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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Conrad, Klaus;
    Country: Germany

    The purpose of this paper is to model competition in freight transport and to work out the role of the government in providing infrastructure for the competitors. Freight transport could in principle be provided by the firm itself by using firm-owned trucks or transportation services could be outsourced by purchasing these services from rail and/or truck transport firms. We link production in the rest of the economy to transport demand, provided by two competing modes of transport. Since congestion is an increasing cost component in densely populated countries, we develop an index of congestion which can be controlled by investing in highway infrastructure. Given infrastructure, a fuel tax and the stock of vehicles, we first derive the conditional demand functions of the economy for truck and rail services. The two transport firms know these demand functions and compete in prices. We then propose a transportation policy which chooses two types of infrastructure, highways and the railway system, and a fuel tax in order to maximize welfare. The economic aspects for an optimal provision of the two types of infrastructure can be expressed by a set of unknown elasticities which measure the impact of infrastructure services on price and quantity variables in transport industries. With time series data for the German economy we measure these impacts on prices in the rail and truck industries, on the volume of transport, on congestion, and on the utilization of the stock of transportation equipment.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Research . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valerie Domcke; Marco Drewes; Marco Hufnagel; Michele Lucente;
    Publisher: RWTH Aachen University
    Countries: Switzerland, Germany
    Project: EC | NewAve (638528)

    We study the type-I seesaw model with three right-handed neutrinos and Majorana masses below the pion mass. In this mass range, the model parameter space is not only strongly constrained by the requirement to explain the light neutrino masses, but also by experimental searches and cosmological considerations. In the existing literature, three disjoint regions of potentially viable parameter space have been identified. In one of them, all heavy neutrinos decay shortly before big bang nucleosynthesis. In the other two regions, one of the heavy neutrinos either decays between BBN and the CMB decoupling or is quasi-stable. We show that previously unaccounted constraints from photodisintegration of nuclei practically rule out all relevant decays that happen between BBN and the CMB decoupling. Quite remarkably, if all heavy neutrinos decay before BBN, the baryon asymmetry of the universe can be quite generically explained by low-scale leptogenesis, i.e. without further tuning in addition to what is needed to avoid experimental and cosmological constraints. This motivates searches for heavy neutrinos in pion decay experiments. Journal of high energy physics 01(1), 200 (2021). doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2021)200 Published by SISSA, [Trieste]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bahle, Thomas; Maucher, Mathias;
    Publisher: Mannheim: MZES, 1998
    Country: Germany

    with contributions by Katherina Fuduli and Beatrix Holzer

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moses Badlyan, Arbi; Zimmer, Christoph;
    Publisher: Technische Universität Berlin
    Country: Germany

    Metriplectic systems are state space formulations that have become well-known under the acronym GENERIC. In this work we present a GENERIC based state space formulation in an operator setting that encodes a weak-formulation of the field equations describing the dynamics of a homogeneous mixture of compressible heat-conducting Newtonian fluids consisting of reactive constituents. We discuss the mathematical model of the fluid mixture formulated in the framework of continuum thermodynamics. The fluid mixture is considered an open thermodynamic system that moves free of external body forces. As closure relations we use the linear constitutive equations of the phenomenological theory known as Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (TIP). The phenomenological coefficients of these linear constitutive equations satisfy the Onsager-Casimir reciprocal relations. We present the state space representation of the fluid mixture, formulated in the extended GENERIC framework for open systems, specified by a symmetric, mixture related dissipation bracket and a mixture related Poisson-bracket for which we prove the Jacobi-identity.

  • Publication . Research . Other literature type . 2010
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wang, Miao;
    Publisher: Freie Universität Berlin
    Country: Germany

    This paper describes iDriver, an iPhone software to remote control “Spirit of Berlin”. “Spirit of Berlin” is a completely autonomous car developed by the Free University of Berlin which is capable of unmanned driving in urban areas. iDriver is an iPhone application sending control packets to the car in order to remote control its steering wheel, gas and brake pedal, gear shift and turn signals. Additionally, a video stream from two top-mounted cameras is broadcasted back to the iPhone.

