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  • 2019-2023
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  • Publikationer från KTH

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brink, John;

    Locomotion in VR is still a topic of exploration, as different solutions serve different purposes. Teleportation is an established technique for moving in virtual environments larger than physical space, but one area that has not been thoroughly investigated is controller-free teleportation, where users are not limited by intermediary devices for movement control. Recent advancements in VR headsets now allow tracking of multiple body parts, including hands and eyes, enabling locomotion solely through gestures. Prior research on hand- and eye-tracking for teleportation in VR shows promising results in controlled environments but lacks practical comparisons in typical VR applications with dynamic settings. In this study, two types of controller-free teleportation techniques based on hand- and eye-tracking were implemented. The results indicate that, in dynamic VR environments, hand-based teleportation is more efficient and has seemingly higher usability. However, eye-based teleportation appears more immersive, and is potentially a viable and less physically demanding alternative for people with disabilities to increase the accessibility to VR applications. This study’s results provide valuable insights for developing innovative controller-free locomotion techniques utilizing body-tracking in dynamic VR environments. Förflyttning i VR är ett ämne som fortfarande utforskas, då olika lösningar passar olika ändamål. Teleportering är en etablerad förflyttningsteknik för att röra sig i virtuella miljöer som är större än det fysiska utrymmet man befinner sig i, men ett område som inte har undersökts mycket ännu är kontrollerfri teleportering, där användare inte begränsas av mellanliggande enheter för att förflytta sig. De senaste utvecklingen av VR-headset tillåter kroppsspårning av händer och ögon, vilket möjliggör förflyttning enbart genom gester. Tidigare forskning kring hand- och ögonspårning för teleportering i VR visar lovande resultat i kontrollerade miljöer, men saknar praktiska jämförelser i typiska VR-applikationer med dynamiska miljöer. I denna studie implementerades två typer av kontrollerfria teleporteringstekniker baserade på hand- och ögonspårning. Resultaten tyder på att i dynamiska VR-miljöer är handbaserad teleportering mer effektiv och till synes högre användbarhet. Ögonbaserad teleportering verkar dock vara mer uppslukande, och är potentiellt ett användbart samt mindre fysiskt krävande alternativ för personer med funktionsnedsättning för att öka tillgängligheten till VR applikationer. Resultaten av denna studie ger värdefulla insikter till utvecklingen av innovativa kontrollerfria rörelsetekniker som använder kroppsspårning i dynamiska VR-miljöer.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2023
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2023
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mettler, Hannes;

    In our fast-paced, hectic time, which is stamped by an ever-increasing degree of nervousness, unrest, and unsteadiness it has become customary for mankind to relax for a shorter or longer period of time from the habits of everyday life and recreation. To search for strength somewhere on earth that is away from the place of business, that invites you to rest from everyday worries and toils. So lures the Black Forest. With these words, the Sommerberg-Hotel was advertised already over 100 years ago. Nowadays stress has become a fashionable term in our modern and digital world. For many, it is almost a status symbol - because those who are stressed have a lot on their plate and are therefore important. This attitude is leading to increasing health issues and to a society that is not able to breathe anymore because they have to be in working order. After decades of being empty and unused, the Sommerberg-Hotel occupies a unique location on top of the mountain in the Black Forest. Following its rich past and responding to society's needs it becomes once more a refuge to escape the rush. In close dialogue with the existing, this project investigates a possible transformation and a repurposing of the old structures of the Sommerberg-Hotel. Making it to The Mental Wellbeing Place.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2022
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2022
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    Authors: Kaalen, Stefan;

