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  • Publication . Article . Conference object . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Keith G. Jeffery; Anne Asserson; Nikos Houssos; Valérie Brasse; Brigitte Jörg;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229), EC | PAASAGE (317715), EC | ENGAGE (283700)

    OGD (Open Government Data) is provided from government departments for transparency and to stimulate a market in ICT services for industry and citizens. Research datasets from publicly funded research commonly are associated with the open scholarly publications movement. However, the former world commonly is derived from the latter with generalisation and summarisation. There is advantage in a user of OGD being able to ‘drill down’ to the underlying research datasets. OGD encourages cross-domain research because the summarized data from different domains is more easily relatable. Bridging across the two worlds requires rich metadata; CERIF (Common European research Information Format) has proved itself to be ideally suited to this requirement. Utilising the research datasets is data-intensive science, a component of e-Research. Data-intensive science also requires access to an e-infrastructure. Virtualisation of this e-infrastructure optimizes this. publishedVersion

  • English
    Authors: 
    Fernando Monterroso (1; 2); Manuela Bonano (2; 3); Claudio de Luca (2); De Novellis Vincenzo (2); Riccardo Lanari (2); Michelle Manunta (2); Mariarosaria Manzo (2); Giovanni Onorato (2); +3 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    During the last decades, the availability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite missions, such as the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ones operating at C-band who have worked since 1992 to 2011, as well as the X-band COSMOSkyMed and TerraSAR-X constellations, up to the brand new Sentinel-1 mission, have strongly contributed to SAR data diffusion and popularity in the generation of different studies at different scales and in different research fields. One of the most popular SAR technique is the one referred to as Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), which allows measuring with centimeter accuracy the Earth's surface deformation entity related to both natural and man-made hazards. Nowadays, with the increasing of SAR data availability provided by Sentinel-1 constellation of Copernicus European Program, which is composed by two twin satellites operating in C-band since 2014 and 2016, with a repeat pass of 6 days and with a global (i.e. worldwide) data acquisition policy, the SAR EO scenario is becoming more and more operational, thus mainly providing support for natural hazards monitoring. This allows, in theory, and disposing of sufficient computing power, the EO community to monitor, for instance, the deformation of every volcano or to obtain co-seismic displacement maps in a short time frame and anywhere in the world. Accordingly, in this work, we present a fully automatic and fast processing service for the generation of co-seismic displacement maps by using Sentinel-1 data. The implemented system is completely unsupervised and is triggered by the all significant (i.e. larger than a defined magnitude) seismic event registered by the online catalog as those provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology of Italy (INGV). The service has been specifically designed to operate for Civil Protection purposes. The generated DInSAR measurements are made available to the geoscience community through the EPOS Research Infrastructure and they will contribute to the creation of a global database of co-seismic displacement maps. Finally, it is worth noting that the developed system relies on widely common IT methods and protocols and is not specifically tied to a defined computing architecture, thus implying its portability, in view also of the European Commission Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) where satellite data (mainly Sentinel) and processing facilities are co-located to reduce the data transfer time during their processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abraham B. Alemayehu; Laura J. McCormick; Kevin J. Gagnon; Sergey M. Borisov; Abhik Ghosh;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society
    Countries: United States, Norway
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229)