  • Publication . Research . Article . Preprint . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniel Fackler; Claus Schnabel; Joachim Wagner;
    Publisher: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel und Hamburg
    Country: Germany

    Using comprehensive data for West Germany, this paper investigates the determinants of establishment exit. We find that between 1975 and 2006 the average exit rate has risen considerably. In order to test various 'liabilities' of establishment survival identified in the literature, we analyze the impact of establishment size and put a special focus on differences between young and mature establishments. Our empirical analysis shows that the mortality risk falls with establishment size, which confirms the liability of smallness. The probability of exit is substantially higher for young establishments which are not more than five years old, thus confirming the liability of newness. There also exists a liability of aging since exit rates first decline over time, reaching a minimum at ages 15 to 18, and then rise again somewhat. The determinants of exit differ substantially between young and mature establishments, suggesting that young establishments are more vulnerable in a number of ways. Mit umfangreichen Daten für Westdeutschland untersucht diese Studie die Einflussfaktoren von Betriebsschließungen. Es zeigt sich, dass die durchschnittliche Schließungsrate der Betriebe von 1975 bis 2006 deutlich gestiegen ist. Um verschiedene in der Literatur herausgearbeitete Anfälligkeiten zu überprüfen, analysieren wir den Einfluss der Betriebsgröße sowie Unterschiede zwischen jungen und älteren Betrieben. Die empirische Analyse zeigt, dass das Sterberisiko mit der Betriebsgröße abnimmt, was die 'liability of smallness' bestätigt. Entsprechend der 'liability of newness' ist die Schließungswahrscheinlichkeit deutlich höher für jüngere Betriebe, die maximal fünf Jahre alt sind. Ferner findet sich eine 'liability of aging', da die Schließungswahrscheinlichkeit zunächst mit dem Alter abnimmt, ihr Minimum zwischen 15 und 18 Jahren erreicht und danach wieder etwas zunimmt. Die Einflussfaktoren der Betriebsschließungen unterscheiden sich deutlich zwischen jungen und älteren Betrieben, wobei junge Betriebe in verschiedener Weise gefährdeter sind.

  • Publication . Article . Research . Preprint . 2008
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sylvain Béal; Jacques Durieu; Philippe Solal;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Germany, France, France

    We study farsighted coalitional stability in the context of TU-games. Chwe (1994, p.318) notes that, in this context, it is difficult to prove nonemptiness of the largest consistent. We show that every TU-game has a nonempty largest consistent set. Moreover, the proof of this result allows to conclude that each TU-game has a farsighted stable set. We go further by providing a characterization of the collection of farsighted stable sets in TU-games. We also show that the farsighted core of a TU-game is empty or equal to the set of imputations of the game. Next, we study the relationships between the core and the largest consistent set in superadditive TU-games and in clan games. In the last section, we explore the stability of the Shapley value in superadditive TU-games. We show that the Shapley value is always a stable imputation. More precisely, if the Shapley value does not belong to the core, then it constitutes a farsighted stable set. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for a superadditive TU-game to have the Shapley value in the largest consistent set.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Georgarakos, Dimitris; Pasini, Giacomo;
    Country: Germany

    We investigate the effects of both trust and sociability for stock market participation, the role of which has been examined separately by existing finance literature. We use internationally comparable household data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe supplemented with regional information on generalized trust from the World Value Survey and on specific trust to financial institutions from Eurobarometer. We show that trust and sociability have distinct and sizeable positive effects on stock market participation and that sociability is likely to partly balance the discouragement effect on stockholding induced by low generalized trust in the region of residence. We also show that specific trust in advice given by financial institutions represents a prominent factor for stock investing, compared to other tangible features of the banking environment. Probing further into various groups of households, we find that sociability can induce stockholding among the less well off in Sweden, Denmark, and Switzerland where stock market participation is widespread. On the other hand, the effect of generalized trust is strong in countries with limited participation and low average trust like Austria, Spain, and Italy, offering an explanation for the remarkably low participation rates of the wealthy living therein.

  • Publication . Research . 2004
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Boulesteix, Anne-Laure;
    Publisher: Universitätsbibliothek der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
    Country: Germany

    In the context of binary classification with continuous predictors, we proove two properties concerning the connections between Partial Least Squares (PLS) dimension reduction and between-group PCA, and between linear discriminant analysis and between-group PCA. Such methods are of great interest for the analysis of high-dimensional data with continuous predictors, such as microarray gene expression data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Breßlein, Martin; Schmaljohann, Maya;
    Publisher: Heidelberg: University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics
    Country: Germany

    In this paper we investigate whether the design of World Bank conditionality, namely the extent of trade liberalization conditions, is influenced by the commercial motives of the Bank’s five major shareholders. Using a newly available dataset on World Bank conditionality we analyze the conditionality design of more than 870 projects over the 1981 – 2010 period. Our results suggest that countries of commercial interest for Germany have, on average, more trade liberalization conditions attached to their loans, indicating a trade promotion strategy. For the US, on the other hand, our results show that trading partners receive significantly fewer trade conditions. This suggests protection of the own bilateral trading relations from competition that would arise in the case of more open markets.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
14,448 Research products, page 1 of 1,445
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Conrad, Klaus;
    Country: Germany