    Several manufacturers of road vehicles today are working on developing autonomous vehicles. One subject that is often up for discussion when it comes to integrating autonomous road vehicles into the infrastructure is the safety aspect. There is in the context no common view of how safety should be quantified. As a contribution to this discussion we propose describing each potential hazardous event of a vehicle as a Semi-Markov Process (SMP). A reliability-based method for using the semi-Markov representation to calculate the probability of a hazardous event to occur is presented. The method simplifies the expression for the reliability using the Laplace-Stieltjes transform and calculates the transform of the reliability exactly. Numerical inversion algorithms are then applied to approximate the reliability up to a desired error tolerance. The method is validated using alternative techniques and is thereafter applied to a system for automated steering based on a real example from the industry. A desired evolution of the method is to involve a framework for how to represent each hazardous event as a SMP. Flertalet tillverkare av vägfordon jobbar idag på att utveckla autonoma fordon. Ett ämne ofta på agendan i diskussionen om att integrera autonoma fordon på vägarna är säkerhet. Det finns i sammanhanget ingen klar bild över hur säkerhet ska kvantifieras. Som ett bidrag till denna diskussion föreslås här att beskriva varje potentiellt farlig situation av ett fordon som en Semi-Markov process (SMP). En metod presenteras för att via beräkning av funktionssäkerheten nyttja semi-Markov representationen för att beräkna sannolikheten för att en farlig situation ska uppstå. Metoden nyttjar Laplace-Stieltjes transformen för att förenkla uttrycket för funktionssäkerheten och beräknar transformen av funktionssäkerheten exakt. Numeriska algoritmer för den inversa transformen appliceras sedan för att beräkna funktionssäkerheten upp till en viss feltolerans. Metoden valideras genom alternativa tekniker och appliceras sedan på ett system för autonom styrning baserat på ett riktigt exempel från industrin. En fördelaktig utveckling av metoden som presenteras här skulle vara att involvera ett ramverk för hur varje potentiellt farlig situation ska representeras som en SMP.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2019
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2019
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Augier, Pierre; Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu; Bonamy, Cyrille;

    FluidDyn is a project to foster open-science and open-source in the fluid dynamics community. It is thought of as a research project to channel open-source dynamics, methods and tools to do science. We propose a set of Python packages forming a framework to study fluid dynamics with different methods, in particular laboratory experiments (package fluidlab), simulations (packages fluidfft, fluidsim and fluidfoam) and data processing (package fluidimage). In the present article, we give an overview of the specialized packages of the project and then focus on the base package called fluiddyn, which contains common code used in the specialized packages. Packages fluidfft and fluidsim are described with greater detail in two companion papers [4, 5]. With the project FluidDyn, we demonstrate that specialized scientific code can be written with methods and good practices of the open-source community. The Mercurial repositories are available in Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/fluiddyn/). All codes are documented using Sphinx and Read the Docs, and tested with continuous integration run on Bitbucket Pipelines and Travis. To improve the reuse potential, the codes are as modular as possible, leveraging the simple object-oriented programming model of Python. All codes are also written to be highly efficient, using C++, Cython and Pythran to speedup the performance of critical functions. FluidDyn project QC 20220322

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    Journal of Open Research Software
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
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    Journal of Open Research Software
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      Journal of Open Research Software
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Journal of Open Research Software
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    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake’s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent. QC 20191106. QC 20200129 PhD project

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    Fluids
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Fluids
    Article . 2019
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      Fluids
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Wang, Ruize;

    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) är en allmänt accepterad krypteringsalgoritm som används i Internet-of-Things (IoT) -enheter som Bluetooth-enheter. Även om implementeringen av AES är tillräckligt komplicerad kan angriparna fortfarande förvärva den kryptografiska informationen som genererats från AES-utförandet för att utföra Side-Channel Attack (SCA). Det finns två vanligt förekommande typer av SCA, som är kraftbaserad attack och elektro-magnetisk (EM) baserad attack. Emellertid kräver förvärv av både strömspår och EM-fältspår nära fysisk kontakt med offeranordningarna, vilket är omöjligt att attackera ett välskyddat system. I den här avhandlingen utnyttjar vi EM-förökningsegenskapen för fjärrfältet och utbildar flera Deep Learning (DL) -modeller för att attackera litenAES- algoritm implementerad på offret Bluetooth-chip nRF52832 monterat på Nordic nRF52 DK på avståndet upp till 50 cm. För att simulera det verkliga angreppsscenariot utbildar vi våra DL-modeller på en nRF52 DK vid 30 cm och attackerar en annan samma skiva på avståndet 5 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm respektive 50 cm i en kontorsmiljö. Vi begränsar antalet attackerande spår till 7000. Nyckelbyte i alla fall kan framgångsrikt återvinnas av Convolution Neuron Network (CNN) och det bästa testet behöver endast 1848 spår. Våra bidrag är: (1). Vi bevisar att det är möjligt att attackera Bluetooth-chip som kör AES på variation avstånd av DL; (2). Vi jämför våra DL-modellprestanda med den klassiska korrelationsanalysen och finner korrelationsanalys tar mycket fler spår än DL;(3). Vi tillhandahåller flera motåtgärder mot EM-SCA. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a widely accepted encryption algorithm used in Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices such as Bluetooth devices. Although the implementation of AES is complicated enough, attackers can still acquire the cryptographic information generated from the AES execution to perform Side-Channel Attack (SCA). There are two commonly used types of SCA, which are power based attack and Electromagnetic (EM) based attack. However, the acquisition of both power traces and EM near-field traces require close physical contact to the victim devices, which is difficult to attack a well-protected system. In this thesis, we exploit the far-field EM propagation property and train several Deep Learning (DL) models to attack tinyAES algorithm implemented on the victim Bluetooth chip nRF52832 mounted on Nordic nRF52 DK at the distance up to 50cm. To simulate the real attacking scenario, we train our DL models on one nRF52 DK at 30cm and attack another same board at the distance 5cm, 15cm, 30cm and 50cm respectively in an office environment. We restrict the number of attacking traces to 7000. The key byte of all of cases can be recovered successfully by Convolution Neuron Network (CNN) and the best test only need 1848 traces. Our contributions are: (1).We prove it is feasible to attack Bluetooth chip running AES at variation distance by DL; (2).We compare our DL model performance with the classical correlation analysis and find correlation analysis takes far more traces than DL; (3).We propose several countermeasures to protect against the far-field EM SCA.

