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  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
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  • Persian
  • Transport Research

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hassan Mahmoudzadeh; Zahra Faraj nrjad; Mehdi Harischian;

    Today, with the expansion of cities and the increase of urban population, and in proportion to the increase of road traffic, many problems have arisen for people in terms of length and time of urban travel. In the meantime, proper organization of public transportation, including bus stations, can play an important role in reducing the length and time of city trips. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of desirability of the current spatial distribution of Maragheh bus stations and then to determine the most appropriate model of spatial distribution of bus stations, which is applied-practical in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in nature and method. In this research, the TOPSIS model was used for ranking the road network in terms of priority of bus stations and suitable locations of these stations and the network analysis model in the GIS environment was used to determine the optimal routes and calculate the length and time of routes on the network. Ten criteria of distance from residential, commercial, office, educational, cultural, recreational and green space, health and treatment, distance from intersection, access and population density were used, which were weighted by ANP method. In this study, the results of TOPSIS model showed that bus stations do not cover the road network properly and their standard distance from each other is not observed. Also, the results of network analysis model showed that out of 8 bus lines in Maragheh, 5 lines in the return routes and 2 lines in the return route were changed, and the total length of bus routes after applying the algorithm was 5724 meters and the time required for the routes was 20. Minutes decreased. Finally, the final map of the optimal pattern of spatial distribution of bus stations showed that small parts of Valiasr town - Phase 1 and Phase 2, large parts of Sahand and Daraei - Talebkhan town, quite desirable places and many parts of Valiasr town - Phase 1 and a smaller part of Phase 2 in The limit is desirable and the rest of the sections are medium and low, respectively, for the optimal distribution of Maragheh bus stations.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doaj.org/art...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doaj.org/article/070f8...
    Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doaj.org/art...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doaj.org/article/070f8...
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hassan Sadeghi Naeini; Zahra Dehghani; Hamide Torabi; Naser Koleini Mamaghani; +1 Authors

    The outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic has led to changes in people's lifestyles and behaviors. These changes have occurred in various fields, including transportation. There are several options for urban transportation, such as public and private transportation and bicycles, that different countries used different behaviors before and after Corona. This research aims to measure the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on people's use of different modes of transportation and their comparison. For this purpose, a Likert scale questionnaire was used in Shiraz and Tehran, Iran and the participants were selected from users of the Bicycle Rental System. The study's results revealed a decrease in people's use of these bicycles during the COVID-19 Pandemic conditions. In the same period, people favored private cars and used fewer public transportation vehicles. Among the different urban vehicles available, public transportation was the most used before COVID-19, while personal transportation was used the most after Corona.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doaj.org/art...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doaj.org/article/fd91f...
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doaj.org/art...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doaj.org/article/fd91f...
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: DOAJ
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ali Akbar Taghipour; abolfazl mashayekhi; Parsa Ahmadi Dehrashid;

