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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Mehdi amirzadeh; Ahmad Jafarnejad; Hassan Khubyari;

    Today job training is regarded as an important factor in improving the business environment. Performing the job training activities as well as selecting the proper subject of training courses could have mutual benefits for both employers and employees. In addition, due to the growth of competition among the companies, each organization needs to improve its competitive capabilities. For improving the competitive capabilities of companies, many scholars try to introduce job training as one of the main parameters. Nevertheless, some companies do not have any job training programs for their employees because they believe that it will not affect their profit. Top companies in Kerman Province of Iran have similar issue that some of the mangers do not believe in the relationship between job training costs and their profitability. In addition, some of these companies do not have any R&D costs which may be one of the reasons that they do not invest on job training. Therefore, this research has two main objectives by focusing on the top companies in Kerman Province of Iran. First, the relationship between job training costs and the profitability of organizations is studied as the main objective. Then it is investigated if there is a significant difference in job training costs between companies that have R&D cost and the companies with no R&D cost. The results show that there is a meaningful relationship between the job training costs and the profitability of organizations. Moreover, the results show that the companies with zero costs on R&D have less investment on job training.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ مدیریت بهره وریarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    seyed abdollah razavi; mohammad Javad razmi; mostafa salimi far; ali akbar naji;

    This paper uses a panel data stochastic production frontier model to measure economic efficiency of car production industry in Iran. We estimated both time-variant and time-invariant efficiency random effect models. The result shows that economic efficiency in this industry varies overtime between 96.4 to 97.3 percent. The results also show that industry is increasing return to scale

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Muṭāli̒āt-i Mudīriyy...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Somayyeh Sheikhi; Hajar Shekarchizadeh; Zahra Saied-Moallemi;

    Background and Aims: Caregivers’ oral health literacy (OHL) can be effective in increasing their children’s knowledge, and can improve their oral health-related behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mothers’ OHL and children’s oral health status. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 202 6-year child/mother dyads in Semirom, Iran, applying a cluster sampling method. Self-administered questionnaires (Oral Health Literacy-Adult Questionnaire) requested information about mothers’ OHL. Children’s oral health status (dmft and pufa) was recorded via clinical examination. Pearson correlation coefficient, spearman correlation coefficient, independent T-test, and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis. Results: Among 202 pre-school children, 99 were girls (49%). The mean OHL score of mothers was 63.2 (Max achievable score=100, SD=18.9). Higher score of OHL among mothers was associated with their children’s less missing teeth (mt) and more filled teeth (ft) (P<0.05). No significant the association existed between the mothers OHL and their children’s dt, dmft, and pufa. Childrens of younger mothers, more educated mothers, and those with better oral health behaviors in terms of daily flossing and tooth brushing, showed lower scores of dmft and pufa (P<0.05). Conclusion: A significant association revealed between mothers’ OHL and the oral health status of their children. Thus, it is recommended to increase mothers’ OHL to improve their children’s oral health status.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Dental Me...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Mohammad Kargar; Vahid Aein; Abbas Doosti; Mohsen Gholami; +1 Authors

    Background: Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain is one of the most important causes of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and haemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of shigatoxigenic strains and virulence genes in children of the age of under 5-years in Yasuj, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 300 stool samples taken from children of the age of under 5-years with diarrhea in Yasuj. After initial identification of E. coli strains by culture and biochemical tests, shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) genes such as eaeA, stx1 and stx2 detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was evaluated using disc diffusion method under the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Findings: Out of the samples, 104 (34.7%) STEC genes were separated. Out of considered virulence genes, 14 cases (13.46%) had stx1, 31 cases (29.81%)stx2, 9 cases (8.65%) genotype stx1-stx2, 12 cases (11.54%) eaeA-stx1, 25 cases (24.04%) eaeA-stx2 and 13 cases (12.5%) had third eaeA-stx1-stx2 genes. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that the most susceptible antibiotic was imipenem for STEC; the most resistant antibiotic was ceftizoxime. Conclusion: Results showed that STEC strains have high prevalence in our study area. Therefore, hospital-wide surveillance using molecular techniques should be proposed in other regions of our country.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ مجله دانشکده پزشکی ا...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Fereshteh Akbari; Mokhtar Aref;