    With permission from Alemayehu, A.B., McCormick, L.J.M., Gagnon, K.J., Borisov, S.M. & Ghosh, A. (2018). Stable Platinum(IV) Corroles: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, and Room-Temperature Near-IR Phosphorescence. ACS Omega, 3(8), 9360-9368. Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society. Source at https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01149. A series of stable Pt(IV) corrole complexes with the general formula PtIV[TpXPC](m/p-C6H4CN)(py), where TpXPC3– is the trianion of a tris(p-X-phenyl)corrole and X = CF3, H, and CH3, has been synthesized, affording key physicochemical data on a rare and elusive class of metallocorroles. Single-crystal X-ray structures of two of the complexes revealed very short equatorial Pt–N distances of 1.94–1.97 Å, an axial Pt–C distance of ∼2.03 Å, and an axial Pt–N distance of ∼2.22 Å. The complexes exhibit Soret maxima at ∼430 nm, which are essentially independent of the meso-aryl para substituents, and strong Q bands with the most intense peak at 595–599 nm. The substituent-independent Soret maxima are consistent with an innocent PtIV–corrole3– description for the complexes. The low reduction potentials (−1.45 ± 0.08 V vs saturated calomel reference electrode) also support a highly stable Pt(IV) ground state as opposed to a noninnocent corrole•2– description. The reductions, however, are irreversible, which suggests that they involve concomitant cleavage of the Pt–aryl bond. Unlike Pt(IV) porphyrins, two of the complexes, PtIV[TpXPC](m-C6H4CN)(py) (X = CF3 and CH3), were found to exhibit room-temperature near-IR phosphorescence with emission maxima at 813 and 826 nm, respectively. The quantum yield of ∼0.3% is comparable to those observed for six-coordinate Ir(III) corroles.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. Chouliaras; Nikolaos S. Melis; George Drakatos; Konstantinos Makropoulos;
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229)

    International audience; The seismological network of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) has systematically improved the detection capabilities in the Southeastern Mediterranean, by the continuous expansion and upgrading of the seismic stations and improvements in the operating and reporting procedures. As aresult of these improvements, the number of detected events of smaller magnitudes has increased and today a homogeneous magnitude is determined and disseminated towards the scientific community.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michèle Marti; Florian Haslinger; Peppoloni Silvia; Di Capua Giuseppe; Helen Glaves; Irina Dallo;
    Publisher: INGV
    Countries: United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    Novel measurement technologies, additional sensors and increasing data processing capacities offer new opportunities to answer some of the currently most pressing societal and environmental questions. They also contribute to the fact that the available data volume will continue to increase. At the same time, the requirements for those providing such data rise and the needs of users to access it. The EPOS Delivery Framework aims to support this endeavour in the solid Earth domain by providing access to data, products, and services supporting multidisciplinary analyses for a wide range of users. Based on this example, we look at the most pressing issues from when data, products, and services are made accessible, to access principles, ethical issues related to its collection and use as well as with respect to their promotion. Among many peculiarities, we shed light on a common component that affects all fields equally: change. Not only will the amount and type of data, products, and services change, but so will the societal expectations and providers capabilities. Annals of Geophysics, 65 (2) ISSN:1593-5213

