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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Bohsung, Lukas; Schanner, Maximilian; Korte, Monika; Holschneider, Matthias;

    The primary data sources for reconstructing the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia are archeomagnetic and sedimentary paleomagnetic data. Sediment records, in particular, are crucial in extending the temporal and spatial coverage of global Earth's magnetic field models, especially when archeomagnetic data is sparse. However, the post-depositional remanent magnetization (pDRM) process is still poorly understood and can cause smoothing of the magnetic signal and offsets with respect to the sediment age. To make effective use of sedimentary data, it is essential to understand the lock-in process and its impact on the magnetic signal. In this study, we investigate the lock-in process theoretically and derive a parameterized lock-in function to approximate all possible lock-in behaviors. Additionally, we demonstrate that a lock-in function that is independent of absolute parameters can only be applied to the magnetic direction components, but not to the relative intensity. Integrating this lock-in function into the ArchKalMag14k modeling procedure (Schanner et al., 2022, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB023166) allows to include data from sediment records. The parameters of the lock-in function are estimated by maximum likelihood methods using archeomagnetic data as a reference. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through synthetic tests. Additionally, it is applied to real sediment records. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of effectively correcting the distortion caused by the lock-in process, making data from sedimentary records a more reliable and informative source for Earth's magnetic field reconstructions. The 28th IUGG General Assembly (IUGG2023) (Berlin 2023)

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    https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Seidel, M.; Tezkan, B.; Yogeshwar, P.;

    TDcustEM is a new 3D time domain CSEM finite elements forward modeling software built upon the open­source frequency domain toolbox custEM [1] and the open­source finite­element library FEniCS [2]. The frequency domain results calculated by the custEM toolbox are transformed into the time domain by a Fast Hankel Transform (FHT) using 80 digital filters provided by Tilman Hanstein [3]. Nédélec finite elements are used for the tetrahedral meshes which are generated by TetGen. Grounded dipole and inductively coupled loop sources can be modeled using the total E­field approach. For more information, see [7], which also contains an application of the software to real field data.

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    Authors: Ziegler, M.; Heidbach, O.;

    These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.

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    Authors: Möller, P.;

    Historically, the most prominent source of discovered REY was the pegmatite in Ytterby, Sweden, which was the namesake for yttrium, terbium, erbium and ytterbium. Gadolinium, Ho, Tm and Sc were also extracted from yttria. All these elements were harboured in gadolinite. The elements La-Eu were isolated from ceria which was derived from different minerals such as cerite and samarskite. China is the most important REY producer followed by the USA, Myanmar and Australia. The REY-mineral deposits may be grouped into: Endogenic enrichments of REE associated with alkali-ultrabasic complexes, carbonatites, alkaline pegmatites, metasomatites (albite and fenite), hydrothermal vein mineralizations, and contact metamorphic rocks, especially skarns. Exogenic accumulations of REE minerals in fluvial and coastal or alluvial sands and residual soils (laterites and bauxite) on top of carbonatites; sediments rich in organic material and REE. These rocks may become an interesting source in the future because of their availability in large quantities. Anthropogenic enrichments of REY exist in large stockpiles of mining wastes such as the red muds from aluminium production based on bauxite or the leftover materials of fertilizer production from phosphate rock, the so-called phosphogypsum. Another possible resource of REY may be coal ashes.

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    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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    Authors: Schölderle, Felix; Lipus, Martin P.; Pfrang, Daniela; Reinsch, Thomas; +3 Authors

    <jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Fiber optic sensing has gained importance for wellbore monitoring and reservoir characterization in geothermal fields as it allows continuous, spatially highly resolved measurements. Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technologies, among others, enable monitoring of flow regimes and heat transport inside the wellbore to describe the dynamical behavior of the reservoir. The technically challenging installation of a permanent fiber optic monitoring system in a geothermal production well over the entire wellbore length was conducted for the first time at the geothermal site Schäftlarnstraße in Munich, Germany. One cable with two DAS fibers, two DTS fibers, and one fiber for a downhole fiber optic pressure/temperature gauge were clamped to ¾-in. sucker rods and installed to 3.7 km measured depth to collect data from the wellbore after drilling, during testing, and during operations. We present DTS profiles during 3 months of well shut-in and show the results of two cold water injection tests conducted to localize inflow zones in the reservoir and to test the performance of the fiber optic setup. A vertical displacement in temperature peaks of approximately 1.5 m was observed during the injection tests, presumably resulting from thermal contraction of the sucker rod–cable setup. This was verified by analyzing the strain information from the DAS records over 1 h of warm-back after cold water injection with the calculated theoretical thermal contraction of DTS of the same period. We further verified the flowmeter measurements with a gradient velocity analysis of DTS profiles during injection. Intake to the major inflow zone was estimated to 93.5% for the first injection test, respective 94.0% for the second, intake of flowmeter was calculated to 92.0% for the same zone. Those values are confirmed by analyzing DTS profiles during the warm-back period after the well was shut.</jats:p>