    Background and Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of rational emotive behavior therapy , group logotherapy, and their combination on the treatment of grief triggered by love trauma in adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Out of 50 adolescent girls who referred to the counseling center, 36 cases were diagnosed with love trauma using the Ross (1999) Love Trauma Scale. They were selecred as research sample and assigned to four groups (n=12 in each group). All participants answered the love trauma test in the pre-test stage. The first group recived rational emotive behavior therapy, the second group recioved Logotherapy-based group counseling, a combination both methods was used in the third group, and the fourth group did not receive any intervention. The Ross Love Trauma Scale was then administered in the four groups in the post-test phase. The changes of the four groups were compared using the analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: Base on the results of analysis of covariance, the increase in the scores of treatment of love trauma in the post-test was significant. The results of Bonferroni test showed that all three treatments were effective in the treatment of love trauma in adolescent girls; nonetheless, the combined method was more effective, compared to the two other treatment methods. Conclusion: As evienced by the obtained results, a combined method of rational emotive behavior therapy and group logotherapy can significantly reduce the grief triggered by love trauma.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ پژوهانarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    پژوهان
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Javad Malekzadeh; Mahboube Yazdani; Alireza Sedaghat; Seyed reza Mazlom;

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) are of the major reasons for death. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and delayed extubation are leading to the incidence of more seriously complications. The effect of hyperinflation has not been investigated in control of these complications in patients who have been weaned from mechanical ventilation and are undergoing T-tube support. Aim: Investigation of MHI effect on oxygenation of patients following abdominal surgery and T-tube support. Method: This clinical trial was performed on 40 patients undergoing abdominal surgery and T-tube support hospitalized in intensive care units of hospitals in Mashhad, Iran, in 2015-2016. The participants were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, MHI technique was performed using Mapleson circuit for three twenty-minute periods. The control group received routine hospital care. The two groups were compared for PaO2, PaCO2 and SpO2 before intervention, 5 and 20 minutes after intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean age was 66.7±8.3 and 67.5±9.0 years in experimental and control groups, respectively. In intergroup comparison using independent t-test, the mean PaCO2, PaO2 and SpO2 had no significant differences in the experimental group before the intervention. However, the means SpO2 and PaO2 at 5 and 20 minutes after intervention were significantly higher in the experimental group (p

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Evidence-...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    مهمترین فعالیت نظام بانکی را می توان جذب سرمایه و پس اندازهای شخصی و سپس بکارگیری و توزیع آن در قالب انواع تسهیلات اعطایی در بخش های گوناگون فعالیت های اقتصادی در سطح خرد و کلان در نظر گرفت. اما در این بین نباید مساله ریسک موجود در اعطای تسهیلات را فراموش کرد. از اینرو در این تحقیق یک الگوی چند هدفه بهینه یابی منابع و مصارف بانکی با تاکید بر نقش مدیریت ریسک ارائه شد. الگوی ریاضی با دو هدف حداقل کردن هزینه جذب سپرده ها و حداکثرسازی سود کسب شده از تسهیلات با در نظر گرفتن ریسک تسهیلات اعطائی و جریمه تاخیر تادیه ارائه شد. سپس برای حل این الگو یکی از بانک های کشور مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت و از روش معیار جامع با مقدار توان 2 در جهت حداقل سازی مجموع توان دوم انحرافات استفاده شد. در نهایت به دلیل غیرخطی بودن تابع هدف درجه دوم روش معیار جامع و محدب نبودن مساله از روش تسلسلی حداقل کردن بدون محدودیت برای یافتن نقطه بهینه استفاده کردیم. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از کارایی الگوی برنامه ریزی ریاضی ارائه شده جهت حل مساله غیرخطی درجه دو نامحدب بود

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ راهبرد مدیریت مالیarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Mahdi Sepidarkish; Saharnaz Nedjat; Leila Haghjou; Leila Mounesan; +3 Authors

