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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nicholl, Barbara; Smith, Daniel; Cullen, Breda; Mackay, Daniel; Evans, Jonathan; Anderson, Jana; Lyall, Donald; Fawns-Ritchie, Chloe; McIntosh, Andrew; Deary, Ian; +2 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    <b>Background</b> Comorbid chronic pain and depression is a challenging dyad of conditions to manage in primary care and reporting has shown to vary by ethnic group. Whether the relationship between depression and chronic pain varies by ethnicity is unclear. This study aims to explore chronic pain and depression reporting across ethnic groups and examine whether this association differs, independently of potential confounding factors. <p></p>\ud \ud <b>Methods</b> Cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants with complete data on chronic pain and probable lifetime history of depression, who reported their ethnic group as White, Asian/Asian British or Black/Black British. Chronic pain classification: present if participants had ≥ 1 site of body pain (up to seven sites or “pain all over the body” could be selected) that lasted ≥ 3 months; extent of chronic pain categories: 0, 1, 2–3, 4–7 sites or pain all over the body. Probable depression classification: an algorithm of low mood, anhedonia and help-seeking behaviour. Relationship between depression and presence/extent of chronic pain assessed using logistic/multinomial regression models (odds ratio (OR); relative risk ratio (RRR), 95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and morbidity factors; and a final adjustment for current depressive symptoms. <p></p>\ud \ud <b>Results</b> The number of participants eligible for inclusion was 144,139: 35,703 (94 %) White, 4539 (3 %) Asian, and 3897 (3 %) Black. Chronic pain was less (40.5 %, 45.8 %, 45.0 %, respectively) and depression more (22.1 %, 12.9 %, 13.8 %, respectively) commonly reported in White participants than Asian and Black participants. Statistically significant associations between depression and presence/extent of chronic pain persisted following adjustment for potential confounding variables; this relationship was strongest for Black participants (presence of chronic pain: OR 1.86 (1.52, 2.27); RRR 1 site 1.49 (1.16, 1.91), 2–3 sites 1.98 (1.53, 2.56), 4–7 sites 3.23 (2.09, 4.99), pain all over the body 3.31 (2.05, 5.33). When current depressive symptoms were considered these relationships were attenuated. <p></p>\ud \ud <b>Conclusions</b> Chronic pain and depression reporting varies across ethnic groups. Differences in health seeking behaviour between ethnic groups may impact on the results reported. Clinicians, particularly in primary care, need to be aware of the cultural barriers within certain ethic groups to expressing concern over mood and to consider their approach accordingly.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nick Bailey; Guanpeng Dong; Jon Minton; Gwilym Pryce;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Applied Quantitative Meth... (ES/K006460/1)

    This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emily G. Armitage; Andrew D. Southam;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    Introduction:\ud Cellular metabolism is altered during cancer initiation and progression, which allows cancer cells to increase anabolic synthesis, avoid apoptosis and adapt to low nutrient and oxygen availability. The metabolic nature of cancer enables patient cancer status to be monitored by metabolomics and lipidomics. Additionally, monitoring metabolic status of patients or biological models can be used to greater understand the action of anticancer therapeutics.\ud Objectives:\ud Discuss how metabolomics and lipidomics can be used to (i) identify metabolic biomarkers of cancer and (ii) understand the mechanism-of-action of anticancer therapies. Discuss considerations that can maximize the clinical value of metabolic cancer biomarkers including case–control, prognostic and longitudinal study designs.\ud Methods:\ud A literature search of the current relevant primary research was performed.\ud Results:\ud Metabolomics and lipidomics can identify metabolic signatures that associate with cancer diagnosis, prognosis and disease progression. Discriminatory metabolites were most commonly linked to lipid or energy metabolism. Case–control studies outnumbered prognostic and longitudinal approaches. Prognostic studies were able to correlate metabolic features with future cancer risk, whereas longitudinal studies were most effective for studying cancer progression. Metabolomics and lipidomics can help to understand the mechanism-of-action of anticancer therapeutics and mechanisms of drug resistance.\ud Conclusion:\ud Metabolomics and lipidomics can be used to identify biomarkers associated with cancer and to better understand anticancer therapies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rhian Noble-Jones;
    Publisher: Mark Allen Healthcare
    Country: United Kingdom

    index (BMI) of our population continues to rise, nurses in almost all areas of health care are increasingly faced with managing the heavy limbs and skin problems typical of chronic oedema. Any swelling persisting beyond 3 months is defined as chronic oedema (Moffatt et al, 2003; Lymphoedema Framework, 2006) and is indicative of a lymphatic system that is no longer able to deal with the fluid load, whatever the cause (Mortimer and Rockson, 2014). While insufficiency of the veins or lymphatics is the primary cause, obesity is a known contributor. Lymphoedema brings a 71-fold increased risk over normal (Dupuy et al, 1999), with 29% having a recurrent episode within 12 months (Moffatt et al, 2003). Cellulitis admissions already account for 2–3% of all hospital admissions (Halpern et al, 2008) and the resultant costs are estimated to be in the millions. Research has shown that early identification and management of lymphoedema reduces the morbidity, improves outcomes and reduces health and social costs Compression moves on: advances in care are changing practice