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    Authors: Ranara, Jeff;

    Publikum Nynäshamn docks directly to the west façade of the existing 9 story municipal building with seven floors of open activity space. These surround a full-height atrium across which a two-floor living plant green wall provides the monumental living presence of nature and its ecosystem services in an office environment. Plants also grace the other side of this two story wall, providing a living backdrop for the heart of the building - the raised three floor high assembly hall. A lunchroom with balconies above the assembly hall provides city views and a roof garden for municipal staff. The two floor high lobby beneath the assembly hall provides a new internal city street between Banana Square and Floravägen – a former back alleyway. A ground-level colonnade walkway with benches surrounds the new and old buildings, inviting citizens into the building spaces. Public space and circulation is further enhanced with a new passageway opening up the former dead-end southwest corner of Banana Square where the old municipal building met Folkets hus (People’s House). A generous stair complex in this new sunny southern square provides spontaneous seating and meeting spaces as well as additional outdoor access to the two floor café, art gallery, and the largest green roof – one of three accessible green roofs that enhance social and ecological values. Pedestrian movement can continue through this new passageway directly down to Svandammen (swan pond), and in the opposite direction, directly up to Banana square from the commuter rail station. The café and two-floor meeting room spaces provide evening and weekend public social spaces for the city residents, complementing existing bars and restaurants in the adjoining Folkets Hus. Reduced use of energy is encouraged with progressively rising central spaces allowing for the possibility of natural stack ventilation, thermal mass energy storage in concrete (HD/F) slabs, and generous natural daylight through the glazed curtain wall climate shell surrounding the building. Abstracted winged structures crown the top of the building and grace the building entrances, inspired by the sightings of sea eagles reported in this coastal area, and provides both a signum for the building (instead of a more traditional municipal building tower) and extended surface for rainwater collection that can be used for watering indoor green plant walls and the roof garden vegetation. The deeper soil of the intensive green roofs not only provides more uptake and retention of rainwater (and thus reduced peak flow rates favorable for stormwater management) but also allows planting of larger, woody plants and bushes, and even small trees, which in turn, among other social and ecological benefits, add natural habitat to a predominantly impervious-surfaced downtown urban area.

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    Authors: Wester, Jonna; Blom, Oskar;