    Background and Objective: Lack of exercise is inconsistent with healthy lifestyle. In recent years, it has increased in different age groups, particularly in children and adolescents. To implement any health program, we should have a deep understanding of the health program. This study aimed to recognize characteristics of a school-based program for promoting physical activity in adolescents from the perspective of experts and health authorities, as well as student and parent’s overviews. Also, implementation and integration of this program was investigated by faculty members and connoisseurs' perspectives Methods: The qualitative study was performed through in-depth interviews and Focus group discussion (FGD) on faculty members, experts of different ministries and students and parents. Overall, 24 experts, and 6 faculty members and connoisseurs participated in the study. Also, four FGD were held with students and parents. The findings were examined using content analysis Results: The results were divided in two parts: A) Existing problems and characteristics of a school-based intervention program for promoting physical activity from the perspective of students, parents and experts of different ministry B) implementation and integration of the program by faculty members and connoisseurs' perspectives. Totally, we identified 3 categories and 28 themes for the section A, and 2 categories and 22 themes for the section B. The following three domains were extracted for the section A including management problems, shortage of resources, and approaches of increasing physical activity. Two domains for the section B were barriers to intersectorial coordination and characteristics of a school-based program. The results of the interviews with faculty members and health authorities led to identify a twentieth-stage framework for implementing the program. Conclusion: The results indicated a severe lack of human and financial resources, and a coherent and systematic program to promote physical activity in schools. The identified framework can be used for implementing other health interventions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ http://journal.iheps...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

     مقدمه و اهداف عضلات اطراف شانه نقش بسیار مهمی را در ثبات دینامیک آن فراهم می­کند و لذا برنامه ریزی برای تقویت این عضلات از ضروریات توانخشی عضلانی است . هدف از این مطالعه نیز بررسی اثر پاوربال به عنوان یک روش نسبتا جدید در تمرینات تقویتی بر روی فعالیت عضلات شانه می­باشد. مواد و روش­ها در این مطالعه 75 فرد سالم بطور تصادفی در دو گروه آزمون (50 نفر) و کنترل (25 نفر) قرار گرفتند. بررسی میزان فعالیت عضلات شانه توسط الکترومایوگرافی عضلات دلتوئید میانی، تراپز فوقانی، لاتسیموس دورسی و اینفرااسپیناتوس در وضعیت ابداکشن 90 درجه بازو در دو حالت با پاوربال (گروه آزمون) و با توپ (گروه کنترل) یک­بار بلافاصله و بار دیگر پس از 12 روز تمرین مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. یافته­ها در هر چهار عضله مورد بررسی در گروه آزمون، میزان فعالیت عضلانی در حین استفاده از پاوربال در مقایسه با حالت استراحت افزایش معنی­داری پیدا کرده بود (01/0P). نتیجه گیری نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که استفاده از پاوربال و تمرین با آن در وضعیت ابداکشن 90 درجه بازو می تواند میزان فعالیت عضلانی دلتوئید و تراپز فوقانی را به­طور قابل توجهی افزایش دهد.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ṭibb-i Tavānbakhshīarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Ṭibb-i Tavānbakhshī
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Nastaran Zamani; Shahram Mamdoohi; Zohre Roozbahani;

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases. Moreover, it is one of the major causes of congenital mental disability in neonates which could be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recalling and prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Borujerd. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using existing documents in the health centers of Borujerd. According to the national protocol, all neonates were called to the sampling centers of Borujerd within 3 and 5 days after birth. At this stage, infants with TSH>5 were recalled. According to the national guidelines for the screening with regard to congenital hypothyroidism, neonates with a TSH> 10 mlu/L and T4˂ 6.5 µg/dL were viewed as patients. Results: Of 13741 screened neonates, 1257 newborns were recalled. The recall rate was estimated to be 9.14%, of which 1114 infants had TSH ranging from 5 to 9.9 mlu/L, 120 infants had TSH ranging from 10 to 19.9 mlu/L, and 23 infants had TSH≥20 mlu/L. congenital hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 22 neonates. Hence, the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Borujerd was 1.6 in 1000 live births. Conclusion: The prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Borujerd is higher than the global standard. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the factors associated with the prevalence of this disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Yafteharrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Yafteh
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Mehdi amirzadeh; Ahmad Jafarnejad; Hassan Khubyari;