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Carracedo, J. C.; Rejas, M.; Lobo, A.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J. I.; Esteban, G.; +2 more
    Publisher: DIGITAL.CSIC
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    This dataset compiles SEM images, modelled isopach map and topographic profiles, and data of radiocarbon ages, parameters of Tephra2 and AshCalc codes of Holocene volcanic ashes of of Southern Puna and neighbouring areas (NW Argentina). SEM images detail differences among the Bolsón de Fiambalá, Cerro Blanco and Cueros de Purulla fallout ash deposits. Tephra2 code was used to simulate the ash fallout, and the AshCalc code to compare different methods for ash volume estimates associated with the 4.2 ka cal BP eruption of the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex. Topographic profiles are used to explain the secondary thickening of fallout ash deposits. Material suplementario (Figuras S1-S4 y Tablas S1-S4 del artículo Fernandez-Turiel, J.-L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Carracedo, J. C., Rejas, M.; Lobo, A.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J. I.; Esteban, G.; Gallardo, J.; Ratto, N. (2019). The large eruption 4.2 ka cal BP in Cerro Blanco, Central Volcanic Zone, Andes: Insights to the Holocene eruptive deposits in the southern Puna and adjacent regions. Estudios Geológicos 75(1): e088. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.43438.515 MINECO, CGL2011-23307, Proyecto QUECA Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    von der Linden, Jens; Kimblin, Clare; McKenna, Ian; Bagley, Skyler; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Houim, Ryan; Kueny, Christopher S.; Kuhl, Allen; Grote, Dave; Converse, Mark; +4 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | VOLTAIC (705619), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    Background This data is camera images and nozzle pressure gauge voltage traces from rapid decompression shots at the LMU shock tube facility. This data is discussed in the "Materials and Methods" section of the paper "Standing Shock Prevents Propagation of Sparks in Supersonic Explosive Flows". Electric sparks and explosive flows have long been associated with each other. Flowing dust particles originate charge through contact and separate based on inertia, resulting in strong electric fields supporting sparks. These sparks can cause explosions in dusty environments, especially those rich in carbon, such as coal mines and grain elevators. Recent observations of explosive events in nature and decompression experiments indicate that supersonic flows of explosions may alter the electrical discharge process. Shocks may suppress parts of the hierarchy of the discharge phenomena, such as leaders. In our decompression experiments, a shock tube ejects a flow of gas and particles into an expansion chamber. We imaged an illuminated plume from the decompression of a mixture of argon and <100 mg of diamond particles and observe sparks occurring below the sharp boundary of a condensation cloud. We also performed hydrodynamics simulations of the decompression event that provide insight into the conditions supporting the observed behavior. Simulation results agree closely with the experimentally observed Mach disk shock shape and height. This represents direct evidence that the sparks are sculpted by the outflow. The spatial and temporal scale of the sparks transmit an impression of the shock tube flow, a connection that could enable novel instrumentation to diagnose currently inaccessible supersonic granular phenomena. Accessing Data The prefixes of the filenames correspond to the shot dates and times listed in table S1 of the paper. The "_camera.zip" files contains tiff images of the camera frames. The ".ixc" file in each zip lists camera settings in plain text. The ".dat" file contains the voltage measurement of the nozzle pressure gauge. Row 1 is the header, row 2 is the time in seconds, and row 3 is the voltage of the pressure gauge in Volts. The peak pressure in the header can be used to relate the voltage to pressure. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Mission Support and Test Services, LLC, under Contract No. DE-NA0003624 with support from the Site-Directed Research and Development program, DOE/NV/03624--0956, and in part by the European Plate Observing Systems Transnational Access program of the European Community HORIZON 2020 research and innovation program under grant N 676564. CC acknowledges the support from the DFG grant CI 25/2-1 and from the European Community HORIZON 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska Curie grant nr. 705619. LLNL-MI-817289. This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, complete- ness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific com- mercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. {"references": ["C. Cimarelli, M. Alatorre-Ibargengoitia, U. Kueppers, B. Scheu, D. Dingwell, Experimen- tal generation of volcanic lightning. Geology 42, 79\u201382 (2014)"]}

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kolle E. Thomas; Laura J. McCormick; Daniel Carrié; Hugo Vazquez-Lima; Gérard Simonneaux; Abhik Ghosh;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United States, France, France
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229), EC | PROMOTE (231086)

