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  • Publication . Conference object . Preprint . Article . Part of book or chapter of book . 2010
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Britt Reichborn-Kjennerud; Asad M. Aboobaker; Peter A. R. Ade; François Aubin; Carlo Baccigalupi; Chaoyun Bao; Julian Borrill; Christopher Cantalupo; Daniel Chapman; Joy Didier; +36 more
    Countries: United States, France, France, France, France

    EBEX is a NASA-funded balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Observations will be made using 1432 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric detectors read out with frequency multiplexed SQuIDs. EBEX will observe in three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz, with 768, 384, and 280 detectors in each band, respectively. This broad frequency coverage is designed to provide valuable information about polarized foreground signals from dust. The polarized sky signals will be modulated with an achromatic half wave plate (AHWP) rotating on a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) and analyzed with a fixed wire grid polarizer. EBEX will observe a patch covering ~1% of the sky with 8' resolution, allowing for observation of the angular power spectrum from \ell = 20 to 1000. This will allow EBEX to search for both the primordial B-mode signal predicted by inflation and the anticipated lensing B-mode signal. Calculations to predict EBEX constraints on r using expected noise levels show that, for a likelihood centered around zero and with negligible foregrounds, 99% of the area falls below r = 0.035. This value increases by a factor of 1.6 after a process of foreground subtraction. This estimate does not include systematic uncertainties. An engineering flight was launched in June, 2009, from Ft. Sumner, NM, and the long duration science flight in Antarctica is planned for 2011. These proceedings describe the EBEX instrument and the North American engineering flight. 12 pages, 9 figures, Conference proceedings for SPIE Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy V (2010)

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . Other literature type . 2001
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Tsvi Piran;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    It has been recently observed that small violations of Lorentz invariance, of a type which may arise in quantum gravity, could explain both the observations of cosmic rays above the GZK cutoff and the observations of 20-TeV gamma rays from Markarian 501. We show here that different pictures of the short-distance structure of space-time would lead to different manifestations of Lorentz-invariance violation. Specifically, the deformation of Lorentz invariance needed to resolve these observational paradoxes can only arise within commutative short-distance pictures of space-time. In noncommutative space-times there is no anomalous effect, at least at leading order. Also exploiting the fact that arrival-time delays between high energy photons with different energies would arise in both the commutative and the noncommutative Lorentz-violation pictures, we describe an experimental programme, based on time-of-arrival analysis of high energy photons and searches of violations of GZK and TeV-photon limits, which could discriminate between alternative scenarios of Lorentz-invariance breakdown and could provide and unexpected window on the (quantum) nature of space-time at very short distances. Comment: 8 pages, LaTex

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Giulio D’Odorico; Jan-Willem Goossens; Frank Saueressig;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Netherlands

    We initiate the systematic computation of the heat-kernel coefficients for Laplacian operators obeying anisotropic dispersion relations in curved spacetime. Our results correctly reproduce the limit where isotropy is restored and special anisotropic cases considered previously in the literature. Subsequently, the heat kernel is used to derive the scalar-induced one-loop effective action and beta functions of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We identify the Gaussian fixed point which is supposed to provide the UV completion of the theory. In the present setting, this fixed point acts as an infrared attractor for the renormalization group flow of Newton's constant and the high-energy phase of the theory is screened by a Landau pole. We comment on the consequences of these findings for the renormalizability of the theory. Comment: 32 pages, 2 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Christian Spånslätt; Jinhong Park; Yuval Gefen; Alexander D. Mirlin;

    Electrical and thermal transport on a fractional quantum Hall edge are determined by topological quantities inherited from the corresponding bulk state. While electrical transport is the standard method for studying edges, thermal transport appears more challenging. Here, we show that the shot noise generated on the edge provides a fully electrical method to probe the edge structure. In the incoherent regime, the noise falls into three topologically distinct universality classes: charge transport is always ballistic while thermal transport is either ballistic, diffusive, or "antiballistic". Correspondingly, the noise either vanishes, decays algebraically or is constant up to exponentially small corrections in the edge length. Published version: 6+7 pages, 3+3 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fedor Nazarov; Mikhail Sodin;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    By random complex zeroes we mean the zero set of a random entire function whose Taylor coefficients are independent complex-valued Gaussian variables, and the variance of the k-th coefficient is 1/k!. This zero set is distribution invariant with respect to isometries of the complex plane. Extending the previous results of Sodin and Tsirelson, we compute the variance of linear statistics of random complex zeroes, and find close to optimal conditions on a test-function that yield asymptotic normality of fluctuations of the corresponding linear statistics. We also provide examples of test-functions with abnormal fluctuations of linear statistics. 30 pages