    IntroductionCities are expanding. One of the problems that cities face is the need to relocate population. Usually, as cities get bigger, the problems of intra-city transportation become more complex. Since the construction and operation of public transportation systems requires a lot of money, choosing the best intercity public transportation system requires careful consideration and evaluation. Without any exaggeration, since the beginning of the arrival of motor vehicles in Iran, transportation management in our cities has faced challenges for many reasons, such as the importance of tools and the lack of a culture of use. Also, due to the serious weakness of public transportation, taxis have become important and have a special place in the urban transportation system, to the extent that in some small and medium-sized cities up to 80% of intra-city transportation is done by taxi. Advances in technology have led to the increasing use of the Internet by various groups and occupations. This issue has also entered the transportation system and has led to the creation of new methods in world transportation. One of the reasons for the low satisfaction of citizens with public transportation is the lack of attention to the expansion of Internet systems. Failure in using online systems has increased costs and confused travelers. Continuation of the existing trend can lead to new issues such as increasing the maintenance costs of transportation infrastructure and reducing their use. The high share of taxis as a method of public transportation in urban transportation in Iran, puts addressing the issue of efficiency and effectiveness of this device first, according to its new type (smart taxis such as Maxim, etc.) and a large number of stakeholders including taxi drivers and citizens. In this research, the intelligent transportation system in Damghan city has been studied and seeks to answer this question: What factors have made citizens satisfied with intelligent transportation systems?MethodologyThe present research is descriptive - analytical and in terms of essence is practical. By reviewing different texts and research background, indicators of citizens' satisfaction with the intelligent transportation system were collected. The questionnaire was used to collect information. The statistical population of the present study is students living in Bustan and Golestan neighborhoods of Damghan in year 1399. This statistical population has been selected for two reasons. The first reason is the weakness of Damghan public transportation system in this part of the city and the second reason is the greater desire of students to use ridesourcing taxi systems. Sampling was done by using random sampling methods. Citizens' opinions were then analyzed using SPSS software. Factor analysis method was used to analyze the data. In this method, all indicators are divided into 4 categories: mobility, access and economic well-being, legality and welfare facilities. Then, the impact of these factors on explaining citizens' satisfaction with Internet transportation has been determined. The Cronbach's alpha value for the whole questionnaire was 0.976, which indicates that the questionnaire has high reliability. Discussion and ResultsAt this stage, after entering the questionnaires in SPSS, a table of commonalities related to each variable was formed, which shows the amount of common variance of each variable with other variables. Then variables with commonalities less than 0.4 are removed to increase the explanatory rate of the model. The KMO value was 0.938, which indicates that the data are suitable for factor analysis. Also, the level of significance is 0.000 and this shows that this analysis is at a desirable level of significance. Finally, the factor matrix is rotated so that each of the relevant indicators has the most relationship with the relevant factors. The final 4 factors were identified as effective factors on citizens' satisfaction. The first factor, which explains 24.628 of the total variance, was correlated with indicators such as ease of access at different times, coverage, can be named access and economic efficiency. The second factor, which explains 21.242 of the total variance, was correlated with safety indicators, compliance with the rules, and can be named as legality. The third factor explains 16.382 of the total variance and has been correlated with the indicators of car number, heating and cooling facilities, can be named as welfare facilities. The fourth factor, explains 10.58 of the total variance and was correlated with the indicators of return of leftovers and security of goods, can be named as the possibility of moving goods.ConclusionA total of 4 factors of access and economic welfare, legality, amenities and the possibility of moving goods show citizens' satisfaction with ridesourcing taxi drivers. The important thing about these factors is to prioritize them so that the change in each of the factors how much reduces or increases the amount of satisfaction. The factor of access and economic welfare has the highest priority among the factors and changes in its indicators such as increasing accessibility and reducing prices have a great impact on improving citizen satisfaction. The point that has reduced the citizens' satisfaction with the access factor and social welfare is the lack of easy access at night. After that, the legality factor has the second priority. It seems that the important point to increase citizens' satisfaction with this factor is monitoring. In terms of legality, night safety and compliance with traffic laws indicators have not been to the satisfaction of citizens. The third and fourth priorities are allocated to the welfare facilities and the possibility of moving goods. Changes in these two factors cannot have as many effects as the first and second factors, but will increase the motivation and desire of citizens to use ridesourcing taxi. In examining these factors, it is clear that citizens have given different answers to this issue. This difference stems from the fact that the existence of amenities in different cars are different, and in general, there are no specific criteria for reviewing amenities by the providers of these services.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geographic Research ...arrow_drop_down
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    Geographic Research of Desert
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geographic Research ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Geographic Research of Desert
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: DOAJ
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Khashayar Khavarian; Malihe Ghorbani; Fatemeh Kazemi; Mina Mirmasoumi; +1 Authors

    With the spread of COVID-19 in the world, various measures were applied to reduce the number of fatalities. Reducing daily travel and avoiding crowded places were two important advices to limit the spread which decreased transit use. By shifting some work trips from transit and encouraging residents to use other modes, it is feared that the process of returning passengers to the transit will be slow. In the long term, this backwardness reduces investment in public transportation and share of this system from urban mobility. Ticket transaction information shows that a significant share of the former demand for transit has not returned to it even with decrease in number of infections. This study explores the shift in people's work travel habits following the epidemy of COVID-19 using an online questionnaire. Examining the results of a sample size of 1050 reveals that the proportion of business trips made by public transportation has been reduced to less than half. This decrease is almost the same between men and women and among different categories of education, but it is various in different age groups.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doaj.org/art...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doaj.org/article/62f11...
    Article . 2022
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      https://doaj.org/article/62f11...
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Marzieh Izadi laybidi; Adel Mazloumi; Jebraeil Nasl Saraji; Faramarz Gharagozlou; +3 Authors