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Photos-Jones, Effie;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT | Greco-Roman Medicinal Min... (201676)

    Western biomedicine has only partially developed its own tradition of mineral\ud medicinals (lithotherapeutics), at least compared to botanicals. This is perhaps\ud because these minerals were site-specific, and fundamental information associated\ud with the empirical processes of mineral extraction, beneficiation, storage,\ud trade and preparation was not widely available. In other words, there\ud are many and serious breaks in the multi-link chain from mine to apothecary.\ud This long-term investigation aims to rebuild this chain, on a mineral-bymineral\ud basis, by pulling together the extant documentary record, material\ud culture, mineralogy, geochemistry and microbial ecology, as well as by testing\ud against known pathogens as an indicator of their antimicrobial activity.\ud Critical to understanding the nature and efficacy of lithotherapeutics is the\ud recognition that these materials need to be investigated simultaneously at\ud two levels: the empirical (ancient sources and practices); and the biomedical\ud (application of physical and biological sciences). Both approaches require the\ud same starting point, namely the field (mine or quarry) and in particular the\ud ‘point of contact’ (relationship) between minerals and their microbiome.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Callum Sutherland;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper intervenes in the recent movement in religious geographies to produce more nuanced understandings of the religious subject. By introducing the concept of theography, this paper explores a religious reflexivity that directs subjects towards struggles over the content of theology, its effects on their spatial imagination, and their praxis. Theography advances conversations about praxis in the geography of religion by tying together poststructural scholarship regarding the religious subject’s potential to subvert abstract categorization, geographies concerning the subject’s reframing of theology, and philosophical contributions vis-à-vis praxes that stem from particular understandings of transcendence.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christoph Himmels; Tatiana Kirsanova;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom

    We study a Markov-perfect monetary policy in an open New Keynesian economy with incomplete financial markets. We analyze inflation and exchange rate targeting regimes and demonstrate that both cases may result in multiple equilibria. These equilibria feature qualitatively and quantitatively different economic dynamics following the same shock. The model can help us to understand sudden changes in the interest rate and exchange rate volatility in ‘tranquil’ and ‘volatile’ times under a fully credible ‘soft peg’ of the nominal exchange rate.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Davidson, Joy;
    Publisher: 4C Project
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ade Kearns;
    Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    GIOIA FALCONE;
    Publisher: Parliamentary and Scientific Committee – All-Party Parliamentary Group
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
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Include:
32,537 Research products, page 1 of 3,254
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nicholl, Barbara; Smith, Daniel; Cullen, Breda; Mackay, Daniel; Evans, Jonathan; Anderson, Jana; Lyall, Donald; Fawns-Ritchie, Chloe; McIntosh, Andrew; Deary, Ian; +2 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    <b>Background</b> Comorbid chronic pain and depression is a challenging dyad of conditions to manage in primary care and reporting has shown to vary by ethnic group. Whether the relationship between depression and chronic pain varies by ethnicity is unclear. This study aims to explore chronic pain and depression reporting across ethnic groups and examine whether this association differs, independently of potential confounding factors. <p></p>\ud \ud <b>Methods</b> Cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants with complete data on chronic pain and probable lifetime history of depression, who reported their ethnic group as White, Asian/Asian British or Black/Black British. Chronic pain classification: present if participants had ≥ 1 site of body pain (up to seven sites or “pain all over the body” could be selected) that lasted ≥ 3 months; extent of chronic pain categories: 0, 1, 2–3, 4–7 sites or pain all over the body. Probable depression classification: an algorithm of low mood, anhedonia and help-seeking behaviour. Relationship between depression and presence/extent of chronic pain assessed using logistic/multinomial regression models (odds ratio (OR); relative risk ratio (RRR), 95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and morbidity factors; and a final adjustment for current depressive symptoms. <p></p>\ud \ud <b>Results</b> The number of participants eligible for inclusion was 144,139: 35,703 (94 %) White, 4539 (3 %) Asian, and 3897 (3 %) Black. Chronic pain was less (40.5 %, 45.8 %, 45.0 %, respectively) and depression more (22.1 %, 12.9 %, 13.8 %, respectively) commonly reported in White participants than Asian and Black participants. Statistically significant associations between depression and presence/extent of chronic pain persisted following adjustment for potential confounding variables; this relationship was strongest for Black participants (presence of chronic pain: OR 1.86 (1.52, 2.27); RRR 1 site 1.49 (1.16, 1.91), 2–3 sites 1.98 (1.53, 2.56), 4–7 sites 3.23 (2.09, 4.99), pain all over the body 3.31 (2.05, 5.33). When current depressive symptoms were considered these relationships were attenuated. <p></p>\ud \ud <b>Conclusions</b> Chronic pain and depression reporting varies across ethnic groups. Differences in health seeking behaviour between ethnic groups may impact on the results reported. Clinicians, particularly in primary care, need to be aware of the cultural barriers within certain ethic groups to expressing concern over mood and to consider their approach accordingly.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nick Bailey; Guanpeng Dong; Jon Minton; Gwilym Pryce;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Applied Quantitative Meth... (ES/K006460/1)

