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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bakırcı, T.; Yoshizawa, K.; Özer, M.;

    A 3-D upper-mantle structure beneath Turkey is investigated using phase speeds of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves employing a conventional two-station method with high-density seismic networks in Turkey. We analyse 289 seismic events with moment magnitude 5.5 and greater, and with focal depth shallower than 100 km between 2006 and 2008. Waveform data are derived from 164 three-component broad-band seismic stations operated by two national seismic networks. At first, Rayleigh-wave phase speed maps are obtained from the inversion of two-station phase speeds using about 1000–3000 paths, depending on the period of Rayleigh waves. The three-dimensional S-wave model is then obtained in the depth range from 40 to 180 km using the phase speed maps in the period range from 25 to 120 s. Our model reveals the fast anomalies in the north of Cyprus associated with the subducted portion of the African oceanic lithosphere from the Cyprus trench. We identify a vertical discontinuity of the fast anomaly associated with the Cyprus slab starting at 60–80 km depth which may represent a minor tear of the Cyprus slab. We observed that the western part of the Cyprus slab is getting closer to the edge of the Hellenic slab beneath the Isparta Angle (IA) and Antalya Basin. Our model also indicates a slow wave speed anomaly beneath the IA and Antalya Basin probably due to hot materials of asthenosphere rising from a tear of the subducted African oceanic lithosphere; that is, a slab tear between the Cyprus and the Hellenic subductions. In the eastern part of Turkey, a widespread slow anomaly appears in the model that corresponds to the Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex (EAAC). Our model shows a fast anomaly beneath the EAAC that can be interpreted as the detached portion of the subducted Arabian lithosphere.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Dahlheim, H.;
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    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    Part of book or chapter of book . 1993
    License: CC BY
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      GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
      Part of book or chapter of book . 1993
      License: CC BY
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ GFZ German Research ...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bohsung, Lukas; Schanner, Maximilian; Korte, Monika; Holschneider, Matthias;

    The primary data sources for reconstructing the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia are archeomagnetic and sedimentary paleomagnetic data. Sediment records, in particular, are crucial in extending the temporal and spatial coverage of global Earth's magnetic field models, especially when archeomagnetic data is sparse. However, the post-depositional remanent magnetization (pDRM) process is still poorly understood and can cause smoothing of the magnetic signal and offsets with respect to the sediment age. To make effective use of sedimentary data, it is essential to understand the lock-in process and its impact on the magnetic signal. In this study, we investigate the lock-in process theoretically and derive a parameterized lock-in function to approximate all possible lock-in behaviors. Additionally, we demonstrate that a lock-in function that is independent of absolute parameters can only be applied to the magnetic direction components, but not to the relative intensity. Integrating this lock-in function into the ArchKalMag14k modeling procedure (Schanner et al., 2022, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB023166) allows to include data from sediment records. The parameters of the lock-in function are estimated by maximum likelihood methods using archeomagnetic data as a reference. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through synthetic tests. Additionally, it is applied to real sediment records. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of effectively correcting the distortion caused by the lock-in process, making data from sedimentary records a more reliable and informative source for Earth's magnetic field reconstructions. The 28th IUGG General Assembly (IUGG2023) (Berlin 2023)

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    https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marcin Pussak;