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein;
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: NSERC

    Algorithmic Cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin-systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. AC of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally, and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; Exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semi-optimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein few cycles (typically 2-6) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC, and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. The new algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vladimir Gol'dshtein; Valerii Pchelintsev; Alexander Ukhlov;
    Country: Russian Federation

    In this paper we apply estimates of the norms of Sobolev extension operators to the spectral estimates of of the first nontrivial Neumann eigenvalue of the Laplace operator in non-convex extension domains. As a consequence we obtain a connection between resonant frequencies of free membranes and the smallest-circle problem (initially proposed by J.~J.~Sylvester in 1857). 12 pages

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eytan Katzav; Ehud Perlsman; Moshe Schwartz;

    Yield Optimized Interpolated Superoscillations (YOIS) have been recently introduced as a means for possibly making the use of the phenomenon of superoscillation practical. In this paper we study how good is a superoscillation that is not optimal. Namely, by how much is the yield decreased when the signal departs from the optimal one. We consider two situations. One is the case where the signal strictly obeys the interpolation requirement and the other is when that requirement is relaxed. In the latter case the yield can be increased at the expense of deterioration of signal quality. An important conclusion is that optimizing superoscillations may be challenging in terms of the precision needed, however, storing and using them is not at all that sensitive. This is of great importance in any physical system where noise and error are inevitable. 22 pages, 18 figures. Accepted to J. Phys. A

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Feix; Adi Nusser; Enzo Branchini;

    Spatial modulations in the distribution of observed luminosities (computed using redshifts) of ~ 5 $\times$ 10$^5$ galaxies from the SDSS Data Release 7, probe the cosmic peculiar velocity field out to z ~ 0.1. Allowing for luminosity evolution, the r-band luminosity function, determined via a spline-based estimator, is well represented by a Schechter form with M$^{\star}$(z) - 5log$_{10}$h = -20.52 - 1.6(z - 0.1) $\pm$ 0.05 and $\alpha^{\star}$ = -1.1 $\pm$ 0.03. Bulk flows and higher velocity moments in two redshift bins, 0.02 < z < 0.07 and 0.07 < z < 0.22, agree with the predictions of the $\Lambda$CDM model, as obtained from mock galaxy catalogs designed to match the observations. Assuming a $\Lambda$CDM model, we estimate $\sigma_{8}$ $\approx$ 1.1 $\pm$ 0.4 for the amplitude of the linear matter power spectrum, where the low accuracy is due to the limited number of galaxies. While the low-z bin is robust against coherent photometric uncertainties, the bias of results from the second bin is consistent with the ~ 1% magnitude tilt reported by the SDSS collaboration. The systematics are expected to have a significantly lower impact in future datasets with larger sky coverage and better photometric calibration. Comment: 21 pages, 11 figures, accepted version

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Noam Soker; Amit Kashi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    We argue that the asymmetric morphology of the blue and red shifted components of the outflow at hundreds of AU from the massive binary system Eta Carinae can be understood from the collision of the primary stellar wind with the slowly expanding dense equatorial gas. Recent high spatial observations of some forbidden lines, e.g. [Fe III] lambda4659, reveal the outflowing gas within about one arcsecond (2300 AU) from Eta Car. The distribution of the blue and red shifted components are not symmetric about the center, and they are quite different from each other. The morphologies of the blue and red shifted components correlate with the location of dense slowly moving equatorial gas (termed the Weigelt blob environment; WBE), that is thought to have been ejected during the 1887 - 1895 Lesser Eruption. In our model the division to the blue and red shifted components is caused by the postshock flow of the primary wind on the two sides of the equatorial plane after it collides with the WBE. The fast wind from the secondary star plays no role in our model for these components, and it is the freely expanding primary wind that collides with the WBE. Because the line of sight is inclined to the binary axis, the two components are not symmetric. We show that the postshock gas can also account for the observed intensity in the [Fe III] lambda4659 line. Comment: 15 pages, 3 figures. Accepted to New Astronomy