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    Fraunhofer-ePrints
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Fraunhofer-ePrints
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      Fraunhofer-ePrints
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: Fraunhofer-ePrints
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    Authors: Marzocchi, W.; Iturrieta, P.; Falcone, G.;

    The main goal of WP3 is to advance the operational earthquake forecasting capabilities at different spatial scales. This deliverable contains the description of the repository where all promising codes of the OEF models that have been produced in the first 30 months of the project have been uploaded. Since all codes have to be tested in WP7 in the last year of the project, the structure of this deliverable has been agreed with colleagues working at WP7. The repository contains both the codes that will be used in the WP7 testing phase, and a detailed description of each model. In this document we will describe the main features of the repository and the link where codes and descriptions can be found. Then, we will briefly summarize the main features of the models that are contained in the repository. At the time of this deliverable, eight models have been submitted to the repository; however, at the end of the project we expect to have more; in fact, some additional models are almost finished, but not yet ready for the testing phase and so they have not been uploaded yet; very likely, they will be uploaded soon and tested in WP7 in the last year of the project. In this first phase the repository is kept private (available only after a specific request to the WP leader) to leave the time to the modelers to finalize the scientific papers relative to their models. The repository will be then made public through the platform Zenodo at the end of the project.

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    Authors: Cauzzi, C.; Bindi, D.; Buscetti, M.; Cambaz, D.; +19 Authors

    This contribution provides an overview of the procedure being collaboratively developed within ORFEUS to complement the quality control strategies of the RRSM (Rapid Raw Strong Motion) and ESM (Engineering Strong Motion) databases with systematic comparisons of the earthquake data recorded at seismic stations with co-located strong-motion and weak-motion instruments in Europe. The analyses allow: (i) detecting anomalies in both waveform data and station metadata; (ii) refining automatic & manual waveform processing; (iii) enhancing usage of velocity records in ’strong-motion’ databases. We aim at community feedback on the proposed strategy to inform the preparation of free and open-source software to perform systematic and on-demand analyses of the data from co-located instruments.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Bohsung, Lukas; Schanner, Maximilian; Korte, Monika; Holschneider, Matthias;

    The primary data sources for reconstructing the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia are archeomagnetic and sedimentary paleomagnetic data. Sediment records, in particular, are crucial in extending the temporal and spatial coverage of global Earth's magnetic field models, especially when archeomagnetic data is sparse. However, the post-depositional remanent magnetization (pDRM) process is still poorly understood and can cause smoothing of the magnetic signal and offsets with respect to the sediment age. To make effective use of sedimentary data, it is essential to understand the lock-in process and its impact on the magnetic signal. In this study, we investigate the lock-in process theoretically and derive a parameterized lock-in function to approximate all possible lock-in behaviors. Additionally, we demonstrate that a lock-in function that is independent of absolute parameters can only be applied to the magnetic direction components, but not to the relative intensity. Integrating this lock-in function into the ArchKalMag14k modeling procedure (Schanner et al., 2022, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB023166) allows to include data from sediment records. The parameters of the lock-in function are estimated by maximum likelihood methods using archeomagnetic data as a reference. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through synthetic tests. Additionally, it is applied to real sediment records. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of effectively correcting the distortion caused by the lock-in process, making data from sedimentary records a more reliable and informative source for Earth's magnetic field reconstructions. The 28th IUGG General Assembly (IUGG2023) (Berlin 2023)

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    https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Seidel, M.; Tezkan, B.; Yogeshwar, P.;

    TDcustEM is a new 3D time domain CSEM finite elements forward modeling software built upon the open­source frequency domain toolbox custEM [1] and the open­source finite­element library FEniCS [2]. The frequency domain results calculated by the custEM toolbox are transformed into the time domain by a Fast Hankel Transform (FHT) using 80 digital filters provided by Tilman Hanstein [3]. Nédélec finite elements are used for the tetrahedral meshes which are generated by TetGen. Grounded dipole and inductively coupled loop sources can be modeled using the total E­field approach. For more information, see [7], which also contains an application of the software to real field data.