    Introduction: Air traffic control is a very complex process, including multiple human-machine interactions. Human mental workload plays an important role in this process. Nowadays, electroencephalography indexes are considered as new indicators in the field of assessment of mental workload. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between EEG theta power and mental workload in air traffic control simulation. Material and Methods: Fourteen air traffic controllers participated in this study. Controllers carried out two scenarios, including low and high workload, based on task load factors in an air traffic control simulator. Mental workload was assessed in these two scenarios by the NASA-TLX questionnaire. EEG signals were continuously recorded during air traffic control tasks. Afterward, absolute theta power was extracted from participants’ EEG using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) by the MATLAB software and was compared with each other in terms of high and low workload. Results: The results showed a significant relationship in absolute theta power during low and high workload scenarios in all regions of the brain (p < 0.05). Absolute theta power increased primarily in the frontal region during the high workload scenario. Also, there was a significant increase in the relationship between work experience and absolute theta power at the F3 region during the high workload scenario (P=0.021, r=0.607). Conclusion: Absolute theta power provides a good parameter to assess mental workload at different levels of air traffic control tasks. Therefore, it can be used as a tool for the design of human-machine complex systems.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ بهداشت و ایمنی کارarrow_drop_down
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    بهداشت و ایمنی کار
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ بهداشت و ایمنی کارarrow_drop_down
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      بهداشت و ایمنی کار
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: mohammad alizadeh; meisam jaafari; majid shahabi;

    Charging demand of electric vehicles in fast charging stations can have a significant impact on the process of distribution network reconfiguration and islanding. In this paper, the problem of dynamic islanding and reconfiguration of distribution network taking into account the interaction between the electrical and traffic networks is presented in the form of a two-stage model. In the first step, considering the tendency of electric vehicle to charge at nearby fast charging stations, a linear model has been proposed to determine the charging demand of the stations in the traffic network. In the second step, a scenario-based mixed integer linear model is proposed with the aim of maximizing the resiliency index of the distribution network equipped with dispersed production resources using dynamic islanding and reconfiguration plans. The resiliency index consists of two objectives, including maximizing network load recovery and maximizing the power supply of fast charging stations. In order to provide a realistic model, the uncertainty in predicting the productive capacity of renewable wind resources has been considered. The proposed model has been implemented on the 118 bus network by applying several simultaneous faults and the presence of electric vehicles in the 25-node traffic network in the GAMS software. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in evaluating the resiliency of the active distribution network in the presence of electric vehicles.

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    https://doaj.org/article/0f6e7...
    Article . 2020
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      https://doaj.org/article/0f6e7...
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Sayyed Abbas Mousavian; Mohammad Hasem Botshekan; Fereshteh Rahimi Almasi;

    At the moment, Iran needs an urgent development of its infrastructure but the government's financial resources are not high enough to afford such expenses and on the other hand, the mismatch between the short-term resources of banks and long-term expenses of projects, has made it inappropriate to finance long-term needs through banks. In this regard using the private sector's resources through the capital market can be a good solution for this problem. The main objective of this research is to design and juridical study of Ju'alah securities to finance infrastructure road transport projects in capital market of Iran. By applying the Delphi method or experts survey, the juridical aspects of the newly designed Ju'alah securities to finance infrastructure road projects were studied and two operational model for it were approved by experts in which: (i) the contractor builds the project for certain amount of money that the government should pay. This model is suitable for Build, Transfer and Lease (BTL) contracts and alike, (ii) the contractor builds the project for the right to operate it for a specific time period. This model is suitable for Build, Operate and transfer (BOT) contracts and alike.

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    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Jafar Salman Zadeh;

    Article 20 (1) of the Warsaw-Montreal Convention shall not be liable if the Air transport operator proves that his agents have taken "all necessary measures" to prevent the harm or that such measures have not been possible for his agents. According to this Article, the operator has the right to full defense against any claim. Therefore, if it is proved that, operator has done "all necessary measures" it will not be responsible. It applies to injury, death and delay of passenger, as well as any damage or delay about cargo. On the other hand, in accordance with Article 21, "If the carrier proves that the damage was caused by or contributed to by the negligence of the injured person the Court may, in accordance with the provisions of its own law, exonerate the carrier wholly or partly from his liability." All defense which is mentioned at Art 21 and 22 are applicable and compatible in Jurisprudence. The author intends to explain this issue in this essay.