    An important contribution of geosciences to the renewable energy production portfolio is the exploration and utilization of geothermal resources. For the development of a geothermal project at great depths a detailed geological and geophysical exploration program is required in the first phase. With the help of active seismic methods high-resolution images of the geothermal reservoir can be delivered. This allows potential transport routes for fluids to be identified as well as regions with high potential of heat extraction to be mapped, which indicates favorable conditions for geothermal exploitation. The presented work investigates the extent to which an improved characterization of geothermal reservoirs can be achieved with the new methods of seismic data processing. The summations of traces (stacking) is a crucial step in the processing of seismic reflection data. The common-reflection-surface (CRS) stacking method can be applied as an alternative for the conventional normal moveout (NMO) or the dip moveout (DMO) stack. The advantages of the CRS stack beside an automatic determination of stacking operator parameters include an adequate imaging of arbitrarily curved geological boundaries, and a significant increase in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio by stacking far more traces than used in a conventional stack. A major innovation I have shown in this work is that the quality of signal attributes that characterize the seismic images can be significantly improved by this modified type of stacking in particular. Imporoved attribute analysis facilitates the interpretation of seismic images and plays a significant role in the characterization of reservoirs. Variations of lithological and petro-physical properties are reflected by fluctuations of specific signal attributes (eg. frequency or amplitude characteristics). Its further interpretation can provide quality assessment of the geothermal reservoir with respect to the capacity of fluids within a hydrological system that can be extracted and utilized. The proposed methodological approach is demonstrated on the basis on two case studies. In the first example, I analyzed a series of 2D seismic profile sections through the Alberta sedimentary basin on the eastern edge of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. In the second application, a 3D seismic volume is characterized in the surroundings of a geothermal borehole, located in the central part of the Polish basin. Both sites were investigated with the modified and improved stacking attribute analyses. The results provide recommendations for the planning of future geothermal plants in both study areas.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Stiller, M.; Krawczyk, C.; Lück, E.; BASIN Research Group;
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    Authors: Topp-Jørgensen, Elmer; Rasch, Morten; Elger, Kirsten; Vincent, Warwick; +2 Authors

    This book is about management of arctic and northern alpine research stations. It has been produced by a group of station managers participating in the EU 7th Framework Programme Infrastructure project called INTERACT. With this book we want to share the knowledge and experiences we have gained from managing very different research stations in very different environmental and climatic settings. The target audience for the book is mainly managers of research stations in arctic and alpine areas, but we hope that it will also be useful for others involved in science coordination and logistics, e.g. research institutions, chief scientists and expedition planners. The book has been produced mainly based on input from practising station managers being part of ‘INTERACT Station Managers’ Forum (SMF), a forum established to provide a platform for exchange of information between station managers and other participants within INTERACT, and to collect and disseminate knowledge embedded within the network. The scope of this book is to identify and describe best practices and key considerations of relevance to station management under arctic and alpine conditions. As research stations operate under very different legal regimes, financial conditions, environmental and climatic conditions, as well as remoteness, it is not possible to identify specific best practices that fit all stations. Instead, we have described key issues that should be considered and addressed by station management, and supplemented this with examples of good practices from stations operating under different conditions (e.g. different climate, remoteness or size).

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    Authors: Ingo Heinrich;
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    Authors: Bakırcı, T.; Yoshizawa, K.; Özer, M.;

    A 3-D upper-mantle structure beneath Turkey is investigated using phase speeds of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves employing a conventional two-station method with high-density seismic networks in Turkey. We analyse 289 seismic events with moment magnitude 5.5 and greater, and with focal depth shallower than 100 km between 2006 and 2008. Waveform data are derived from 164 three-component broad-band seismic stations operated by two national seismic networks. At first, Rayleigh-wave phase speed maps are obtained from the inversion of two-station phase speeds using about 1000–3000 paths, depending on the period of Rayleigh waves. The three-dimensional S-wave model is then obtained in the depth range from 40 to 180 km using the phase speed maps in the period range from 25 to 120 s. Our model reveals the fast anomalies in the north of Cyprus associated with the subducted portion of the African oceanic lithosphere from the Cyprus trench. We identify a vertical discontinuity of the fast anomaly associated with the Cyprus slab starting at 60–80 km depth which may represent a minor tear of the Cyprus slab. We observed that the western part of the Cyprus slab is getting closer to the edge of the Hellenic slab beneath the Isparta Angle (IA) and Antalya Basin. Our model also indicates a slow wave speed anomaly beneath the IA and Antalya Basin probably due to hot materials of asthenosphere rising from a tear of the subducted African oceanic lithosphere; that is, a slab tear between the Cyprus and the Hellenic subductions. In the eastern part of Turkey, a widespread slow anomaly appears in the model that corresponds to the Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex (EAAC). Our model shows a fast anomaly beneath the EAAC that can be interpreted as the detached portion of the subducted Arabian lithosphere.