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
28,788 Research products, page 1 of 2,879
  • Publication . Conference object . Preprint . Article . Part of book or chapter of book . 2010
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Britt Reichborn-Kjennerud; Asad M. Aboobaker; Peter A. R. Ade; François Aubin; Carlo Baccigalupi; Chaoyun Bao; Julian Borrill; Christopher Cantalupo; Daniel Chapman; Joy Didier; +36 more
    Countries: United States, France, France, France, France

    EBEX is a NASA-funded balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Observations will be made using 1432 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometric detectors read out with frequency multiplexed SQuIDs. EBEX will observe in three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz, with 768, 384, and 280 detectors in each band, respectively. This broad frequency coverage is designed to provide valuable information about polarized foreground signals from dust. The polarized sky signals will be modulated with an achromatic half wave plate (AHWP) rotating on a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) and analyzed with a fixed wire grid polarizer. EBEX will observe a patch covering ~1% of the sky with 8' resolution, allowing for observation of the angular power spectrum from \ell = 20 to 1000. This will allow EBEX to search for both the primordial B-mode signal predicted by inflation and the anticipated lensing B-mode signal. Calculations to predict EBEX constraints on r using expected noise levels show that, for a likelihood centered around zero and with negligible foregrounds, 99% of the area falls below r = 0.035. This value increases by a factor of 1.6 after a process of foreground subtraction. This estimate does not include systematic uncertainties. An engineering flight was launched in June, 2009, from Ft. Sumner, NM, and the long duration science flight in Antarctica is planned for 2011. These proceedings describe the EBEX instrument and the North American engineering flight. 12 pages, 9 figures, Conference proceedings for SPIE Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy V (2010)

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . Other literature type . 2001
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Tsvi Piran;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    It has been recently observed that small violations of Lorentz invariance, of a type which may arise in quantum gravity, could explain both the observations of cosmic rays above the GZK cutoff and the observations of 20-TeV gamma rays from Markarian 501. We show here that different pictures of the short-distance structure of space-time would lead to different manifestations of Lorentz-invariance violation. Specifically, the deformation of Lorentz invariance needed to resolve these observational paradoxes can only arise within commutative short-distance pictures of space-time. In noncommutative space-times there is no anomalous effect, at least at leading order. Also exploiting the fact that arrival-time delays between high energy photons with different energies would arise in both the commutative and the noncommutative Lorentz-violation pictures, we describe an experimental programme, based on time-of-arrival analysis of high energy photons and searches of violations of GZK and TeV-photon limits, which could discriminate between alternative scenarios of Lorentz-invariance breakdown and could provide and unexpected window on the (quantum) nature of space-time at very short distances. Comment: 8 pages, LaTex

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Giulio D’Odorico; Jan-Willem Goossens; Frank Saueressig;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Netherlands

    We initiate the systematic computation of the heat-kernel coefficients for Laplacian operators obeying anisotropic dispersion relations in curved spacetime. Our results correctly reproduce the limit where isotropy is restored and special anisotropic cases considered previously in the literature. Subsequently, the heat kernel is used to derive the scalar-induced one-loop effective action and beta functions of Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We identify the Gaussian fixed point which is supposed to provide the UV completion of the theory. In the present setting, this fixed point acts as an infrared attractor for the renormalization group flow of Newton's constant and the high-energy phase of the theory is screened by a Landau pole. We comment on the consequences of these findings for the renormalizability of the theory. Comment: 32 pages, 2 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Christian Spånslätt; Jinhong Park; Yuval Gefen; Alexander D. Mirlin;

    Electrical and thermal transport on a fractional quantum Hall edge are determined by topological quantities inherited from the corresponding bulk state. While electrical transport is the standard method for studying edges, thermal transport appears more challenging. Here, we show that the shot noise generated on the edge provides a fully electrical method to probe the edge structure. In the incoherent regime, the noise falls into three topologically distinct universality classes: charge transport is always ballistic while thermal transport is either ballistic, diffusive, or "antiballistic". Correspondingly, the noise either vanishes, decays algebraically or is constant up to exponentially small corrections in the edge length. Published version: 6+7 pages, 3+3 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fedor Nazarov; Mikhail Sodin;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    By random complex zeroes we mean the zero set of a random entire function whose Taylor coefficients are independent complex-valued Gaussian variables, and the variance of the k-th coefficient is 1/k!. This zero set is distribution invariant with respect to isometries of the complex plane. Extending the previous results of Sodin and Tsirelson, we compute the variance of linear statistics of random complex zeroes, and find close to optimal conditions on a test-function that yield asymptotic normality of fluctuations of the corresponding linear statistics. We also provide examples of test-functions with abnormal fluctuations of linear statistics. 30 pages

