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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    The pathophysiology of stroke is complex. Adaptive and maladaptive signalling occurs between multiple cell types in the brain. There is crosstalk between central and systemic responses. And there are overlapping pathways during initial injury and subsequent repair. These numerous feed-forward and feed-back interactions have made it difficult to translate experimental discoveries into clinical applications. An emerging hypothesis in biomedical research now suggests that contrary to a traditional model, translation may not be efficiently obtained without a rigorous understanding of mechanisms. Hence, to optimize diagnostics and therapeutics for stroke patients, it is necessary to identify and define causal mechanisms. Mirroring the multi-compartment interactions in stroke pathophysiology, bench-to-bedside, and bedside-back-to-bench advances in stroke may be best achieved with inter-disciplinary collaborations between basic research, neuroimaging, and broadly based clinical science. Causation can then be two-fold, ie, dissecting mechanisms and targets, as well as developing future scientists who can blur the boundaries between basic, translational, and clinical research. In systems theory, a critical goal is to distinguish causation from correlation. In stroke research, causation may perhaps be found through a collaborative search for mechanisms.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Stroke
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    Stroke
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2013
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      Stroke
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      Stroke
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • Authors: S, Lovestone;
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  • Authors: S A, Amiel;

    ‘To keep in equilibrium’, one of the Oxford English Dictionary’s many definitions of balance, is a desirable target for anylife, but has special meaning for the life of a person with diabetes. Achieving balance—between hypo- and hyperglycaemia; between energy intake and energy consumption; between insulin action and insulin secretion; between attention to diabetes and attention to everything else—remains challenging, but progress has been made over the last three decades, both in our understanding of how nature achieves balance and in the tools we have to try to reproduce the actions of nature in disease states. In particular, the role of the brain in controlling diabetes, from glucose sensing to decision making, has been investigated. Physiological and neuro-imaging studies are finally being translated into patient benefit, with the aim of improving, as Dr Banting put it, the provision of ‘energy for the economic burdens of life’.

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  • Authors: Hirokazu, Oguni;

    The correct diagnosis of epilepsy leads to an appropriate treatment.The first step is to distinguish epileptic seizures from nonepileptic attacks, and to make a precise seizure diagnosis and classification. The next step is to identify the etiology or basic disorders underlying the epilepsy by physical and neurologic examinations, laboratory tests, including EEGs and neuroradiologic examinations. Although the EEG is the most important laboratory examination for the diagnosis of epilepsy, limitations of EEG interpretations must be recognized.A syndromic classification of the patients, to determine whether they fit known syndromes, should be attempted. If patients do not match a described syndrome, a neurobiologic approach, utilizing genetic, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacologic knowledge, alternatively provides useful information to understand the neurobiologic background of epilepsy.Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages for diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Both approaches can be used interchangeably with patients with seizure disorders, depending upon their condition. The epilepsy diagnosis, etiology, and seizure-type diagnosis should be reevaluated when seizure control is insufficient with first- and second-line antiepileptic drugs.

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  • Authors: Francisco José, Rubia Vila;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Experience-dependent plasticity is closely linked with the development of sensory function. Beyond this sensitive period, developmental plasticity is actively limited; however, new studies provide growing evidence for plasticity in the adult visual system. The amblyopic visual system is an excellent model for examining the "brakes" that limit recovery of function beyond the critical period. While amblyopia can often be reversed when treated early, conventional treatment is generally not undertaken in older children and adults. However, new clinical and experimental studies in both animals and humans provide evidence for neural plasticity beyond the critical period. The results suggest that perceptual learning and video game play may be effective in improving a range of visual performance measures and importantly the improvements may transfer to better visual acuity and stereopsis. These findings, along with the results of new clinical trials, suggest that it might be time to reconsider our notions about neural plasticity in amblyopia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Optometry and Vision...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2012
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    Optometry and Vision Science
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2012
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      Optometry and Vision Science
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Myers, Martin G.;