    Dammsugare konstrueras och formges idag framförallt för att vara attraktiva i köpögonblicket. Resultatet blir ofta apparater med hög effektförbrukning och dålig verkningsgrad som är svåra att stuva in i städskåpet. Syftet med följande projekt var att undersöka möjligheten att ta fram en dammsugare som förenklar både användning och förvaring och som dessutom har en tilltalande design utan att kompromissa med dess funktionalitet eller prestanda, det vill säga en superfunktionell dammsugare. För att uppfylla målet inleddes projektet med en förstudie där marknadens utbud samt användarnas behov undersöktes. Vid marknadsundersökningen konstaterades att de dammsugare som idag utger sig för att vara superfunktionella visuellt uttryckte sin funktionalitet och prestanda på ett överdrivet sätt. Detta fick dem ofta att likna radiostyrda bilar och framstå som malplacerade i en naturlig hemmamiljö. Under användarundersökningen utformades en enkät vilken gav insikt om att användarna upplever att de största problemen är otymplig användning och problematisk förvaring. Här skapades en vision om en dammsugare som är lättförvarad, enkel att använda och kan stå framme på ett naturligt sätt då den inte används. Resultatet blev dammsugaren Kompakt. Konceptet innefattar en mer optimerad placering av invändiga komponenter och reducering av onödigt utrymme inom dammsugarkroppen jämfört med en traditionell dammsugare. Detta resulterar i en betydligt mindre dammsugare som är enkel att förvara. Dessutom ingår en expanderbar slang, skaft med teleskopfunktion, integrerad behållare, extra munstycken och klotformade hjul som medger rotation av dammsugaren 360 grader runt sin axel. På översidan av skaftet återfinns en display som medger enkel justering av dammsugarens reglage. Färg-, material- och formval gör dessutom att Kompakts design passar avsevärt bättre in i en hemmamiljö än den typiskt superfunktionella dammsugaren. Vacuum cleaners today are mainly designed to be attractive at the moment of purchase. The result is often devices with high power consumption and poor efficiency that are difficult to store in the typical cleaning cabinet. The aim of this project was to investigate the possibility of developing a vacuum cleaner that simplifies both use and storage and which also has an attractive design without compromising on its functionality or performance. In order to meet the targets, the project was initiated with a preliminary study in which the market's supply and users' needs were examined. The market research found that the vacuum cleaners that today claim to be super-functional visually expressed their functionality and performance in an exaggerated way. This often made them look like radio-controlled cars and appear to be misplaced in a natural home environment. During the user study, a survey demonstraded that the biggest problems users normally expericence are awkward use and problematic storage. A vision was created of a vacuum cleaner that is easily stored, easy to use and in a natural way fit into a home environment. The result was the vacuum cleaner Kompakt. The concept allows for smarter placement of internal components and reduction of unnecessary space within the vacuum cleaner body compared to a traditional vacuum cleaner. This results in a much smaller vacuum cleaner that is easy to store. Also included is an expandable hose, telescopic shaft, integrated dust container, extra nozzles and spherical wheels that allow the vacuum cleaner to rotate 360 degrees around its axis. On the upper side of the shaft is a display that allows easy adjustment of the vacuum cleaner controls. In addition, color, material and design choices make Kompakt's design considerably better suited to a home environment than the typical super-functional vacuum cleaner.

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    Authors: Wang, Chen;

    The subject of self-driving car technology has drawn growing interest in recent years. Many companies, such as Baidu and Tesla, have already introduced automatic driving techniques in their newest cars when driving in a specific area. However, there are still many challenges ahead toward fully autonomous driving cars. Tesla has caused several severe accidents when using autonomous driving functions, which makes the public doubt self-driving car technology. Therefore, it is necessary to use the simulator environment to help verify and perfect algorithms for the perception, planning, and decision-making of autonomous vehicles before implementation in real-world cars. This project aims to build a benchmark for implementing the whole self-driving car system in software. There are three main components including perception, planning, and control in the entire autonomous driving system. This thesis focuses on two sub-tasks 2D object detection and semantic segmentation in the perception part. All of the experiments will be tested in a simulator environment called The CAR Learning to Act(Carla), which is an open-source platform for autonomous car research. Carla simulator is developed based on the game engine(Unreal4). It has a server-client system, which provides a flexible python API. 2D object detection uses the You only look once(Yolov4) algorithm that contains the tricks of the latest deep learning techniques from the aspect of network structure and data augmentation to strengthen the network’s ability to learn the object. Yolov4 achieves higher accuracy and short inference time when comparing with the other popular object detection algorithms. Semantic segmentation uses Efficient networks for Computer Vision(ESPnetv2). It is a light-weight and power-efficient network, which achieves the same performance as other semantic segmentation algorithms by using fewer network parameters and FLOPS. In this project, Yolov4 and ESPnetv2 are implemented into the Carla simulator. Two modules work together to help the autonomous car understand the world. The minimal distance awareness application is implemented into the Carla simulator to detect the distance to the ahead vehicles. This application can be used as a basic function to avoid the collision. Experiments are tested by using a single Nvidia GPU(RTX2060) in Ubuntu 18.0 system. Ämnet självkörande bilteknik har väckt intresse de senaste åren. Många företag, som Baidu och Tesla, har redan infört automatiska körtekniker i sina nyaste bilar när de kör i ett specifikt område. Det finns dock fortfarande många utmaningar inför fullt autonoma bilar. Detta projekt syftar till att bygga ett riktmärke för att implementera hela det självkörande bilsystemet i programvara. Det finns tre huvudkomponenter inklusive uppfattning, planering och kontroll i hela det autonoma körsystemet. Denna avhandling fokuserar på två underuppgifter 2D-objekt detektering och semantisk segmentering i uppfattningsdelen. Alla experiment kommer att testas i en simulatormiljö som heter The CAR Learning to Act (Carla), som är en öppen källkodsplattform för autonom bilforskning. Du ser bara en gång (Yolov4) och effektiva nätverk för datorvision (ESPnetv2) implementeras i detta projekt för att uppnå Funktioner för objektdetektering och semantisk segmentering. Den minimala distans medvetenhets applikationen implementeras i Carla-simulatorn för att upptäcka avståndet till de främre bilarna. Denna applikation kan användas som en grundläggande funktion för att undvika kollisionen.