    © 2018 American Chemical Society. Halterman corroles have been synthesized for the first time from pyrrole and Halterman's aldehyde via Gryko's "water-methanol method". These were derivatized to the corresponding copper complexes and subsequently to the β-octabromo complexes. Electronic circular dichroism spectra were recorded for the enantiopure copper complexes, affording the first such measurements for the inherently chiral Cu corrole chromophore. Interestingly, for a given configuration of the Halterman substituents, X-ray crystallographic studies revealed both P and M conformations of the Cu-corrole core, proving that the substituents, even in conjunction with β-octabromination, are unable to lock the Cu-corrole core into a given chirality. The overall body of evidence strongly indicates a dynamic equilibrium between the P and M conformations. Such an interconversion, which presumably proceeds via saddling inversion, provides a rationale for our failure so far to resolve sterically hindered Cu corroles into their constituent enantiomers by means of chiral HPLC.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Teixidó Ullod, Teresa;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    The critical zone (CZ) represents the most-shallow subsurface, where the bio-, hydro-, and geospheres interact with anthropogenic activity. To characterize the thickness and lateral variations of the CZ, here we focus on the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), one of the most tectonically active regions in the Iberian Peninsula. Within the EBSZ, the Guadalentín Depression is a highly populated area with intensive agricultural activity, where the characterization of the CZ would provide valuable assets for land use management and seismic hazard assessments. To achieve this, we have conducted an interdisciplinary geophysical study along the eastern border of the Guadalentín Depression to characterize the CZ and the architecture of the shallow subsurface. The datasets used include Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), first-arrival travel time seismic tomography, and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). The geophysical datasets combined help to constrain the high-resolution structure of the subsurface and image active fault systems along four transects. The resulting geophysical models have allowed us to interpret the first ~150 m of the subsurface and has revealed: (i) the variable thickness of the CZ; (ii) the CZ relationship between the fault zone and topographic slope; and (iii) the differences in CZ thickness associated with the geological units. Our results provide a method for studying the shallow subsurface of active faults, complementing previous geological models based on paleo-seismological trenches, and can be used to improve the CZ assessment of tectonically active regions. The geophysical data used in this study consisted of two datasets, namely electrical resistivity data and seismic data. Resistivity data were obtained from the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method, while seismic data (Vp and Vs) were obtained from the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and P-wave travel time tomography. The resistivity and seismic data used in this study were acquired within the INTER GEO research project, which was funded by the Spanish national research program. Funding: J.A. is funded by grant IJC2018-036074-I and by MCIN/AEI /10.13039/501100011033. I.P. is funded by the Spanish Government and the Universidad de Salamanca (Beatriz Galindo grant BEGAL 18/00090). This project was funded by Grant 2017SGR1022 (GREG) from the Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR); EU (H2020) 871121 (EPOS-SP); and EIT-RawMaterias 17024 from the European Institute of Technology (EIT) (SIT4ME). Horizon 2020 Framework Programme 871121, EIT-RawMaterias 17024 Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca Universidad de Salamanca 2017SGR1022, BEGAL 18/00090 European Institute of Technology SIT4ME Spanish national research program Agencia Estatal de Investigación Generalitat de Catalunya European Commission MCIN

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Florian Haslinger; Roberto Basili; Rémy Bossu; Carlo Cauzzi; Fabrice Cotton; Helen Crowley; Susana Custodio; Laurentiu Danciu; Mario Locati; Alberto Michelini; +3 more
    Publisher: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland, Portugal
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    In this article we describe EPOS Seismology, the Thematic Core Service consortium for the seismology domain within the European Plate Observing System infrastructure. EPOS Seismology was developed alongside the build-up of EPOS during the last decade, in close collaboration between the existing pan-European seismological initiatives ORFEUS (Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology), EMSC (Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Center) and EFEHR (European Facilities for Earthquake Hazard and Risk) and their respective communities. It provides on one hand a governance framework that allows a well-coordinated interaction of the seismological community services with EPOS and its bodies, and on the other hand it strengthens the coordination among the already existing seismological initiatives with regard to data, products and service provisioning and further development. Within the EPOS Delivery Framework, ORFEUS, EMSC and EFEHR provide a wide range of services that allow open access to a vast amount of seismological data and products, following and implementing the FAIR principles and supporting open science. Services include access to raw seismic waveforms of thousands of stations together with relevant station and data quality information, parametric earthquake information of recent and historical earthquakes together with advanced event-specific products like moment tensors or source models and further ancillary services, and comprehensive seismic hazard and risk information, covering latest European scale models and their underlying data. The services continue to be available on the well-established domain-specific platforms and websites, and are also consecutively integrated with the interoperable central EPOS data infrastructure. EPOS Seismology and its participating organizations provide a consistent framework for the future development of these services and their operation as EPOS services, closely coordinated also with other international seismological initiatives, and is well set to represent the European seismological research infrastructures and their stakeholders within EPOS. Annals of Geophysics, 65 (2) ISSN:1593-5213