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    https://doaj.org/article/63271...
    Article . 2021
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      https://doaj.org/article/63271...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hassan Mahmoudzadeh; Zahra Faraj nrjad; Mehdi Harischian;

    Today, with the expansion of cities and the increase of urban population, and in proportion to the increase of road traffic, many problems have arisen for people in terms of length and time of urban travel. In the meantime, proper organization of public transportation, including bus stations, can play an important role in reducing the length and time of city trips. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of desirability of the current spatial distribution of Maragheh bus stations and then to determine the most appropriate model of spatial distribution of bus stations, which is applied-practical in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in nature and method. In this research, the TOPSIS model was used for ranking the road network in terms of priority of bus stations and suitable locations of these stations and the network analysis model in the GIS environment was used to determine the optimal routes and calculate the length and time of routes on the network. Ten criteria of distance from residential, commercial, office, educational, cultural, recreational and green space, health and treatment, distance from intersection, access and population density were used, which were weighted by ANP method. In this study, the results of TOPSIS model showed that bus stations do not cover the road network properly and their standard distance from each other is not observed. Also, the results of network analysis model showed that out of 8 bus lines in Maragheh, 5 lines in the return routes and 2 lines in the return route were changed, and the total length of bus routes after applying the algorithm was 5724 meters and the time required for the routes was 20. Minutes decreased. Finally, the final map of the optimal pattern of spatial distribution of bus stations showed that small parts of Valiasr town - Phase 1 and Phase 2, large parts of Sahand and Daraei - Talebkhan town, quite desirable places and many parts of Valiasr town - Phase 1 and a smaller part of Phase 2 in The limit is desirable and the rest of the sections are medium and low, respectively, for the optimal distribution of Maragheh bus stations.

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    https://doaj.org/article/070f8...
    Article . 2020
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      https://doaj.org/article/070f8...
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hassan Sadeghi Naeini; Zahra Dehghani; Hamide Torabi; Naser Koleini Mamaghani; +1 Authors

    The outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic has led to changes in people's lifestyles and behaviors. These changes have occurred in various fields, including transportation. There are several options for urban transportation, such as public and private transportation and bicycles, that different countries used different behaviors before and after Corona. This research aims to measure the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on people's use of different modes of transportation and their comparison. For this purpose, a Likert scale questionnaire was used in Shiraz and Tehran, Iran and the participants were selected from users of the Bicycle Rental System. The study's results revealed a decrease in people's use of these bicycles during the COVID-19 Pandemic conditions. In the same period, people favored private cars and used fewer public transportation vehicles. Among the different urban vehicles available, public transportation was the most used before COVID-19, while personal transportation was used the most after Corona.

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    https://doaj.org/article/fd91f...
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doaj.org/article/fd91f...
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ali Akbar Taghipour; abolfazl mashayekhi; Parsa Ahmadi Dehrashid;