    The purpose of this paper is to model competition in freight transport and to work out the role of the government in providing infrastructure for the competitors. Freight transport could in principle be provided by the firm itself by using firm-owned trucks or transportation services could be outsourced by purchasing these services from rail and/or truck transport firms. We link production in the rest of the economy to transport demand, provided by two competing modes of transport. Since congestion is an increasing cost component in densely populated countries, we develop an index of congestion which can be controlled by investing in highway infrastructure. Given infrastructure, a fuel tax and the stock of vehicles, we first derive the conditional demand functions of the economy for truck and rail services. The two transport firms know these demand functions and compete in prices. We then propose a transportation policy which chooses two types of infrastructure, highways and the railway system, and a fuel tax in order to maximize welfare. The economic aspects for an optimal provision of the two types of infrastructure can be expressed by a set of unknown elasticities which measure the impact of infrastructure services on price and quantity variables in transport industries. With time series data for the German economy we measure these impacts on prices in the rail and truck industries, on the volume of transport, on congestion, and on the utilization of the stock of transportation equipment.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Research . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valerie Domcke; Marco Drewes; Marco Hufnagel; Michele Lucente;
    Publisher: RWTH Aachen University
    Countries: Switzerland, Germany
    Project: EC | NewAve (638528)

    We study the type-I seesaw model with three right-handed neutrinos and Majorana masses below the pion mass. In this mass range, the model parameter space is not only strongly constrained by the requirement to explain the light neutrino masses, but also by experimental searches and cosmological considerations. In the existing literature, three disjoint regions of potentially viable parameter space have been identified. In one of them, all heavy neutrinos decay shortly before big bang nucleosynthesis. In the other two regions, one of the heavy neutrinos either decays between BBN and the CMB decoupling or is quasi-stable. We show that previously unaccounted constraints from photodisintegration of nuclei practically rule out all relevant decays that happen between BBN and the CMB decoupling. Quite remarkably, if all heavy neutrinos decay before BBN, the baryon asymmetry of the universe can be quite generically explained by low-scale leptogenesis, i.e. without further tuning in addition to what is needed to avoid experimental and cosmological constraints. This motivates searches for heavy neutrinos in pion decay experiments. Journal of high energy physics 01(1), 200 (2021). doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2021)200 Published by SISSA, [Trieste]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bahle, Thomas; Maucher, Mathias;
    Publisher: Mannheim: MZES, 1998
    Country: Germany

    with contributions by Katherina Fuduli and Beatrix Holzer

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moses Badlyan, Arbi; Zimmer, Christoph;
    Publisher: Technische Universität Berlin
    Country: Germany

    Metriplectic systems are state space formulations that have become well-known under the acronym GENERIC. In this work we present a GENERIC based state space formulation in an operator setting that encodes a weak-formulation of the field equations describing the dynamics of a homogeneous mixture of compressible heat-conducting Newtonian fluids consisting of reactive constituents. We discuss the mathematical model of the fluid mixture formulated in the framework of continuum thermodynamics. The fluid mixture is considered an open thermodynamic system that moves free of external body forces. As closure relations we use the linear constitutive equations of the phenomenological theory known as Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (TIP). The phenomenological coefficients of these linear constitutive equations satisfy the Onsager-Casimir reciprocal relations. We present the state space representation of the fluid mixture, formulated in the extended GENERIC framework for open systems, specified by a symmetric, mixture related dissipation bracket and a mixture related Poisson-bracket for which we prove the Jacobi-identity.

  • Publication . Research . Other literature type . 2010
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wang, Miao;
    Publisher: Freie Universität Berlin
    Country: Germany

    This paper describes iDriver, an iPhone software to remote control “Spirit of Berlin”. “Spirit of Berlin” is a completely autonomous car developed by the Free University of Berlin which is capable of unmanned driving in urban areas. iDriver is an iPhone application sending control packets to the car in order to remote control its steering wheel, gas and brake pedal, gear shift and turn signals. Additionally, a video stream from two top-mounted cameras is broadcasted back to the iPhone.