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  • Publication . Article . Conference object . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Keith G. Jeffery; Anne Asserson; Nikos Houssos; Valérie Brasse; Brigitte Jörg;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229), EC | PAASAGE (317715), EC | ENGAGE (283700)

    OGD (Open Government Data) is provided from government departments for transparency and to stimulate a market in ICT services for industry and citizens. Research datasets from publicly funded research commonly are associated with the open scholarly publications movement. However, the former world commonly is derived from the latter with generalisation and summarisation. There is advantage in a user of OGD being able to ‘drill down’ to the underlying research datasets. OGD encourages cross-domain research because the summarized data from different domains is more easily relatable. Bridging across the two worlds requires rich metadata; CERIF (Common European research Information Format) has proved itself to be ideally suited to this requirement. Utilising the research datasets is data-intensive science, a component of e-Research. Data-intensive science also requires access to an e-infrastructure. Virtualisation of this e-infrastructure optimizes this. publishedVersion

  • English
    Authors: 
    Fernando Monterroso (1; 2); Manuela Bonano (2; 3); Claudio de Luca (2); De Novellis Vincenzo (2); Riccardo Lanari (2); Michelle Manunta (2); Mariarosaria Manzo (2); Giovanni Onorato (2); +3 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    During the last decades, the availability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite missions, such as the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ones operating at C-band who have worked since 1992 to 2011, as well as the X-band COSMOSkyMed and TerraSAR-X constellations, up to the brand new Sentinel-1 mission, have strongly contributed to SAR data diffusion and popularity in the generation of different studies at different scales and in different research fields. One of the most popular SAR technique is the one referred to as Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), which allows measuring with centimeter accuracy the Earth's surface deformation entity related to both natural and man-made hazards. Nowadays, with the increasing of SAR data availability provided by Sentinel-1 constellation of Copernicus European Program, which is composed by two twin satellites operating in C-band since 2014 and 2016, with a repeat pass of 6 days and with a global (i.e. worldwide) data acquisition policy, the SAR EO scenario is becoming more and more operational, thus mainly providing support for natural hazards monitoring. This allows, in theory, and disposing of sufficient computing power, the EO community to monitor, for instance, the deformation of every volcano or to obtain co-seismic displacement maps in a short time frame and anywhere in the world. Accordingly, in this work, we present a fully automatic and fast processing service for the generation of co-seismic displacement maps by using Sentinel-1 data. The implemented system is completely unsupervised and is triggered by the all significant (i.e. larger than a defined magnitude) seismic event registered by the online catalog as those provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology of Italy (INGV). The service has been specifically designed to operate for Civil Protection purposes. The generated DInSAR measurements are made available to the geoscience community through the EPOS Research Infrastructure and they will contribute to the creation of a global database of co-seismic displacement maps. Finally, it is worth noting that the developed system relies on widely common IT methods and protocols and is not specifically tied to a defined computing architecture, thus implying its portability, in view also of the European Commission Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) where satellite data (mainly Sentinel) and processing facilities are co-located to reduce the data transfer time during their processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abraham B. Alemayehu; Laura J. McCormick; Kevin J. Gagnon; Sergey M. Borisov; Abhik Ghosh;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society
    Countries: United States, Norway
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229)