    IntroductionCities are expanding. One of the problems that cities face is the need to relocate population. Usually, as cities get bigger, the problems of intra-city transportation become more complex. Since the construction and operation of public transportation systems requires a lot of money, choosing the best intercity public transportation system requires careful consideration and evaluation. Without any exaggeration, since the beginning of the arrival of motor vehicles in Iran, transportation management in our cities has faced challenges for many reasons, such as the importance of tools and the lack of a culture of use. Also, due to the serious weakness of public transportation, taxis have become important and have a special place in the urban transportation system, to the extent that in some small and medium-sized cities up to 80% of intra-city transportation is done by taxi. Advances in technology have led to the increasing use of the Internet by various groups and occupations. This issue has also entered the transportation system and has led to the creation of new methods in world transportation. One of the reasons for the low satisfaction of citizens with public transportation is the lack of attention to the expansion of Internet systems. Failure in using online systems has increased costs and confused travelers. Continuation of the existing trend can lead to new issues such as increasing the maintenance costs of transportation infrastructure and reducing their use. The high share of taxis as a method of public transportation in urban transportation in Iran, puts addressing the issue of efficiency and effectiveness of this device first, according to its new type (smart taxis such as Maxim, etc.) and a large number of stakeholders including taxi drivers and citizens. In this research, the intelligent transportation system in Damghan city has been studied and seeks to answer this question: What factors have made citizens satisfied with intelligent transportation systems?MethodologyThe present research is descriptive - analytical and in terms of essence is practical. By reviewing different texts and research background, indicators of citizens' satisfaction with the intelligent transportation system were collected. The questionnaire was used to collect information. The statistical population of the present study is students living in Bustan and Golestan neighborhoods of Damghan in year 1399. This statistical population has been selected for two reasons. The first reason is the weakness of Damghan public transportation system in this part of the city and the second reason is the greater desire of students to use ridesourcing taxi systems. Sampling was done by using random sampling methods. Citizens' opinions were then analyzed using SPSS software. Factor analysis method was used to analyze the data. In this method, all indicators are divided into 4 categories: mobility, access and economic well-being, legality and welfare facilities. Then, the impact of these factors on explaining citizens' satisfaction with Internet transportation has been determined. The Cronbach's alpha value for the whole questionnaire was 0.976, which indicates that the questionnaire has high reliability. Discussion and ResultsAt this stage, after entering the questionnaires in SPSS, a table of commonalities related to each variable was formed, which shows the amount of common variance of each variable with other variables. Then variables with commonalities less than 0.4 are removed to increase the explanatory rate of the model. The KMO value was 0.938, which indicates that the data are suitable for factor analysis. Also, the level of significance is 0.000 and this shows that this analysis is at a desirable level of significance. Finally, the factor matrix is rotated so that each of the relevant indicators has the most relationship with the relevant factors. The final 4 factors were identified as effective factors on citizens' satisfaction. The first factor, which explains 24.628 of the total variance, was correlated with indicators such as ease of access at different times, coverage, can be named access and economic efficiency. The second factor, which explains 21.242 of the total variance, was correlated with safety indicators, compliance with the rules, and can be named as legality. The third factor explains 16.382 of the total variance and has been correlated with the indicators of car number, heating and cooling facilities, can be named as welfare facilities. The fourth factor, explains 10.58 of the total variance and was correlated with the indicators of return of leftovers and security of goods, can be named as the possibility of moving goods.ConclusionA total of 4 factors of access and economic welfare, legality, amenities and the possibility of moving goods show citizens' satisfaction with ridesourcing taxi drivers. The important thing about these factors is to prioritize them so that the change in each of the factors how much reduces or increases the amount of satisfaction. The factor of access and economic welfare has the highest priority among the factors and changes in its indicators such as increasing accessibility and reducing prices have a great impact on improving citizen satisfaction. The point that has reduced the citizens' satisfaction with the access factor and social welfare is the lack of easy access at night. After that, the legality factor has the second priority. It seems that the important point to increase citizens' satisfaction with this factor is monitoring. In terms of legality, night safety and compliance with traffic laws indicators have not been to the satisfaction of citizens. The third and fourth priorities are allocated to the welfare facilities and the possibility of moving goods. Changes in these two factors cannot have as many effects as the first and second factors, but will increase the motivation and desire of citizens to use ridesourcing taxi. In examining these factors, it is clear that citizens have given different answers to this issue. This difference stems from the fact that the existence of amenities in different cars are different, and in general, there are no specific criteria for reviewing amenities by the providers of these services.

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    Geographic Research of Desert
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Geographic Research of Desert
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Khashayar Khavarian; Malihe Ghorbani; Fatemeh Kazemi; Mina Mirmasoumi; +1 Authors

    With the spread of COVID-19 in the world, various measures were applied to reduce the number of fatalities. Reducing daily travel and avoiding crowded places were two important advices to limit the spread which decreased transit use. By shifting some work trips from transit and encouraging residents to use other modes, it is feared that the process of returning passengers to the transit will be slow. In the long term, this backwardness reduces investment in public transportation and share of this system from urban mobility. Ticket transaction information shows that a significant share of the former demand for transit has not returned to it even with decrease in number of infections. This study explores the shift in people's work travel habits following the epidemy of COVID-19 using an online questionnaire. Examining the results of a sample size of 1050 reveals that the proportion of business trips made by public transportation has been reduced to less than half. This decrease is almost the same between men and women and among different categories of education, but it is various in different age groups.