  • Publication . Research . Article . Preprint . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniel Fackler; Claus Schnabel; Joachim Wagner;
    Publisher: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel und Hamburg
    Country: Germany

    Using comprehensive data for West Germany, this paper investigates the determinants of establishment exit. We find that between 1975 and 2006 the average exit rate has risen considerably. In order to test various 'liabilities' of establishment survival identified in the literature, we analyze the impact of establishment size and put a special focus on differences between young and mature establishments. Our empirical analysis shows that the mortality risk falls with establishment size, which confirms the liability of smallness. The probability of exit is substantially higher for young establishments which are not more than five years old, thus confirming the liability of newness. There also exists a liability of aging since exit rates first decline over time, reaching a minimum at ages 15 to 18, and then rise again somewhat. The determinants of exit differ substantially between young and mature establishments, suggesting that young establishments are more vulnerable in a number of ways. Mit umfangreichen Daten für Westdeutschland untersucht diese Studie die Einflussfaktoren von Betriebsschließungen. Es zeigt sich, dass die durchschnittliche Schließungsrate der Betriebe von 1975 bis 2006 deutlich gestiegen ist. Um verschiedene in der Literatur herausgearbeitete Anfälligkeiten zu überprüfen, analysieren wir den Einfluss der Betriebsgröße sowie Unterschiede zwischen jungen und älteren Betrieben. Die empirische Analyse zeigt, dass das Sterberisiko mit der Betriebsgröße abnimmt, was die 'liability of smallness' bestätigt. Entsprechend der 'liability of newness' ist die Schließungswahrscheinlichkeit deutlich höher für jüngere Betriebe, die maximal fünf Jahre alt sind. Ferner findet sich eine 'liability of aging', da die Schließungswahrscheinlichkeit zunächst mit dem Alter abnimmt, ihr Minimum zwischen 15 und 18 Jahren erreicht und danach wieder etwas zunimmt. Die Einflussfaktoren der Betriebsschließungen unterscheiden sich deutlich zwischen jungen und älteren Betrieben, wobei junge Betriebe in verschiedener Weise gefährdeter sind.

  • Publication . Article . Research . Preprint . 2008
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sylvain Béal; Jacques Durieu; Philippe Solal;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Germany, France, France

    We study farsighted coalitional stability in the context of TU-games. Chwe (1994, p.318) notes that, in this context, it is difficult to prove nonemptiness of the largest consistent. We show that every TU-game has a nonempty largest consistent set. Moreover, the proof of this result allows to conclude that each TU-game has a farsighted stable set. We go further by providing a characterization of the collection of farsighted stable sets in TU-games. We also show that the farsighted core of a TU-game is empty or equal to the set of imputations of the game. Next, we study the relationships between the core and the largest consistent set in superadditive TU-games and in clan games. In the last section, we explore the stability of the Shapley value in superadditive TU-games. We show that the Shapley value is always a stable imputation. More precisely, if the Shapley value does not belong to the core, then it constitutes a farsighted stable set. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for a superadditive TU-game to have the Shapley value in the largest consistent set.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Georgarakos, Dimitris; Pasini, Giacomo;
    Country: Germany

    We investigate the effects of both trust and sociability for stock market participation, the role of which has been examined separately by existing finance literature. We use internationally comparable household data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe supplemented with regional information on generalized trust from the World Value Survey and on specific trust to financial institutions from Eurobarometer. We show that trust and sociability have distinct and sizeable positive effects on stock market participation and that sociability is likely to partly balance the discouragement effect on stockholding induced by low generalized trust in the region of residence. We also show that specific trust in advice given by financial institutions represents a prominent factor for stock investing, compared to other tangible features of the banking environment. Probing further into various groups of households, we find that sociability can induce stockholding among the less well off in Sweden, Denmark, and Switzerland where stock market participation is widespread. On the other hand, the effect of generalized trust is strong in countries with limited participation and low average trust like Austria, Spain, and Italy, offering an explanation for the remarkably low participation rates of the wealthy living therein.

  • Publication . Research . 2004
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Boulesteix, Anne-Laure;
    Publisher: Universitätsbibliothek der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
    Country: Germany

    In the context of binary classification with continuous predictors, we proove two properties concerning the connections between Partial Least Squares (PLS) dimension reduction and between-group PCA, and between linear discriminant analysis and between-group PCA. Such methods are of great interest for the analysis of high-dimensional data with continuous predictors, such as microarray gene expression data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Breßlein, Martin; Schmaljohann, Maya;
    Publisher: Heidelberg: University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics
    Country: Germany

    In this paper we investigate whether the design of World Bank conditionality, namely the extent of trade liberalization conditions, is influenced by the commercial motives of the Bank’s five major shareholders. Using a newly available dataset on World Bank conditionality we analyze the conditionality design of more than 870 projects over the 1981 – 2010 period. Our results suggest that countries of commercial interest for Germany have, on average, more trade liberalization conditions attached to their loans, indicating a trade promotion strategy. For the US, on the other hand, our results show that trading partners receive significantly fewer trade conditions. This suggests protection of the own bilateral trading relations from competition that would arise in the case of more open markets.

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