Publisher: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW) Mannheim
This paper presents for the first time panel evidence on the productivity effects of training intensity and different training forms in Germany. It hereby takes account of selectivity of training activities, unobserved heterogeneity of establishments as well as omitted variable bias. Using the waves 1997 – 2000 of the IAB establishment panel, it is found that when the share of trained employees in 1997 is higher, productivity is significantly higher in the period 1997 - 1999. Formal internal and external courses have the highest positive impact on productivity, self-induced learning and quality circles have a smaller positive impact, while training on the job, seminars and talks and job rotation do not affect productivity. The decision to train is selective. Firms with an inefficient production structure deliberately use training in order to boost productivity.
Recent contributions to growth theory stress the importance of localized innovation for the performance of more backward countries. In earlier papers, analyses by means of DEA techniques confirmed this intuition. In this paper, we extend this type of analysis by relaxing the macroeconomic viewpoint adopted until now. New databases on output, labor and capital input in the agricultural and manufacturing sector are developed for 40 countries. Using intertemporal DEA, it is found that changes in the global production frontier are localized at high levels of capital intensity. This result is stronger in agriculture than in manufacturing. Further, a decomposition of labor productivity growth in eight Asian countries for the period 1975-1992 into the effects of capital intensification, knowledge assimilation and innovation is made. The results suggest that there is a particular development path in which increases in capital intensity appear to be a prerequisite to benefit from international technology spillovers.
Publisher: Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University
Properties of the autoxidized oils extracted from variously sun-dried saury fish were reported in a separate paper by Shimo-oka and Toyama. In this connection, the present study has been undertaken with the object of knowing that whether properties of the autoxidized oils differ in any respect or not depending upon whether the oil as contained in saury body has undergone autoxidation during the sun-drying of saury or the oil separated from saury has been autoxidized under exposure to the sun, and also that whether properties of autoxidized saury oils depend on any way upon whether the oil has been autoxidized under exposure to the sun or it has been autoxidized by air-blowing without exposure to the sun. Further, since the highly unsaturated acids among the fatty acids of saury oil are considered to participate preferentially in the autoxidation of saury oil, a highly unsaturated acid fraction separated from saury oil was autoxidized to give autoxidized samples containing peroxides. On decomposing the peroxides by heating autoxidized samples, volatile decomposition products and the non-volatile residue were then separated and analyzed.