    Today job training is regarded as an important factor in improving the business environment. Performing the job training activities as well as selecting the proper subject of training courses could have mutual benefits for both employers and employees. In addition, due to the growth of competition among the companies, each organization needs to improve its competitive capabilities. For improving the competitive capabilities of companies, many scholars try to introduce job training as one of the main parameters. Nevertheless, some companies do not have any job training programs for their employees because they believe that it will not affect their profit. Top companies in Kerman Province of Iran have similar issue that some of the mangers do not believe in the relationship between job training costs and their profitability. In addition, some of these companies do not have any R&D costs which may be one of the reasons that they do not invest on job training. Therefore, this research has two main objectives by focusing on the top companies in Kerman Province of Iran. First, the relationship between job training costs and the profitability of organizations is studied as the main objective. Then it is investigated if there is a significant difference in job training costs between companies that have R&D cost and the companies with no R&D cost. The results show that there is a meaningful relationship between the job training costs and the profitability of organizations. Moreover, the results show that the companies with zero costs on R&D have less investment on job training.

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    seyed abdollah razavi; mohammad Javad razmi; mostafa salimi far; ali akbar naji;

    This paper uses a panel data stochastic production frontier model to measure economic efficiency of car production industry in Iran. We estimated both time-variant and time-invariant efficiency random effect models. The result shows that economic efficiency in this industry varies overtime between 96.4 to 97.3 percent. The results also show that industry is increasing return to scale

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    Somayyeh Sheikhi; Hajar Shekarchizadeh; Zahra Saied-Moallemi;

    Background and Aims: Caregivers’ oral health literacy (OHL) can be effective in increasing their children’s knowledge, and can improve their oral health-related behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mothers’ OHL and children’s oral health status. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 202 6-year child/mother dyads in Semirom, Iran, applying a cluster sampling method. Self-administered questionnaires (Oral Health Literacy-Adult Questionnaire) requested information about mothers’ OHL. Children’s oral health status (dmft and pufa) was recorded via clinical examination. Pearson correlation coefficient, spearman correlation coefficient, independent T-test, and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis. Results: Among 202 pre-school children, 99 were girls (49%). The mean OHL score of mothers was 63.2 (Max achievable score=100, SD=18.9). Higher score of OHL among mothers was associated with their children’s less missing teeth (mt) and more filled teeth (ft) (P<0.05). No significant the association existed between the mothers OHL and their children’s dt, dmft, and pufa. Childrens of younger mothers, more educated mothers, and those with better oral health behaviors in terms of daily flossing and tooth brushing, showed lower scores of dmft and pufa (P<0.05). Conclusion: A significant association revealed between mothers’ OHL and the oral health status of their children. Thus, it is recommended to increase mothers’ OHL to improve their children’s oral health status.

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    Mohammad Kargar; Vahid Aein; Abbas Doosti; Mohsen Gholami; +1 Authors

    Background: Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain is one of the most important causes of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and haemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of shigatoxigenic strains and virulence genes in children of the age of under 5-years in Yasuj, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 300 stool samples taken from children of the age of under 5-years with diarrhea in Yasuj. After initial identification of E. coli strains by culture and biochemical tests, shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) genes such as eaeA, stx1 and stx2 detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was evaluated using disc diffusion method under the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Findings: Out of the samples, 104 (34.7%) STEC genes were separated. Out of considered virulence genes, 14 cases (13.46%) had stx1, 31 cases (29.81%)stx2, 9 cases (8.65%) genotype stx1-stx2, 12 cases (11.54%) eaeA-stx1, 25 cases (24.04%) eaeA-stx2 and 13 cases (12.5%) had third eaeA-stx1-stx2 genes. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that the most susceptible antibiotic was imipenem for STEC; the most resistant antibiotic was ceftizoxime. Conclusion: Results showed that STEC strains have high prevalence in our study area. Therefore, hospital-wide surveillance using molecular techniques should be proposed in other regions of our country.