    With permission from Alemayehu, A.B., McCormick, L.J.M., Gagnon, K.J., Borisov, S.M. & Ghosh, A. (2018). Stable Platinum(IV) Corroles: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, and Room-Temperature Near-IR Phosphorescence. ACS Omega, 3(8), 9360-9368. Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society. Source at https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01149. A series of stable Pt(IV) corrole complexes with the general formula PtIV[TpXPC](m/p-C6H4CN)(py), where TpXPC3– is the trianion of a tris(p-X-phenyl)corrole and X = CF3, H, and CH3, has been synthesized, affording key physicochemical data on a rare and elusive class of metallocorroles. Single-crystal X-ray structures of two of the complexes revealed very short equatorial Pt–N distances of 1.94–1.97 Å, an axial Pt–C distance of ∼2.03 Å, and an axial Pt–N distance of ∼2.22 Å. The complexes exhibit Soret maxima at ∼430 nm, which are essentially independent of the meso-aryl para substituents, and strong Q bands with the most intense peak at 595–599 nm. The substituent-independent Soret maxima are consistent with an innocent PtIV–corrole3– description for the complexes. The low reduction potentials (−1.45 ± 0.08 V vs saturated calomel reference electrode) also support a highly stable Pt(IV) ground state as opposed to a noninnocent corrole•2– description. The reductions, however, are irreversible, which suggests that they involve concomitant cleavage of the Pt–aryl bond. Unlike Pt(IV) porphyrins, two of the complexes, PtIV[TpXPC](m-C6H4CN)(py) (X = CF3 and CH3), were found to exhibit room-temperature near-IR phosphorescence with emission maxima at 813 and 826 nm, respectively. The quantum yield of ∼0.3% is comparable to those observed for six-coordinate Ir(III) corroles.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. Chouliaras; Nikolaos S. Melis; George Drakatos; Konstantinos Makropoulos;
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229)

    International audience; The seismological network of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) has systematically improved the detection capabilities in the Southeastern Mediterranean, by the continuous expansion and upgrading of the seismic stations and improvements in the operating and reporting procedures. As aresult of these improvements, the number of detected events of smaller magnitudes has increased and today a homogeneous magnitude is determined and disseminated towards the scientific community.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michèle Marti; Florian Haslinger; Peppoloni Silvia; Di Capua Giuseppe; Helen Glaves; Irina Dallo;
    Publisher: INGV
    Countries: United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    Novel measurement technologies, additional sensors and increasing data processing capacities offer new opportunities to answer some of the currently most pressing societal and environmental questions. They also contribute to the fact that the available data volume will continue to increase. At the same time, the requirements for those providing such data rise and the needs of users to access it. The EPOS Delivery Framework aims to support this endeavour in the solid Earth domain by providing access to data, products, and services supporting multidisciplinary analyses for a wide range of users. Based on this example, we look at the most pressing issues from when data, products, and services are made accessible, to access principles, ethical issues related to its collection and use as well as with respect to their promotion. Among many peculiarities, we shed light on a common component that affects all fields equally: change. Not only will the amount and type of data, products, and services change, but so will the societal expectations and providers capabilities. Annals of Geophysics, 65 (2) ISSN:1593-5213