    Martin G. Myers Jr., MD, PhD, received the American Diabetes Association's prestigious 2010 Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award at the Association's 70th Scientific Sessions in Orlando, Florida, on 28 June 2010. The Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award recognizes outstanding scientific achievement in the field of diabetes, taking into consideration independence of thought and originality. Currently the Marilyn H. Vincent Professor of Diabetes Research at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and Associate Professor in internal medicine and in molecular and integrative physiology at the University of Michigan Medical School, Dr. Myers began his impressive track record in diabetes research as a graduate student in the laboratory of Dr. Morris White at the Joslin Diabetes Center/Harvard Medical School. There, Dr. Myers deciphered many of the insulin signaling pathways engaged by insulin receptor substrate proteins. Following his graduation from the Harvard MD-PhD Program in 1997, Dr. Myers was promoted to instructor in medicine at the Joslin Diabetes Center/Harvard Medical School. He began his independent work by building a molecular framework for understanding the mechanisms of leptin signaling, including how individual phosphorylation sites on the leptin receptor recruit distinct signaling molecules. He was promoted to assistant professor at Harvard in 1999. In 2004, Dr. Myers moved to the University of Michigan, where he built upon the molecular framework of leptin signaling to probe the regulation of metabolism by individual leptin signals. Dr. Myers' laboratory revealed the specificity of leptin signals in metabolic control, including the role for leptin-STAT3 signaling in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. His group also defined roles for leptin receptor feedback inhibition and hypothalamic mTor signaling in metabolism. Dr. Myers' laboratory has recently developed novel molecular approaches to elucidate the leptin-regulated brain circuits that contribute to metabolic control, enabling the discovery of novel brain systems and their functions. In 1998, Dr. Myers received the American Diabetes Association's Career Development Award for his scientific abilities. Dr. Myers' current support includes the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases MERIT Award.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Diabetes
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Diabetes
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  • Authors: Roberto, Toni; Giulia, Spaletta; Claudia Della, Casa; Simone, Ravera; +1 Authors

    The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The computational basis of a. standard cybernetic design, in fact, refers to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has been suggested that a number of human cerebral activites, from feedback controls up to mental processes, rely on a mixing of both finitary, digital-like and infinitary, continuous-like procedures. Therefore, the central nervous system (CNS) of man would exploit a form of computation going beyond that of a TM. This "non conventional" computation has been called hybrid computation. Some basic structures for hybrid brain computation are believed to be the brain computational maps, in which both Turing-like (digital) computation and continuous (analog) forms of calculus might occur. The cerebral cortex and brain stem appears primary candidate for this processing. However, also neuroendocrine structures like the hypothalamus are believed to exhibit hybrid computional processes, and might give rise to computational maps. Current theories on neural activity, including wiring and volume transmission, neuronal group selection and dynamic evolving models of brain automata, bring fuel to the existence of natural hybrid computation, stressing a cooperation between discrete and continuous forms of communication in the CNS. In addition, the recent advent of neuromorphic chips, like those to restore activity in damaged retina and visual cortex, suggests that assumption of a discrete-continuum polarity in designing biocompatible neural circuitries is crucial for their ensuing performance. In these bionic structures, in fact, a correspondence exists between the original anatomical architecture and synthetic wiring of the chip, resulting in a correspondence between natural and cybernetic neural activity. Thus, chip "form" provides a continuum essential to chip "function". We conclude that it is reasonable to predict the existence of hybrid computational processes in the course of many human, brain integrating activities, urging development of cybernetic approaches based on this modelling for adequate reproduction of a variety of cerebral performances.