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    Authors: Kangas, Jussi; Söderberg, Ella;

    Streaming av musik har blivit ett vanligt sätt att konsumera musik på i Sverige. Vidare är Spotify en av de största leverantörerna av musikstreaming i Sverige men också globalt. Att utföra livscykelanalyser (LCA) av IKT-tjänster är ett nytt område där riktlinjerna fortfarande utformas. Spotify har ändrat sättet människor lyssnar på musik men det är oklart vilken påverkan denna förändring har på klimatet. Därför undersöker denna studie hur Spotifys musikstreamingtjänst kan undersökas ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. Frågeställningen för denna studie är hur 1) funktionell enhet, 2) avgränsningar, 3) direkta effekter och 4) indirekta- och strukturella effekter ska väljas för en LCA av Spotifys streamingtjänst. En litteraturstudie utfördes för att undersöka problematiken kring dessa områden men även hitta lösningar för hur de ska väljas. Resultatet gav ett antal riktlinjer som bör följas i framtida studier. För det första krävs det flera funktionella enheter för att mäta koldioxid, energi och miljögifter. Som nämnare till den funktionella enheten bör mätenheten minut eller datamängd skickad och mottagen väljas. När det kommer till avgränsningar ska enheten som användaren använder och indirekta- och strukturella effekter ska tas med i en LCA av Spotifys streamingtjänst. Huruvida andra processer som inte är direkt kopplade till streaming ska tas med beror på studiens frågeställning. Dessutom bör personas användas för att kunna jämföra hur olika lyssningsmönster ger olika avtryck. Direkta effekter som bör tas med i en LCA av Spotifys streamingtjänst är tillverkning, drift och avfallshantering av hårdvara och elmix som används samt användarens lyssningsmönster. När det kommer till indirekta och strukturella effekter bör dematerialiseringen av musik, att Spotify samlar mycket data om sina användare samt att Spotify påverkar sättet människor lyssnar på musik idag tas med i en LCA. Om en LCA ska utföras av Spotifys streamingtjänst bör den göras inifrån Spotify för att få tillgång till primärdata på de processer som sker när musik streamas. Nästa steg för vidare forskning är att utföra en LCA av Spotifys streamingtjänst. Stream ic is a common way of consuming music in Sweden today. Spotify is one of the biggest companies delivering music via streaming in Sweden as well as globally. To perform Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of ICT-services is a recent concept where the guidelines are still being developed. Spotify changes the way people listen to music but it is not clear what impact this change has on the environment. Therefore this study investigates how Spotify’s music streaming service can be examined from a sustainability perspective. The main question for this study is how 1) a functional unit, 2) scope, 3) direct effects and 4) indirect- and structural effects should be chosen when performing a LCA of Spotify’s streaming service. A literature study was conducted to examine the key problems around these four areas and to find the answer to our question. The result points towards a few guidelines which should be followed in future studies. Several functional units are necessary to measure carbon dioxide, energy and environmental toxins. The denominator to the functional unit should be minute or data transferred and received. Furthermore should the scope of a LCA include the users unit, indirect- and structural effects. The direct effects that should be included is the manufacturing, operation and waste disposal of hardware. Also the electricity mix used for operating the hardware and the users listening pattern should be included. The indirect and structural effects that should be included are the dematerialization of music, the fact that Spotify collects data about their user and the way Spotify affect how people listen to music today. A LCA should be conducted from within Spotify to get access to primary data on the processes that Spotify uses. The next step in further research is to conduct a LCA of Spotify’s streaming service.