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fernandez-Turiel, J. L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Carracedo, J. C.; Rejas, M.; Lobo, A.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J. I.; Esteban, G.; +2 more
    Publisher: DIGITAL.CSIC
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    This dataset compiles SEM images, modelled isopach map and topographic profiles, and data of radiocarbon ages, parameters of Tephra2 and AshCalc codes of Holocene volcanic ashes of of Southern Puna and neighbouring areas (NW Argentina). SEM images detail differences among the Bolsón de Fiambalá, Cerro Blanco and Cueros de Purulla fallout ash deposits. Tephra2 code was used to simulate the ash fallout, and the AshCalc code to compare different methods for ash volume estimates associated with the 4.2 ka cal BP eruption of the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex. Topographic profiles are used to explain the secondary thickening of fallout ash deposits. Material suplementario (Figuras S1-S4 y Tablas S1-S4 del artículo Fernandez-Turiel, J.-L.; Perez-Torrado, F. J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Carracedo, J. C., Rejas, M.; Lobo, A.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J. I.; Esteban, G.; Gallardo, J.; Ratto, N. (2019). The large eruption 4.2 ka cal BP in Cerro Blanco, Central Volcanic Zone, Andes: Insights to the Holocene eruptive deposits in the southern Puna and adjacent regions. Estudios Geológicos 75(1): e088. https://doi.org/10.3989/egeol.43438.515 MINECO, CGL2011-23307, Proyecto QUECA Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    von der Linden, Jens; Kimblin, Clare; McKenna, Ian; Bagley, Skyler; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Houim, Ryan; Kueny, Christopher S.; Kuhl, Allen; Grote, Dave; Converse, Mark; +4 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | VOLTAIC (705619), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    Background This data is camera images and nozzle pressure gauge voltage traces from rapid decompression shots at the LMU shock tube facility. This data is discussed in the "Materials and Methods" section of the paper "Standing Shock Prevents Propagation of Sparks in Supersonic Explosive Flows". Electric sparks and explosive flows have long been associated with each other. Flowing dust particles originate charge through contact and separate based on inertia, resulting in strong electric fields supporting sparks. These sparks can cause explosions in dusty environments, especially those rich in carbon, such as coal mines and grain elevators. Recent observations of explosive events in nature and decompression experiments indicate that supersonic flows of explosions may alter the electrical discharge process. Shocks may suppress parts of the hierarchy of the discharge phenomena, such as leaders. In our decompression experiments, a shock tube ejects a flow of gas and particles into an expansion chamber. We imaged an illuminated plume from the decompression of a mixture of argon and <100 mg of diamond particles and observe sparks occurring below the sharp boundary of a condensation cloud. We also performed hydrodynamics simulations of the decompression event that provide insight into the conditions supporting the observed behavior. Simulation results agree closely with the experimentally observed Mach disk shock shape and height. This represents direct evidence that the sparks are sculpted by the outflow. The spatial and temporal scale of the sparks transmit an impression of the shock tube flow, a connection that could enable novel instrumentation to diagnose currently inaccessible supersonic granular phenomena. Accessing Data The prefixes of the filenames correspond to the shot dates and times listed in table S1 of the paper. The "_camera.zip" files contains tiff images of the camera frames. The ".ixc" file in each zip lists camera settings in plain text. The ".dat" file contains the voltage measurement of the nozzle pressure gauge. Row 1 is the header, row 2 is the time in seconds, and row 3 is the voltage of the pressure gauge in Volts. The peak pressure in the header can be used to relate the voltage to pressure. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and Mission Support and Test Services, LLC, under Contract No. DE-NA0003624 with support from the Site-Directed Research and Development program, DOE/NV/03624--0956, and in part by the European Plate Observing Systems Transnational Access program of the European Community HORIZON 2020 research and innovation program under grant N 676564. CC acknowledges the support from the DFG grant CI 25/2-1 and from the European Community HORIZON 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska Curie grant nr. 705619. LLNL-MI-817289. This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, complete- ness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific com- mercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. {"references": ["C. Cimarelli, M. Alatorre-Ibargengoitia, U. Kueppers, B. Scheu, D. Dingwell, Experimen- tal generation of volcanic lightning. Geology 42, 79\u201382 (2014)"]}

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kolle E. Thomas; Laura J. McCormick; Daniel Carrié; Hugo Vazquez-Lima; Gérard Simonneaux; Abhik Ghosh;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United States, France, France
    Project: EC | EPOS (262229), EC | PROMOTE (231086)