    This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emily G. Armitage; Andrew D. Southam;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT

    Introduction:\ud Cellular metabolism is altered during cancer initiation and progression, which allows cancer cells to increase anabolic synthesis, avoid apoptosis and adapt to low nutrient and oxygen availability. The metabolic nature of cancer enables patient cancer status to be monitored by metabolomics and lipidomics. Additionally, monitoring metabolic status of patients or biological models can be used to greater understand the action of anticancer therapeutics.\ud Objectives:\ud Discuss how metabolomics and lipidomics can be used to (i) identify metabolic biomarkers of cancer and (ii) understand the mechanism-of-action of anticancer therapies. Discuss considerations that can maximize the clinical value of metabolic cancer biomarkers including case–control, prognostic and longitudinal study designs.\ud Methods:\ud A literature search of the current relevant primary research was performed.\ud Results:\ud Metabolomics and lipidomics can identify metabolic signatures that associate with cancer diagnosis, prognosis and disease progression. Discriminatory metabolites were most commonly linked to lipid or energy metabolism. Case–control studies outnumbered prognostic and longitudinal approaches. Prognostic studies were able to correlate metabolic features with future cancer risk, whereas longitudinal studies were most effective for studying cancer progression. Metabolomics and lipidomics can help to understand the mechanism-of-action of anticancer therapeutics and mechanisms of drug resistance.\ud Conclusion:\ud Metabolomics and lipidomics can be used to identify biomarkers associated with cancer and to better understand anticancer therapies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rhian Noble-Jones;
    Publisher: Mark Allen Healthcare
    Country: United Kingdom

    index (BMI) of our population continues to rise, nurses in almost all areas of health care are increasingly faced with managing the heavy limbs and skin problems typical of chronic oedema. Any swelling persisting beyond 3 months is defined as chronic oedema (Moffatt et al, 2003; Lymphoedema Framework, 2006) and is indicative of a lymphatic system that is no longer able to deal with the fluid load, whatever the cause (Mortimer and Rockson, 2014). While insufficiency of the veins or lymphatics is the primary cause, obesity is a known contributor. Lymphoedema brings a 71-fold increased risk over normal (Dupuy et al, 1999), with 29% having a recurrent episode within 12 months (Moffatt et al, 2003). Cellulitis admissions already account for 2–3% of all hospital admissions (Halpern et al, 2008) and the resultant costs are estimated to be in the millions. Research has shown that early identification and management of lymphoedema reduces the morbidity, improves outcomes and reduces health and social costs Compression moves on: advances in care are changing practice

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Photos-Jones, Effie;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT | Greco-Roman Medicinal Min... (201676)

    Western biomedicine has only partially developed its own tradition of mineral\ud medicinals (lithotherapeutics), at least compared to botanicals. This is perhaps\ud because these minerals were site-specific, and fundamental information associated\ud with the empirical processes of mineral extraction, beneficiation, storage,\ud trade and preparation was not widely available. In other words, there\ud are many and serious breaks in the multi-link chain from mine to apothecary.\ud This long-term investigation aims to rebuild this chain, on a mineral-bymineral\ud basis, by pulling together the extant documentary record, material\ud culture, mineralogy, geochemistry and microbial ecology, as well as by testing\ud against known pathogens as an indicator of their antimicrobial activity.\ud Critical to understanding the nature and efficacy of lithotherapeutics is the\ud recognition that these materials need to be investigated simultaneously at\ud two levels: the empirical (ancient sources and practices); and the biomedical\ud (application of physical and biological sciences). Both approaches require the\ud same starting point, namely the field (mine or quarry) and in particular the\ud ‘point of contact’ (relationship) between minerals and their microbiome.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Callum Sutherland;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper intervenes in the recent movement in religious geographies to produce more nuanced understandings of the religious subject. By introducing the concept of theography, this paper explores a religious reflexivity that directs subjects towards struggles over the content of theology, its effects on their spatial imagination, and their praxis. Theography advances conversations about praxis in the geography of religion by tying together poststructural scholarship regarding the religious subject’s potential to subvert abstract categorization, geographies concerning the subject’s reframing of theology, and philosophical contributions vis-à-vis praxes that stem from particular understandings of transcendence.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christoph Himmels; Tatiana Kirsanova;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom

    We study a Markov-perfect monetary policy in an open New Keynesian economy with incomplete financial markets. We analyze inflation and exchange rate targeting regimes and demonstrate that both cases may result in multiple equilibria. These equilibria feature qualitatively and quantitatively different economic dynamics following the same shock. The model can help us to understand sudden changes in the interest rate and exchange rate volatility in ‘tranquil’ and ‘volatile’ times under a fully credible ‘soft peg’ of the nominal exchange rate.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Davidson, Joy;
    Publisher: 4C Project
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ade Kearns;
    Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    GIOIA FALCONE;
    Publisher: Parliamentary and Scientific Committee – All-Party Parliamentary Group
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

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