to fully understand a particular classification. Neurala nätverk betraktas som den senaste tekniken i många områden inom maskininlärning, dock har deras pålitlighet och förståelse ifrågasatts på grund av deras växande komplexitet och storlek. Således, blir neurala nätverk ofta sedda som en "svart låda". Detta har lett till utvecklingen av evalueringsmetoder som ämnar att tolka dessa komplexa nätverk. Två av dessa metoder, layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) och sensitivity analysis (SA), används för att generera färgdiagram som visar pixlar i indata-bilden som har en påverkan på klassificeringen. I den här rapporten, är målet att göra en användarbarhets-analys genom att utvärdera och jämföra dessa metoder för att se hur de kan användas för att förstå en specifik klassificering. Metoden som används i denna rapport är att iterativt förvränga bilder genom att följa de två färgdiagrams-metoderna. Detta ledde till insikterna att förvrängning av väsentliga delar av bilden, vilket framgick ur LRP färgdiagrammen, tydligt minskade sannolikheten för klassen. Det framkom även att förvrängning av oväsentliga delar, som framgick genom att kombinera SA och LRP färgdiagrammen, ökade sannolikheten för klassen. Resultaten stämde väl överens med teorin och detta ledde till slutsatsen att en kombination av metoderna rekommenderas för att förstå en specifik klassificering. 

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    Authors: Mannheimer, Hannah;
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    Authors: Karlsson, Elin; Persson, Lucas;

    Background To be able to push game standards further and further, different graphics techniques have to be implemented by game developers. By utilizing some of those techniques, comes cost in the form of performance issues. Level of detail (LOD) is an optimization technique which uses several different variations of a model and distance from the viewer to determine which model should be rendered. Shadow mapping is, on the contrary from level of detail, a costly technique which aims to create as realistically looking shadows as possible. Objectives The aim of this thesis is to examine whether a novel LOD technique and shadow map technique called LOD-SM can achieve less render time versus using a standard implementation of shadow mapping. This is achieved by using the Unity game engine in which the LOD-SM technique is implemented. With Unity, measurements will be taken to determine if the technique is a viable optimization option in future game development. Methods The methods used to answer the paper’s research question were a pilot user study and a performance study. 20 participants were part of the pilot study, and were asked to rate their perception of shadows shown on a screen in front of them. This yielded results of which shadows the participants noticed differences for. The results were then implemented into Unity and measured with the LOD-SM technique. Results The pilot study showed that user does not notice any differences in 30% decreased polycount-shadows when in a multiple building environment. The gathered results from the performance experiment showed that the LOD-SM technique saved between ∼17% up to ∼70% in render time, compared to a regular implementation of shadow mapping. Conclusions In conclusion, a viable optimization option was found which is to lower a shadow maps appearance based on buildings LODs because as the results has shown, users does not notice the lowering of LODs up to 30% when in a multiple building area. It was discovered that by measuring the LOD-SM technique, clear evidence of optimization was found when using the technique versus using a normal implementation of shadow mapping. Developers would have to consider the size of project and its models before implementing the LOD-SM technique, as it might not be viable for projects with a total polycount of less than 100 000 polygons.

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    Authors: Ahlgren, Per; Kennerberg, Louise; Åkesson Kågedal, Erik;

    Uppsala University Annual Bibliometric Monitoring produces statistics on publication volume, publishing level, citation impact, collaboration (in terms of co-publishing) and open access. The aggregation level is primarily department, which means that it is primarily the departments of Uppsala University that are the units of analysis in the monitoring. Two main data sources are used: the local publication database of Uppsala University, DiVA, and the in-house version of the Web of Science database available at the Centre for Science and Technology Studies at Leiden University, the Netherlands. The considered publication period is 2011-2019. The results are presented in graphs or in tables, and in the next to last section, the results are briefly summarized. Regarding the domain Humanities and Social Sciences, the indicator proportion of publication fractions at level 2 (in the Norwegian model), the departments Economics and Peace and Conflict Studies have the highest values for the last three considered publication years. The highest values on the citation indicators, with respect to the domain Medicine and Pharmacy and the whole publication period, are observed for the three departments Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Immunology, Genetics and Pathology and Pharmacy. For the domain Science and Technology, the three biology departments, Cell and Molecular Biology, Ecology and Genetics and Organismal Biology, all have high values on the citation indicators with respect to the whole publication period. This work is licensed under CC BY 4.0. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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    Authors: Augier, Pierre; Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu; Bonamy, Cyrille;

    FluidDyn is a project to foster open-science and open-source in the fluid dynamics community. It is thought of as a research project to channel open-source dynamics, methods and tools to do science. We propose a set of Python packages forming a framework to study fluid dynamics with different methods, in particular laboratory experiments (package fluidlab), simulations (packages fluidfft, fluidsim and fluidfoam) and data processing (package fluidimage). In the present article, we give an overview of the specialized packages of the project and then focus on the base package called fluiddyn, which contains common code used in the specialized packages. Packages fluidfft and fluidsim are described with greater detail in two companion papers [4, 5]. With the project FluidDyn, we demonstrate that specialized scientific code can be written with methods and good practices of the open-source community. The Mercurial repositories are available in Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/fluiddyn/). All codes are documented using Sphinx and Read the Docs, and tested with continuous integration run on Bitbucket Pipelines and Travis. To improve the reuse potential, the codes are as modular as possible, leveraging the simple object-oriented programming model of Python. All codes are also written to be highly efficient, using C++, Cython and Pythran to speedup the performance of critical functions. Funding statement: This project has indirectly benefited from funding from the foundation Simone et Cino Del Duca de l’Institut de France, the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No 647018-WATU and Euhit consortium) and the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet): 2013-5191. We have also been able to use supercomputers of CIMENT/GRICAD, CINES/GENCI (grant 2018-A0040107567) and the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC).

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    Journal of Open Research Software
    Other literature type . Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Journal of Open Research Software
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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