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    Authors: Brink, John;

    Locomotion in VR is still a topic of exploration, as different solutions serve different purposes. Teleportation is an established technique for moving in virtual environments larger than physical space, but one area that has not been thoroughly investigated is controller-free teleportation, where users are not limited by intermediary devices for movement control. Recent advancements in VR headsets now allow tracking of multiple body parts, including hands and eyes, enabling locomotion solely through gestures. Prior research on hand- and eye-tracking for teleportation in VR shows promising results in controlled environments but lacks practical comparisons in typical VR applications with dynamic settings. In this study, two types of controller-free teleportation techniques based on hand- and eye-tracking were implemented. The results indicate that, in dynamic VR environments, hand-based teleportation is more efficient and has seemingly higher usability. However, eye-based teleportation appears more immersive, and is potentially a viable and less physically demanding alternative for people with disabilities to increase the accessibility to VR applications. This study’s results provide valuable insights for developing innovative controller-free locomotion techniques utilizing body-tracking in dynamic VR environments. Förflyttning i VR är ett ämne som fortfarande utforskas, då olika lösningar passar olika ändamål. Teleportering är en etablerad förflyttningsteknik för att röra sig i virtuella miljöer som är större än det fysiska utrymmet man befinner sig i, men ett område som inte har undersökts mycket ännu är kontrollerfri teleportering, där användare inte begränsas av mellanliggande enheter för att förflytta sig. De senaste utvecklingen av VR-headset tillåter kroppsspårning av händer och ögon, vilket möjliggör förflyttning enbart genom gester. Tidigare forskning kring hand- och ögonspårning för teleportering i VR visar lovande resultat i kontrollerade miljöer, men saknar praktiska jämförelser i typiska VR-applikationer med dynamiska miljöer. I denna studie implementerades två typer av kontrollerfria teleporteringstekniker baserade på hand- och ögonspårning. Resultaten tyder på att i dynamiska VR-miljöer är handbaserad teleportering mer effektiv och till synes högre användbarhet. Ögonbaserad teleportering verkar dock vara mer uppslukande, och är potentiellt ett användbart samt mindre fysiskt krävande alternativ för personer med funktionsnedsättning för att öka tillgängligheten till VR applikationer. Resultaten av denna studie ger värdefulla insikter till utvecklingen av innovativa kontrollerfria rörelsetekniker som använder kroppsspårning i dynamiska VR-miljöer.

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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2023
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    Authors: Mettler, Hannes;

    In our fast-paced, hectic time, which is stamped by an ever-increasing degree of nervousness, unrest, and unsteadiness it has become customary for mankind to relax for a shorter or longer period of time from the habits of everyday life and recreation. To search for strength somewhere on earth that is away from the place of business, that invites you to rest from everyday worries and toils. So lures the Black Forest. With these words, the Sommerberg-Hotel was advertised already over 100 years ago. Nowadays stress has become a fashionable term in our modern and digital world. For many, it is almost a status symbol - because those who are stressed have a lot on their plate and are therefore important. This attitude is leading to increasing health issues and to a society that is not able to breathe anymore because they have to be in working order. After decades of being empty and unused, the Sommerberg-Hotel occupies a unique location on top of the mountain in the Black Forest. Following its rich past and responding to society's needs it becomes once more a refuge to escape the rush. In close dialogue with the existing, this project investigates a possible transformation and a repurposing of the old structures of the Sommerberg-Hotel. Making it to The Mental Wellbeing Place.