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    Fereshteh Akbari; Mokhtar Aref;

    Background and Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of rational emotive behavior therapy , group logotherapy, and their combination on the treatment of grief triggered by love trauma in adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Out of 50 adolescent girls who referred to the counseling center, 36 cases were diagnosed with love trauma using the Ross (1999) Love Trauma Scale. They were selecred as research sample and assigned to four groups (n=12 in each group). All participants answered the love trauma test in the pre-test stage. The first group recived rational emotive behavior therapy, the second group recioved Logotherapy-based group counseling, a combination both methods was used in the third group, and the fourth group did not receive any intervention. The Ross Love Trauma Scale was then administered in the four groups in the post-test phase. The changes of the four groups were compared using the analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: Base on the results of analysis of covariance, the increase in the scores of treatment of love trauma in the post-test was significant. The results of Bonferroni test showed that all three treatments were effective in the treatment of love trauma in adolescent girls; nonetheless, the combined method was more effective, compared to the two other treatment methods. Conclusion: As evienced by the obtained results, a combined method of rational emotive behavior therapy and group logotherapy can significantly reduce the grief triggered by love trauma.

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    پژوهان
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Javad Malekzadeh; Mahboube Yazdani; Alireza Sedaghat; Seyed reza Mazlom;

    Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) are of the major reasons for death. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and delayed extubation are leading to the incidence of more seriously complications. The effect of hyperinflation has not been investigated in control of these complications in patients who have been weaned from mechanical ventilation and are undergoing T-tube support. Aim: Investigation of MHI effect on oxygenation of patients following abdominal surgery and T-tube support. Method: This clinical trial was performed on 40 patients undergoing abdominal surgery and T-tube support hospitalized in intensive care units of hospitals in Mashhad, Iran, in 2015-2016. The participants were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, MHI technique was performed using Mapleson circuit for three twenty-minute periods. The control group received routine hospital care. The two groups were compared for PaO2, PaCO2 and SpO2 before intervention, 5 and 20 minutes after intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean age was 66.7±8.3 and 67.5±9.0 years in experimental and control groups, respectively. In intergroup comparison using independent t-test, the mean PaCO2, PaO2 and SpO2 had no significant differences in the experimental group before the intervention. However, the means SpO2 and PaO2 at 5 and 20 minutes after intervention were significantly higher in the experimental group (p

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    مهمترین فعالیت نظام بانکی را می توان جذب سرمایه و پس اندازهای شخصی و سپس بکارگیری و توزیع آن در قالب انواع تسهیلات اعطایی در بخش های گوناگون فعالیت های اقتصادی در سطح خرد و کلان در نظر گرفت. اما در این بین نباید مساله ریسک موجود در اعطای تسهیلات را فراموش کرد. از اینرو در این تحقیق یک الگوی چند هدفه بهینه یابی منابع و مصارف بانکی با تاکید بر نقش مدیریت ریسک ارائه شد. الگوی ریاضی با دو هدف حداقل کردن هزینه جذب سپرده ها و حداکثرسازی سود کسب شده از تسهیلات با در نظر گرفتن ریسک تسهیلات اعطائی و جریمه تاخیر تادیه ارائه شد. سپس برای حل این الگو یکی از بانک های کشور مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت و از روش معیار جامع با مقدار توان 2 در جهت حداقل سازی مجموع توان دوم انحرافات استفاده شد. در نهایت به دلیل غیرخطی بودن تابع هدف درجه دوم روش معیار جامع و محدب نبودن مساله از روش تسلسلی حداقل کردن بدون محدودیت برای یافتن نقطه بهینه استفاده کردیم. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از کارایی الگوی برنامه ریزی ریاضی ارائه شده جهت حل مساله غیرخطی درجه دو نامحدب بود

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    Mahdi Sepidarkish; Saharnaz Nedjat; Leila Haghjou; Leila Mounesan; +3 Authors