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    Authors: Ziegler, M.; Heidbach, O.;

    These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.

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    Authors: Möller, P.;

    Historically, the most prominent source of discovered REY was the pegmatite in Ytterby, Sweden, which was the namesake for yttrium, terbium, erbium and ytterbium. Gadolinium, Ho, Tm and Sc were also extracted from yttria. All these elements were harboured in gadolinite. The elements La-Eu were isolated from ceria which was derived from different minerals such as cerite and samarskite. China is the most important REY producer followed by the USA, Myanmar and Australia. The REY-mineral deposits may be grouped into: Endogenic enrichments of REE associated with alkali-ultrabasic complexes, carbonatites, alkaline pegmatites, metasomatites (albite and fenite), hydrothermal vein mineralizations, and contact metamorphic rocks, especially skarns. Exogenic accumulations of REE minerals in fluvial and coastal or alluvial sands and residual soils (laterites and bauxite) on top of carbonatites; sediments rich in organic material and REE. These rocks may become an interesting source in the future because of their availability in large quantities. Anthropogenic enrichments of REY exist in large stockpiles of mining wastes such as the red muds from aluminium production based on bauxite or the leftover materials of fertilizer production from phosphate rock, the so-called phosphogypsum. Another possible resource of REY may be coal ashes.

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    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
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      GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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    Authors: Schölderle, Felix; Lipus, Martin P.; Pfrang, Daniela; Reinsch, Thomas; +3 Authors

    <jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Fiber optic sensing has gained importance for wellbore monitoring and reservoir characterization in geothermal fields as it allows continuous, spatially highly resolved measurements. Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technologies, among others, enable monitoring of flow regimes and heat transport inside the wellbore to describe the dynamical behavior of the reservoir. The technically challenging installation of a permanent fiber optic monitoring system in a geothermal production well over the entire wellbore length was conducted for the first time at the geothermal site Schäftlarnstraße in Munich, Germany. One cable with two DAS fibers, two DTS fibers, and one fiber for a downhole fiber optic pressure/temperature gauge were clamped to ¾-in. sucker rods and installed to 3.7 km measured depth to collect data from the wellbore after drilling, during testing, and during operations. We present DTS profiles during 3 months of well shut-in and show the results of two cold water injection tests conducted to localize inflow zones in the reservoir and to test the performance of the fiber optic setup. A vertical displacement in temperature peaks of approximately 1.5 m was observed during the injection tests, presumably resulting from thermal contraction of the sucker rod–cable setup. This was verified by analyzing the strain information from the DAS records over 1 h of warm-back after cold water injection with the calculated theoretical thermal contraction of DTS of the same period. We further verified the flowmeter measurements with a gradient velocity analysis of DTS profiles during injection. Intake to the major inflow zone was estimated to 93.5% for the first injection test, respective 94.0% for the second, intake of flowmeter was calculated to 92.0% for the same zone. Those values are confirmed by analyzing DTS profiles during the warm-back period after the well was shut.</jats:p>

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    Fraunhofer-ePrints
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Fraunhofer-ePrints
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      Fraunhofer-ePrints
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: Fraunhofer-ePrints
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    Authors: Marzocchi, W.; Iturrieta, P.; Falcone, G.;

    The main goal of WP3 is to advance the operational earthquake forecasting capabilities at different spatial scales. This deliverable contains the description of the repository where all promising codes of the OEF models that have been produced in the first 30 months of the project have been uploaded. Since all codes have to be tested in WP7 in the last year of the project, the structure of this deliverable has been agreed with colleagues working at WP7. The repository contains both the codes that will be used in the WP7 testing phase, and a detailed description of each model. In this document we will describe the main features of the repository and the link where codes and descriptions can be found. Then, we will briefly summarize the main features of the models that are contained in the repository. At the time of this deliverable, eight models have been submitted to the repository; however, at the end of the project we expect to have more; in fact, some additional models are almost finished, but not yet ready for the testing phase and so they have not been uploaded yet; very likely, they will be uploaded soon and tested in WP7 in the last year of the project. In this first phase the repository is kept private (available only after a specific request to the WP leader) to leave the time to the modelers to finalize the scientific papers relative to their models. The repository will be then made public through the platform Zenodo at the end of the project.

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