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    Authors: Casamitjana Díaz, Adrià;
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  • Authors: P, Maquet; M S, Schwartz;

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that human REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. While being usually interpreted in relation to physiological and cellular mechanisms, the regionally-specific distribution of brain activity during REM sleep may also be linked to specific dream features. Remarkably, several bizarre features of dreams present similarities with wellknown neuropsychological syndromes after brain damage, such as delusional misidentifications for faces and places. We propose that neuropsychological analysis of dream content might offer new ways of interpreting neuroimaging maps, as well as specific predictions for future neuroimaging studies.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    The pathophysiology of stroke is complex. Adaptive and maladaptive signalling occurs between multiple cell types in the brain. There is crosstalk between central and systemic responses. And there are overlapping pathways during initial injury and subsequent repair. These numerous feed-forward and feed-back interactions have made it difficult to translate experimental discoveries into clinical applications. An emerging hypothesis in biomedical research now suggests that contrary to a traditional model, translation may not be efficiently obtained without a rigorous understanding of mechanisms. Hence, to optimize diagnostics and therapeutics for stroke patients, it is necessary to identify and define causal mechanisms. Mirroring the multi-compartment interactions in stroke pathophysiology, bench-to-bedside, and bedside-back-to-bench advances in stroke may be best achieved with inter-disciplinary collaborations between basic research, neuroimaging, and broadly based clinical science. Causation can then be two-fold, ie, dissecting mechanisms and targets, as well as developing future scientists who can blur the boundaries between basic, translational, and clinical research. In systems theory, a critical goal is to distinguish causation from correlation. In stroke research, causation may perhaps be found through a collaborative search for mechanisms.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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  • Authors: S, Lovestone;
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  • Authors: S A, Amiel;

    ‘To keep in equilibrium’, one of the Oxford English Dictionary’s many definitions of balance, is a desirable target for anylife, but has special meaning for the life of a person with diabetes. Achieving balance—between hypo- and hyperglycaemia; between energy intake and energy consumption; between insulin action and insulin secretion; between attention to diabetes and attention to everything else—remains challenging, but progress has been made over the last three decades, both in our understanding of how nature achieves balance and in the tools we have to try to reproduce the actions of nature in disease states. In particular, the role of the brain in controlling diabetes, from glucose sensing to decision making, has been investigated. Physiological and neuro-imaging studies are finally being translated into patient benefit, with the aim of improving, as Dr Banting put it, the provision of ‘energy for the economic burdens of life’.

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  • Authors: Hirokazu, Oguni;

    The correct diagnosis of epilepsy leads to an appropriate treatment.The first step is to distinguish epileptic seizures from nonepileptic attacks, and to make a precise seizure diagnosis and classification. The next step is to identify the etiology or basic disorders underlying the epilepsy by physical and neurologic examinations, laboratory tests, including EEGs and neuroradiologic examinations. Although the EEG is the most important laboratory examination for the diagnosis of epilepsy, limitations of EEG interpretations must be recognized.A syndromic classification of the patients, to determine whether they fit known syndromes, should be attempted. If patients do not match a described syndrome, a neurobiologic approach, utilizing genetic, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacologic knowledge, alternatively provides useful information to understand the neurobiologic background of epilepsy.Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages for diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Both approaches can be used interchangeably with patients with seizure disorders, depending upon their condition. The epilepsy diagnosis, etiology, and seizure-type diagnosis should be reevaluated when seizure control is insufficient with first- and second-line antiepileptic drugs.

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  • Authors: Francisco José, Rubia Vila;
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    Experience-dependent plasticity is closely linked with the development of sensory function. Beyond this sensitive period, developmental plasticity is actively limited; however, new studies provide growing evidence for plasticity in the adult visual system. The amblyopic visual system is an excellent model for examining the "brakes" that limit recovery of function beyond the critical period. While amblyopia can often be reversed when treated early, conventional treatment is generally not undertaken in older children and adults. However, new clinical and experimental studies in both animals and humans provide evidence for neural plasticity beyond the critical period. The results suggest that perceptual learning and video game play may be effective in improving a range of visual performance measures and importantly the improvements may transfer to better visual acuity and stereopsis. These findings, along with the results of new clinical trials, suggest that it might be time to reconsider our notions about neural plasticity in amblyopia.

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