    Background and Objective: Lack of exercise is inconsistent with healthy lifestyle. In recent years, it has increased in different age groups, particularly in children and adolescents. To implement any health program, we should have a deep understanding of the health program. This study aimed to recognize characteristics of a school-based program for promoting physical activity in adolescents from the perspective of experts and health authorities, as well as student and parent’s overviews. Also, implementation and integration of this program was investigated by faculty members and connoisseurs' perspectives Methods: The qualitative study was performed through in-depth interviews and Focus group discussion (FGD) on faculty members, experts of different ministries and students and parents. Overall, 24 experts, and 6 faculty members and connoisseurs participated in the study. Also, four FGD were held with students and parents. The findings were examined using content analysis Results: The results were divided in two parts: A) Existing problems and characteristics of a school-based intervention program for promoting physical activity from the perspective of students, parents and experts of different ministry B) implementation and integration of the program by faculty members and connoisseurs' perspectives. Totally, we identified 3 categories and 28 themes for the section A, and 2 categories and 22 themes for the section B. The following three domains were extracted for the section A including management problems, shortage of resources, and approaches of increasing physical activity. Two domains for the section B were barriers to intersectorial coordination and characteristics of a school-based program. The results of the interviews with faculty members and health authorities led to identify a twentieth-stage framework for implementing the program. Conclusion: The results indicated a severe lack of human and financial resources, and a coherent and systematic program to promote physical activity in schools. The identified framework can be used for implementing other health interventions.

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     مقدمه و اهداف عضلات اطراف شانه نقش بسیار مهمی را در ثبات دینامیک آن فراهم می­کند و لذا برنامه ریزی برای تقویت این عضلات از ضروریات توانخشی عضلانی است . هدف از این مطالعه نیز بررسی اثر پاوربال به عنوان یک روش نسبتا جدید در تمرینات تقویتی بر روی فعالیت عضلات شانه می­باشد. مواد و روش­ها در این مطالعه 75 فرد سالم بطور تصادفی در دو گروه آزمون (50 نفر) و کنترل (25 نفر) قرار گرفتند. بررسی میزان فعالیت عضلات شانه توسط الکترومایوگرافی عضلات دلتوئید میانی، تراپز فوقانی، لاتسیموس دورسی و اینفرااسپیناتوس در وضعیت ابداکشن 90 درجه بازو در دو حالت با پاوربال (گروه آزمون) و با توپ (گروه کنترل) یک­بار بلافاصله و بار دیگر پس از 12 روز تمرین مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. یافته­ها در هر چهار عضله مورد بررسی در گروه آزمون، میزان فعالیت عضلانی در حین استفاده از پاوربال در مقایسه با حالت استراحت افزایش معنی­داری پیدا کرده بود (01/0P). نتیجه گیری نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که استفاده از پاوربال و تمرین با آن در وضعیت ابداکشن 90 درجه بازو می تواند میزان فعالیت عضلانی دلتوئید و تراپز فوقانی را به­طور قابل توجهی افزایش دهد.

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    Ṭibb-i Tavānbakhshī
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Nastaran Zamani; Shahram Mamdoohi; Zohre Roozbahani;

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases. Moreover, it is one of the major causes of congenital mental disability in neonates which could be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recalling and prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Borujerd. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using existing documents in the health centers of Borujerd. According to the national protocol, all neonates were called to the sampling centers of Borujerd within 3 and 5 days after birth. At this stage, infants with TSH>5 were recalled. According to the national guidelines for the screening with regard to congenital hypothyroidism, neonates with a TSH> 10 mlu/L and T4˂ 6.5 µg/dL were viewed as patients. Results: Of 13741 screened neonates, 1257 newborns were recalled. The recall rate was estimated to be 9.14%, of which 1114 infants had TSH ranging from 5 to 9.9 mlu/L, 120 infants had TSH ranging from 10 to 19.9 mlu/L, and 23 infants had TSH≥20 mlu/L. congenital hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 22 neonates. Hence, the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Borujerd was 1.6 in 1000 live births. Conclusion: The prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in Borujerd is higher than the global standard. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the factors associated with the prevalence of this disease.

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    Yafteh
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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