    © 2018 American Chemical Society. Halterman corroles have been synthesized for the first time from pyrrole and Halterman's aldehyde via Gryko's "water-methanol method". These were derivatized to the corresponding copper complexes and subsequently to the β-octabromo complexes. Electronic circular dichroism spectra were recorded for the enantiopure copper complexes, affording the first such measurements for the inherently chiral Cu corrole chromophore. Interestingly, for a given configuration of the Halterman substituents, X-ray crystallographic studies revealed both P and M conformations of the Cu-corrole core, proving that the substituents, even in conjunction with β-octabromination, are unable to lock the Cu-corrole core into a given chirality. The overall body of evidence strongly indicates a dynamic equilibrium between the P and M conformations. Such an interconversion, which presumably proceeds via saddling inversion, provides a rationale for our failure so far to resolve sterically hindered Cu corroles into their constituent enantiomers by means of chiral HPLC.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Teixidó Ullod, Teresa;
    Publisher: MDPI
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    The critical zone (CZ) represents the most-shallow subsurface, where the bio-, hydro-, and geospheres interact with anthropogenic activity. To characterize the thickness and lateral variations of the CZ, here we focus on the Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ), one of the most tectonically active regions in the Iberian Peninsula. Within the EBSZ, the Guadalentín Depression is a highly populated area with intensive agricultural activity, where the characterization of the CZ would provide valuable assets for land use management and seismic hazard assessments. To achieve this, we have conducted an interdisciplinary geophysical study along the eastern border of the Guadalentín Depression to characterize the CZ and the architecture of the shallow subsurface. The datasets used include Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), first-arrival travel time seismic tomography, and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). The geophysical datasets combined help to constrain the high-resolution structure of the subsurface and image active fault systems along four transects. The resulting geophysical models have allowed us to interpret the first ~150 m of the subsurface and has revealed: (i) the variable thickness of the CZ; (ii) the CZ relationship between the fault zone and topographic slope; and (iii) the differences in CZ thickness associated with the geological units. Our results provide a method for studying the shallow subsurface of active faults, complementing previous geological models based on paleo-seismological trenches, and can be used to improve the CZ assessment of tectonically active regions. The geophysical data used in this study consisted of two datasets, namely electrical resistivity data and seismic data. Resistivity data were obtained from the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method, while seismic data (Vp and Vs) were obtained from the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and P-wave travel time tomography. The resistivity and seismic data used in this study were acquired within the INTER GEO research project, which was funded by the Spanish national research program. Funding: J.A. is funded by grant IJC2018-036074-I and by MCIN/AEI /10.13039/501100011033. I.P. is funded by the Spanish Government and the Universidad de Salamanca (Beatriz Galindo grant BEGAL 18/00090). This project was funded by Grant 2017SGR1022 (GREG) from the Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR); EU (H2020) 871121 (EPOS-SP); and EIT-RawMaterias 17024 from the European Institute of Technology (EIT) (SIT4ME). Horizon 2020 Framework Programme 871121, EIT-RawMaterias 17024 Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca Universidad de Salamanca 2017SGR1022, BEGAL 18/00090 European Institute of Technology SIT4ME Spanish national research program Agencia Estatal de Investigación Generalitat de Catalunya European Commission MCIN

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Florian Haslinger; Roberto Basili; Rémy Bossu; Carlo Cauzzi; Fabrice Cotton; Helen Crowley; Susana Custodio; Laurentiu Danciu; Mario Locati; Alberto Michelini; +3 more
    Publisher: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland, Portugal
    Project: EC | EPOS SP (871121)

    In this article we describe EPOS Seismology, the Thematic Core Service consortium for the seismology domain within the European Plate Observing System infrastructure. EPOS Seismology was developed alongside the build-up of EPOS during the last decade, in close collaboration between the existing pan-European seismological initiatives ORFEUS (Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology), EMSC (Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Center) and EFEHR (European Facilities for Earthquake Hazard and Risk) and their respective communities. It provides on one hand a governance framework that allows a well-coordinated interaction of the seismological community services with EPOS and its bodies, and on the other hand it strengthens the coordination among the already existing seismological initiatives with regard to data, products and service provisioning and further development. Within the EPOS Delivery Framework, ORFEUS, EMSC and EFEHR provide a wide range of services that allow open access to a vast amount of seismological data and products, following and implementing the FAIR principles and supporting open science. Services include access to raw seismic waveforms of thousands of stations together with relevant station and data quality information, parametric earthquake information of recent and historical earthquakes together with advanced event-specific products like moment tensors or source models and further ancillary services, and comprehensive seismic hazard and risk information, covering latest European scale models and their underlying data. The services continue to be available on the well-established domain-specific platforms and websites, and are also consecutively integrated with the interoperable central EPOS data infrastructure. EPOS Seismology and its participating organizations provide a consistent framework for the future development of these services and their operation as EPOS services, closely coordinated also with other international seismological initiatives, and is well set to represent the European seismological research infrastructures and their stakeholders within EPOS. Annals of Geophysics, 65 (2) ISSN:1593-5213

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