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2011
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein;
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: NSERC

    Algorithmic Cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin-systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. AC of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally, and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; Exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semi-optimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein few cycles (typically 2-6) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC, and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. The new algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC and exhaustive AC. In addition, we calculated the number of spins required by SOPAC in order to purify qubits for quantum computation. As few as 12 and 7 spins are required (in an ideal scenario) to yield a mildly pure spin (60% polarized) from initial polarizations of 1% and 10%, respectively. In the latter case, about five more spins are sufficient to produce a highly pure spin (99.99% polarized), which could be relevant for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vladimir Gol'dshtein; Valerii Pchelintsev; Alexander Ukhlov;
    Country: Russian Federation

    In this paper we apply estimates of the norms of Sobolev extension operators to the spectral estimates of of the first nontrivial Neumann eigenvalue of the Laplace operator in non-convex extension domains. As a consequence we obtain a connection between resonant frequencies of free membranes and the smallest-circle problem (initially proposed by J.~J.~Sylvester in 1857). 12 pages

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eytan Katzav; Ehud Perlsman; Moshe Schwartz;

    Yield Optimized Interpolated Superoscillations (YOIS) have been recently introduced as a means for possibly making the use of the phenomenon of superoscillation practical. In this paper we study how good is a superoscillation that is not optimal. Namely, by how much is the yield decreased when the signal departs from the optimal one. We consider two situations. One is the case where the signal strictly obeys the interpolation requirement and the other is when that requirement is relaxed. In the latter case the yield can be increased at the expense of deterioration of signal quality. An important conclusion is that optimizing superoscillations may be challenging in terms of the precision needed, however, storing and using them is not at all that sensitive. This is of great importance in any physical system where noise and error are inevitable. 22 pages, 18 figures. Accepted to J. Phys. A

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Feix; Adi Nusser; Enzo Branchini;

    Spatial modulations in the distribution of observed luminosities (computed using redshifts) of ~ 5 $\times$ 10$^5$ galaxies from the SDSS Data Release 7, probe the cosmic peculiar velocity field out to z ~ 0.1. Allowing for luminosity evolution, the r-band luminosity function, determined via a spline-based estimator, is well represented by a Schechter form with M$^{\star}$(z) - 5log$_{10}$h = -20.52 - 1.6(z - 0.1) $\pm$ 0.05 and $\alpha^{\star}$ = -1.1 $\pm$ 0.03. Bulk flows and higher velocity moments in two redshift bins, 0.02 < z < 0.07 and 0.07 < z < 0.22, agree with the predictions of the $\Lambda$CDM model, as obtained from mock galaxy catalogs designed to match the observations. Assuming a $\Lambda$CDM model, we estimate $\sigma_{8}$ $\approx$ 1.1 $\pm$ 0.4 for the amplitude of the linear matter power spectrum, where the low accuracy is due to the limited number of galaxies. While the low-z bin is robust against coherent photometric uncertainties, the bias of results from the second bin is consistent with the ~ 1% magnitude tilt reported by the SDSS collaboration. The systematics are expected to have a significantly lower impact in future datasets with larger sky coverage and better photometric calibration. Comment: 21 pages, 11 figures, accepted version

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Noam Soker; Amit Kashi;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    We argue that the asymmetric morphology of the blue and red shifted components of the outflow at hundreds of AU from the massive binary system Eta Carinae can be understood from the collision of the primary stellar wind with the slowly expanding dense equatorial gas. Recent high spatial observations of some forbidden lines, e.g. [Fe III] lambda4659, reveal the outflowing gas within about one arcsecond (2300 AU) from Eta Car. The distribution of the blue and red shifted components are not symmetric about the center, and they are quite different from each other. The morphologies of the blue and red shifted components correlate with the location of dense slowly moving equatorial gas (termed the Weigelt blob environment; WBE), that is thought to have been ejected during the 1887 - 1895 Lesser Eruption. In our model the division to the blue and red shifted components is caused by the postshock flow of the primary wind on the two sides of the equatorial plane after it collides with the WBE. The fast wind from the secondary star plays no role in our model for these components, and it is the freely expanding primary wind that collides with the WBE. Because the line of sight is inclined to the binary axis, the two components are not symmetric. We show that the postshock gas can also account for the observed intensity in the [Fe III] lambda4659 line. Comment: 15 pages, 3 figures. Accepted to New Astronomy

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