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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2022
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    Authors: Kaalen, Stefan;

    Several manufacturers of road vehicles today are working on developing autonomous vehicles. One subject that is often up for discussion when it comes to integrating autonomous road vehicles into the infrastructure is the safety aspect. There is in the context no common view of how safety should be quantified. As a contribution to this discussion we propose describing each potential hazardous event of a vehicle as a Semi-Markov Process (SMP). A reliability-based method for using the semi-Markov representation to calculate the probability of a hazardous event to occur is presented. The method simplifies the expression for the reliability using the Laplace-Stieltjes transform and calculates the transform of the reliability exactly. Numerical inversion algorithms are then applied to approximate the reliability up to a desired error tolerance. The method is validated using alternative techniques and is thereafter applied to a system for automated steering based on a real example from the industry. A desired evolution of the method is to involve a framework for how to represent each hazardous event as a SMP. Flertalet tillverkare av vägfordon jobbar idag på att utveckla autonoma fordon. Ett ämne ofta på agendan i diskussionen om att integrera autonoma fordon på vägarna är säkerhet. Det finns i sammanhanget ingen klar bild över hur säkerhet ska kvantifieras. Som ett bidrag till denna diskussion föreslås här att beskriva varje potentiellt farlig situation av ett fordon som en Semi-Markov process (SMP). En metod presenteras för att via beräkning av funktionssäkerheten nyttja semi-Markov representationen för att beräkna sannolikheten för att en farlig situation ska uppstå. Metoden nyttjar Laplace-Stieltjes transformen för att förenkla uttrycket för funktionssäkerheten och beräknar transformen av funktionssäkerheten exakt. Numeriska algoritmer för den inversa transformen appliceras sedan för att beräkna funktionssäkerheten upp till en viss feltolerans. Metoden valideras genom alternativa tekniker och appliceras sedan på ett system för autonom styrning baserat på ett riktigt exempel från industrin. En fördelaktig utveckling av metoden som presenteras här skulle vara att involvera ett ramverk för hur varje potentiellt farlig situation ska representeras som en SMP.

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    Bachelor thesis . 2019
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2019
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    Authors: Augier, Pierre; Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu; Bonamy, Cyrille;

    FluidDyn is a project to foster open-science and open-source in the fluid dynamics community. It is thought of as a research project to channel open-source dynamics, methods and tools to do science. We propose a set of Python packages forming a framework to study fluid dynamics with different methods, in particular laboratory experiments (package fluidlab), simulations (packages fluidfft, fluidsim and fluidfoam) and data processing (package fluidimage). In the present article, we give an overview of the specialized packages of the project and then focus on the base package called fluiddyn, which contains common code used in the specialized packages. Packages fluidfft and fluidsim are described with greater detail in two companion papers [4, 5]. With the project FluidDyn, we demonstrate that specialized scientific code can be written with methods and good practices of the open-source community. The Mercurial repositories are available in Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/fluiddyn/). All codes are documented using Sphinx and Read the Docs, and tested with continuous integration run on Bitbucket Pipelines and Travis. To improve the reuse potential, the codes are as modular as possible, leveraging the simple object-oriented programming model of Python. All codes are also written to be highly efficient, using C++, Cython and Pythran to speedup the performance of critical functions. FluidDyn project QC 20220322

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    Journal of Open Research Software
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Journal of Open Research Software
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      Journal of Open Research Software
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake’s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent. QC 20191106. QC 20200129 PhD project

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    Fluids
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2019
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      Fluids
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Wang, Ruize;