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    Authors: Dahlheim, H.;
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    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
    Part of book or chapter of book . 1993
    License: CC BY
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      GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
      Part of book or chapter of book . 1993
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Bohsung, Lukas; Schanner, Maximilian; Korte, Monika; Holschneider, Matthias;

    The primary data sources for reconstructing the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia are archeomagnetic and sedimentary paleomagnetic data. Sediment records, in particular, are crucial in extending the temporal and spatial coverage of global Earth's magnetic field models, especially when archeomagnetic data is sparse. However, the post-depositional remanent magnetization (pDRM) process is still poorly understood and can cause smoothing of the magnetic signal and offsets with respect to the sediment age. To make effective use of sedimentary data, it is essential to understand the lock-in process and its impact on the magnetic signal. In this study, we investigate the lock-in process theoretically and derive a parameterized lock-in function to approximate all possible lock-in behaviors. Additionally, we demonstrate that a lock-in function that is independent of absolute parameters can only be applied to the magnetic direction components, but not to the relative intensity. Integrating this lock-in function into the ArchKalMag14k modeling procedure (Schanner et al., 2022, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB023166) allows to include data from sediment records. The parameters of the lock-in function are estimated by maximum likelihood methods using archeomagnetic data as a reference. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through synthetic tests. Additionally, it is applied to real sediment records. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of effectively correcting the distortion caused by the lock-in process, making data from sedimentary records a more reliable and informative source for Earth's magnetic field reconstructions. The 28th IUGG General Assembly (IUGG2023) (Berlin 2023)

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    https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Marcin Pussak;

    An important contribution of geosciences to the renewable energy production portfolio is the exploration and utilization of geothermal resources. For the development of a geothermal project at great depths a detailed geological and geophysical exploration program is required in the first phase. With the help of active seismic methods high-resolution images of the geothermal reservoir can be delivered. This allows potential transport routes for fluids to be identified as well as regions with high potential of heat extraction to be mapped, which indicates favorable conditions for geothermal exploitation. The presented work investigates the extent to which an improved characterization of geothermal reservoirs can be achieved with the new methods of seismic data processing. The summations of traces (stacking) is a crucial step in the processing of seismic reflection data. The common-reflection-surface (CRS) stacking method can be applied as an alternative for the conventional normal moveout (NMO) or the dip moveout (DMO) stack. The advantages of the CRS stack beside an automatic determination of stacking operator parameters include an adequate imaging of arbitrarily curved geological boundaries, and a significant increase in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio by stacking far more traces than used in a conventional stack. A major innovation I have shown in this work is that the quality of signal attributes that characterize the seismic images can be significantly improved by this modified type of stacking in particular. Imporoved attribute analysis facilitates the interpretation of seismic images and plays a significant role in the characterization of reservoirs. Variations of lithological and petro-physical properties are reflected by fluctuations of specific signal attributes (eg. frequency or amplitude characteristics). Its further interpretation can provide quality assessment of the geothermal reservoir with respect to the capacity of fluids within a hydrological system that can be extracted and utilized. The proposed methodological approach is demonstrated on the basis on two case studies. In the first example, I analyzed a series of 2D seismic profile sections through the Alberta sedimentary basin on the eastern edge of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. In the second application, a 3D seismic volume is characterized in the surroundings of a geothermal borehole, located in the central part of the Polish basin. Both sites were investigated with the modified and improved stacking attribute analyses. The results provide recommendations for the planning of future geothermal plants in both study areas.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Stiller, M.; Krawczyk, C.; Lück, E.; BASIN Research Group;
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