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    https://doaj.org/article/62f11...
    Article . 2022
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      https://doaj.org/article/62f11...
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Marzieh Izadi laybidi; Adel Mazloumi; Jebraeil Nasl Saraji; Faramarz Gharagozlou; +3 Authors

    Introduction: Air traffic control is a very complex process, including multiple human-machine interactions. Human mental workload plays an important role in this process. Nowadays, electroencephalography indexes are considered as new indicators in the field of assessment of mental workload. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between EEG theta power and mental workload in air traffic control simulation. Material and Methods: Fourteen air traffic controllers participated in this study. Controllers carried out two scenarios, including low and high workload, based on task load factors in an air traffic control simulator. Mental workload was assessed in these two scenarios by the NASA-TLX questionnaire. EEG signals were continuously recorded during air traffic control tasks. Afterward, absolute theta power was extracted from participants’ EEG using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) by the MATLAB software and was compared with each other in terms of high and low workload. Results: The results showed a significant relationship in absolute theta power during low and high workload scenarios in all regions of the brain (p < 0.05). Absolute theta power increased primarily in the frontal region during the high workload scenario. Also, there was a significant increase in the relationship between work experience and absolute theta power at the F3 region during the high workload scenario (P=0.021, r=0.607). Conclusion: Absolute theta power provides a good parameter to assess mental workload at different levels of air traffic control tasks. Therefore, it can be used as a tool for the design of human-machine complex systems.

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    بهداشت و ایمنی کار
    Article . 2023
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      بهداشت و ایمنی کار
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: mohammad alizadeh; meisam jaafari; majid shahabi;

    Charging demand of electric vehicles in fast charging stations can have a significant impact on the process of distribution network reconfiguration and islanding. In this paper, the problem of dynamic islanding and reconfiguration of distribution network taking into account the interaction between the electrical and traffic networks is presented in the form of a two-stage model. In the first step, considering the tendency of electric vehicle to charge at nearby fast charging stations, a linear model has been proposed to determine the charging demand of the stations in the traffic network. In the second step, a scenario-based mixed integer linear model is proposed with the aim of maximizing the resiliency index of the distribution network equipped with dispersed production resources using dynamic islanding and reconfiguration plans. The resiliency index consists of two objectives, including maximizing network load recovery and maximizing the power supply of fast charging stations. In order to provide a realistic model, the uncertainty in predicting the productive capacity of renewable wind resources has been considered. The proposed model has been implemented on the 118 bus network by applying several simultaneous faults and the presence of electric vehicles in the 25-node traffic network in the GAMS software. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in evaluating the resiliency of the active distribution network in the presence of electric vehicles.

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    https://doaj.org/article/0f6e7...
    Article . 2020
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      https://doaj.org/article/0f6e7...
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Sayyed Abbas Mousavian; Mohammad Hasem Botshekan; Fereshteh Rahimi Almasi;

    At the moment, Iran needs an urgent development of its infrastructure but the government's financial resources are not high enough to afford such expenses and on the other hand, the mismatch between the short-term resources of banks and long-term expenses of projects, has made it inappropriate to finance long-term needs through banks. In this regard using the private sector's resources through the capital market can be a good solution for this problem. The main objective of this research is to design and juridical study of Ju'alah securities to finance infrastructure road transport projects in capital market of Iran. By applying the Delphi method or experts survey, the juridical aspects of the newly designed Ju'alah securities to finance infrastructure road projects were studied and two operational model for it were approved by experts in which: (i) the contractor builds the project for certain amount of money that the government should pay. This model is suitable for Build, Transfer and Lease (BTL) contracts and alike, (ii) the contractor builds the project for the right to operate it for a specific time period. This model is suitable for Build, Operate and transfer (BOT) contracts and alike.

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    Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Jafar Salman Zadeh;

    Article 20 (1) of the Warsaw-Montreal Convention shall not be liable if the Air transport operator proves that his agents have taken "all necessary measures" to prevent the harm or that such measures have not been possible for his agents. According to this Article, the operator has the right to full defense against any claim. Therefore, if it is proved that, operator has done "all necessary measures" it will not be responsible. It applies to injury, death and delay of passenger, as well as any damage or delay about cargo. On the other hand, in accordance with Article 21, "If the carrier proves that the damage was caused by or contributed to by the negligence of the injured person the Court may, in accordance with the provisions of its own law, exonerate the carrier wholly or partly from his liability." All defense which is mentioned at Art 21 and 22 are applicable and compatible in Jurisprudence. The author intends to explain this issue in this essay.

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    https://doaj.org/article/63271...
    Article . 2021
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      https://doaj.org/article/63271...
      Article . 2021
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