    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) är en allmänt accepterad krypteringsalgoritm som används i Internet-of-Things (IoT) -enheter som Bluetooth-enheter. Även om implementeringen av AES är tillräckligt komplicerad kan angriparna fortfarande förvärva den kryptografiska informationen som genererats från AES-utförandet för att utföra Side-Channel Attack (SCA). Det finns två vanligt förekommande typer av SCA, som är kraftbaserad attack och elektro-magnetisk (EM) baserad attack. Emellertid kräver förvärv av både strömspår och EM-fältspår nära fysisk kontakt med offeranordningarna, vilket är omöjligt att attackera ett välskyddat system. I den här avhandlingen utnyttjar vi EM-förökningsegenskapen för fjärrfältet och utbildar flera Deep Learning (DL) -modeller för att attackera litenAES- algoritm implementerad på offret Bluetooth-chip nRF52832 monterat på Nordic nRF52 DK på avståndet upp till 50 cm. För att simulera det verkliga angreppsscenariot utbildar vi våra DL-modeller på en nRF52 DK vid 30 cm och attackerar en annan samma skiva på avståndet 5 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm respektive 50 cm i en kontorsmiljö. Vi begränsar antalet attackerande spår till 7000. Nyckelbyte i alla fall kan framgångsrikt återvinnas av Convolution Neuron Network (CNN) och det bästa testet behöver endast 1848 spår. Våra bidrag är: (1). Vi bevisar att det är möjligt att attackera Bluetooth-chip som kör AES på variation avstånd av DL; (2). Vi jämför våra DL-modellprestanda med den klassiska korrelationsanalysen och finner korrelationsanalys tar mycket fler spår än DL;(3). Vi tillhandahåller flera motåtgärder mot EM-SCA. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a widely accepted encryption algorithm used in Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices such as Bluetooth devices. Although the implementation of AES is complicated enough, attackers can still acquire the cryptographic information generated from the AES execution to perform Side-Channel Attack (SCA). There are two commonly used types of SCA, which are power based attack and Electromagnetic (EM) based attack. However, the acquisition of both power traces and EM near-field traces require close physical contact to the victim devices, which is difficult to attack a well-protected system. In this thesis, we exploit the far-field EM propagation property and train several Deep Learning (DL) models to attack tinyAES algorithm implemented on the victim Bluetooth chip nRF52832 mounted on Nordic nRF52 DK at the distance up to 50cm. To simulate the real attacking scenario, we train our DL models on one nRF52 DK at 30cm and attack another same board at the distance 5cm, 15cm, 30cm and 50cm respectively in an office environment. We restrict the number of attacking traces to 7000. The key byte of all of cases can be recovered successfully by Convolution Neuron Network (CNN) and the best test only need 1848 traces. Our contributions are: (1).We prove it is feasible to attack Bluetooth chip running AES at variation distance by DL; (2).We compare our DL model performance with the classical correlation analysis and find correlation analysis takes far more traces than DL; (3).We propose several countermeasures to protect against the far-field EM SCA.

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    Authors: Ranara, Jeff;

    Publikum Nynäshamn docks directly to the west façade of the existing 9 story municipal building with seven floors of open activity space. These surround a full-height atrium across which a two-floor living plant green wall provides the monumental living presence of nature and its ecosystem services in an office environment. Plants also grace the other side of this two story wall, providing a living backdrop for the heart of the building - the raised three floor high assembly hall. A lunchroom with balconies above the assembly hall provides city views and a roof garden for municipal staff. The two floor high lobby beneath the assembly hall provides a new internal city street between Banana Square and Floravägen – a former back alleyway. A ground-level colonnade walkway with benches surrounds the new and old buildings, inviting citizens into the building spaces. Public space and circulation is further enhanced with a new passageway opening up the former dead-end southwest corner of Banana Square where the old municipal building met Folkets hus (People’s House). A generous stair complex in this new sunny southern square provides spontaneous seating and meeting spaces as well as additional outdoor access to the two floor café, art gallery, and the largest green roof – one of three accessible green roofs that enhance social and ecological values. Pedestrian movement can continue through this new passageway directly down to Svandammen (swan pond), and in the opposite direction, directly up to Banana square from the commuter rail station. The café and two-floor meeting room spaces provide evening and weekend public social spaces for the city residents, complementing existing bars and restaurants in the adjoining Folkets Hus. Reduced use of energy is encouraged with progressively rising central spaces allowing for the possibility of natural stack ventilation, thermal mass energy storage in concrete (HD/F) slabs, and generous natural daylight through the glazed curtain wall climate shell surrounding the building. Abstracted winged structures crown the top of the building and grace the building entrances, inspired by the sightings of sea eagles reported in this coastal area, and provides both a signum for the building (instead of a more traditional municipal building tower) and extended surface for rainwater collection that can be used for watering indoor green plant walls and the roof garden vegetation. The deeper soil of the intensive green roofs not only provides more uptake and retention of rainwater (and thus reduced peak flow rates favorable for stormwater management) but also allows planting of larger, woody plants and bushes, and even small trees, which in turn, among other social and ecological benefits, add natural habitat to a predominantly impervious-surfaced downtown urban area.

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